Bininj Kunwok
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?About

Oh, oh no, the thing is, no way (conveys that the speaker is shocked or wants to contradict something that has been said).

  • "Aba, yaw kinga nganang. Marndi wurdyaw kayawbaye kadberre warreh," yimeng ngalbu Ngalwakadj bedberre.

    “Oh, I saw a young crocodile. It might bite our kids” Ngalwakadj told them.

  • "Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng." "Aba, minj won, ngaye mak ngamarrwedoweng."

    "Give me a [turtle] leg, because I'm hungry” “No way. I can't give you any. I'm hungry too."

    (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

Beach, sand.

  • Kore manyunkurr, adjbud kayo.

    On the island, there is a beach.

    (Wildflower Band, ‘Galiwin’ku’)

1Is it?; maybe; I don't know!

  • Ngaye ngadjawayhme nuye bu ngayime "Adju baleh wam nawu Nabangardi?"

    I ask him, I say “I don’t know, where did Nabangardi go?”.

    (Jill Nganjmirra)

2Said after a joke which provides mild embarrassment to the hearer.

    EtymologyIwaidja aju 'it-lies', 'it is', 'it exists'.

    See alsokunubewu

    1Kind of shrub.

    Scientific nameGrewia xanthopetala, Grewia multiflora

      2Kind of hibiscus. As for the Grewia species, the bark of this hibiscus is used to make string and the young stems are good firesticks.

      Scientific nameHibiscus tiliaceaus

        An interjection used to express emotional attachment, dearness.

        Synonymsworro

        • Awurd, mayh namekke ngan­kodjborledke Kawk Kabim Djang

          So dear to me is that bird, its call reminds me of the sacred night heron dreaming.

          (Nabarlek Band song (Terrah Guymala))

        • Yika mak ngarriyime "awurd" bu nangale nawu kare djarre wanjh ngarrikongibun, dja mak bininj nawu karrowen, wanjh ngarriyime "awurd warre mankang mandengeyi".

          We might say “fv: Awurd” (“Oh that dear man/woman”) if someone goes far away and we feel sorry for them, or for example if someone dies we might say "Awurd (oh that poor man/woman) it’s a terrible thing, they had a car crash".

          (Jill Nganjmirra )

        LanguageKunwinjku

        1So that.

        • Yirrolkka ba karrire.

          Get up so we can go.

        2But.

        • Ba minj birrinayinj nganabbarru yoy, wanjh manwurrk biwayhkeng.

          But they didn't see a buffalo sleeping there until a bush fire woke him up.

        Sore, be in pain.

        • Ngabardbabang.

          I have a sore knee.

        • Baleh yimi bu yimimbabangni?

          How long has your eye been sore?

        LanguageKuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

        Kunbalakngarrkme

        Grammara kind of adjective which can take predicate prefixes (pronominal and nominal)

        Verb prefix indicating that one action follows another, possibly as a consequence. So, then, afterwards, as a result, in that case, with good reason, etc.

        • Birribadbom nabuyika benuk.

          Then they speared another bush turkey.

          (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

        • Dja kunubewu bolkkime wanjh nganang bu yiman kayime kurrung darnkih wanjh kabindibadkan kabirriwarlbun.

          Well I notice at the moment, probably because it’s coming up for build-up season, they’re taking them hunting a lot.

          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

        See alsobadbu

        Short eared rock wallaby.

        Scientific namePetrogale brachyotis

        • Korroko bininj birrirey djalakkiradj dorrengh kore kuwardde birriyawani birrinani birridanjbuni nawu badbong.

          In the old days, people would take spears into the escarpment looking for short-eared rock wallabies, and when they saw them they would spear them.

          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

        Kunbalakdolhwarr

        Mirror, glass.

        • Baddumang ngarrikebnarren.

          We are looking at our faces in the mirror.

        • Warlirr kundung karrirung, kunekke kadberre karrirung, dja baddumang kabirrikarrme, baddumang kabirrikarrme kune kayime kakolhdebebme, kakolhdebebme, soon kabirrikarrme, glass, mirror, soon kabirrikarrme kadberre yiman muddikang rerri. Bokenh kabenekarrme, glass baddumang kukak kabirribebme.

          When the sun is hot, when we get really hot, then they have pieces of glass and when plants start sending out new growth [just before rain comes] then they [spirit beings] have pieces of glass and they take us away in something like a motor vehicle. They are in pairs with their pieces of glass and they appear at night.

          (Jimmy Bungurru (first language was Ndjébbana).)

        EtymologyFrom Makassarese patomang ‘compass’. Note also Ndjébbana baddúmang ‘swimming goggles, glass, mirror’. Also Iwaidja badumang (or bathumang) and Mawng patumang ‘glass, mirror’

        European style smoking pipe.

        Synonymsdjikka

        • Bu korroko wanjh larrwa dja badj birriwungmi dja bolkkime larrk.

          In the old days people used to smoke long Macassan pipes and European style pipes too, but not any more.

          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

        Etymologymost likely an English loan but note Makassarese patti 'chest, case' and kalling 'tin, can' and cf Iwaidja patjukaling 'large

        Kunbalakkunmuluru.

        Big one, large, main part. When two things are conceived of as existing in a greater-lesser, main-subordinate or parent-child relation, 'badjan' describes the greater or parent part. The lesser or child part is referred to with 'yaw'.

        • Kundulk mandubang birrilawkmangi birridjedmi birrimarnbuni manberlnginj, manbadjan dja manyaw wanjh birribekkani manmak wanjh bonj.

          They would peel the bark off ironwood branches and carve them into clapsticks, a large one and a small one, hear that they sounded good and that was it.

          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

        • Manbu manbadjan makka rungkal. Manu manyaw makka rarrk.

          The large external lines are the outlines, the small lines

          (Joey Nganjmirra)

        Bash, hit to injure.

        • Kunwardde ngakodjbadjdji.

          I bashed it on the head with a rock.

        Kunbalakbonghme

        Small herbaceous plant which has an edible radish-like tuber.

        Scientific nameBrachystelma glabriflorum

        • Ngad bininj ngarringun manbu badjdjo ngarrire ngarrinan manrakel wanjh ngarrikarung ngarrimang kaluk mankuk ngarringun minj ngarrikinje mandjoleng ngarringun.

          We Aboriginal people eat bush radishes, we go and we see its leaves then we dig it up and eat it raw. We don't roast it and eat it cooked.

          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

        LanguageKuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kune, Kunwinjku

        Etymologypossibly from Makassarese pacco 'Arum colocasia R., a plant with roots which are edible after cooking'. Cf Bajau pacco 'taro, Colocasia esculenta'. Also Mawng badjdjung 'yam type'.

        1Break something.

        • Bu kunboy karribakke wanjh karrinan nawu djak kabebmerren kore kuboybeh.

          If we break a termite mound, we see the white ants coming out from inside the mound.

          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

        2Break (a law), transgress.

        • Yimarnebakke mankarre ngundukkan, nawu Balanda.

          If you break their law they'll put you in handcuffs, the white people.

          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006. Kunkarre changed to mankarre. )

        4Compose a song about a person or incident, be able to perform (orally) or recite something.

        • Djimarr benbakkeng yawurrinj mandule bedberre.

          Djimarr created a song for/about the young men.

        Kunbalak-murridjke, (variant > murridjdje)

        GrammarThis construction is of the form SUBJ/OBJ-break.

        Tobacco.

        • Bu yibawon bakki kamak wanjh.

          It would be good if you gave up smoking.

        Kunbalakkundjule

        Break.

        • Yuwn yikilekme wardi kabakme.

          Don't touch it or it might break.

        Kunbalak-murridjme, redup.= -murrimurridjme

        1Trajectory in space away from a static speaker and/or hearer or, in third-person-based narrative, on the protagonist's current position.

        • Yibalderrehmen!

          Move over! [so there’s room for me to squeeze in].

        • Nungka balwam kore mankabo bu dungyibmiyibmi darnki.

          He went out to the river when it was almost sunset.

        2Recurring or continuing movement along.

        • Yibalre / Yibale!

          Keep going!

        • Kundulk makkah kabalhdulkdarlkan.

          That stick is floating along down the river.

        • Ngabirlidombom ngarohrokmeng dja baldjalwurlhmeng.

          I tried to put the fire out, but it kept starting up again.

        Sleeping platform, table, bed.

        • Balabbala kanjdji.

          Under the table.

        Etymologyfrom Makassarese balla?-balla? 'cottage, small house; couch'.

        See alsokukbalabbala

        Flat, smooth.

        Synonymskukbalabala

        • Wirndilk kaworrbalabala.

          The Haemodorum coccineum plant has flat leaves.

          (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal, Russel, Jeremy & Garde, Murray, ‘A Preliminary List of Kundedjnjenghmi Plant Names’, NLC, Kabulwarnamyo, 2003 )

        GrammarNormally appears in noun or verb constructs, e.g. 'mandulkbalabala', 'a flat piece of wood'.

        Leech.

        • Baladj ngakengeme wardi ngankurlbayakwon.

          I'm frightened of leeches, they might finish up my blood.

        Bag, string bag or cloth bag.

        • Kunkare Ngalngarridj wam kunngobarn mangihmangi, kani baladjdji dja manmarli.

          One day Ngalngarridj went gathering pandanus, carrying a bag and a hooked stick.

          (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

        Etymologyfrom Makassarese balase 'sack, bag'

        Person of non-Aboriginal descent.

        Synonymskukbele

        • Barrk ngarringeybun nawu ngad bininj ngarriwinjku ngarrikukburlerri dja birrikukbele balanda kabirringeybun 'black wallaroo'.

          Us Kunwinjku Aboriginal people say 'barrk', but non-indigenous people, white people, call it a 'black wallaroo'.

          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

        LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kune

        Etymologyfrom Macassarese, Hollander

        1Where.

        • Ngudda baleh yihdi?

          Where have you been?

        2What.

        • Maladj, baleh ngundihmarneyimeng? Oh ngandihkaybom ngamarrewedowen ngarrowen .

          Maladj, what did they say to you? Oh, they refused to give me any [food]. Now I'm really starving.

        • Bale kayime?

          What's (s)he saying?

        • Minj baleh karriyime.

          There's nothing we can do. [or] What can we possibly do/say?

        3How.

        • Bale ngayimiwon?

          How do I do this?

        LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kune

        When.

        • Bu balekeno yimdurndeng?

          When are you coming back?

          (Jill Nganjmirra)

        Close or block off.

        • Kunngol mimbalhmeng dird.

          The clouds have blocked the moon.

        Kunbalak-balhbonghme

        -dangbalhme

          Close door or block off an entrance.

        Shine, glisten, be bright or brilliant in colour (either in terms of lightness or in hue), be vivid.

        • Djadberlhberl nawu kakarlangbarme.

          That red-shouldered parrot, the one with the brightly coloured shoulder.

        • Ngudda yingurlme yire, ngayi ngabarme ngare, ngayi yiman mankalarr.

          You move as a dark form, I go with a bright shining body, I am like the ghost gum (a Kuninjku kunborrk genre song text).

        -mimbame

          Be dazzled.

        1Dangerous, wild, violent.

        • Birrihbang.

          Wild people (violent or quick to anger).

        • Kundjikurdubuk djang kundjak nabang.

          The sickness dreaming site at Kundjikurdubuk is dangerous.

        2Food that is either poisonous or 'cheeky', i.e. leaves a burning sensation in the mouth or is very strong in taste (salty, bitter, too sweet, too much chilli etc).

        • Manu kari yikurrmeng manbang ngandjenbom.

          This curry powder you put [in the food] is so powerful it has burnt my tongue.

        -kunbang

          Alcohol, alcoholic beverage, grog.

        -ngudjbang

          Powerful, fast (of animals etc).

        Late wet season, the last rains of the wet season (April-May), 'knockemdowns' (late storms which 'knock down' the tall spear grass.

        • Daluhdaluk kabirrire kabirrimang mankodjbang bu bangkerreng kayimerran.

          Women go and get water peanuts in the late wet season.

          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

        Person of mixed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal descent.

          EtymologyFrom: from Makassarese kayo bangko 'mangrove sp., whose bark is used to boil trepang to give a red colour'.

          Not yet.

          • Yuwn yibangmeyarlkilekme.

            Don't touch the (fishing) line yet.

          • Ngadjadj, bu ngarrbalre kore kakkak, yuwn kanbangmemulewan, yidjalbawo kaluk ngalengman kadjawayhme.

            Uncle, when we go to see grandma, don't introduce me to her straight away, leave it and let her ask.

            (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Manakgu, Andrew et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

          Grammaran aspectual prefix on verbs with the sense of 'before time in topic frame'

          Enamel metal cup or mug, pannikin.

          • Djakku kakan banikin bele, kabiwon Nabulanj.

            Lefty [nickname] is carrying a white pannikin, he’s going to give it to Nabulanj.

            (‘Lesson 13: Djurra ‘L’’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

          Etymologyfrom English ‘pannikin’

          Smelly, smelling of something, odorous (pleasant or malodorous).

          • Kanudbanj.

            It's smells rotten.

          Cross cousin who is considered an affine e.g. brother-in-law, sister-in-law, MBD, MBS, MMBDS, MMBDD. Borrowed from Kriol, which in turn is likely borrowed from another Top End language. Used as term of reference and address.

          Synonymskanjok

            ‘Almost’, ‘nearly happened but didn’t’, ‘be about to’. When prefixed to the verb to get barlanhmang the meaning is ‘let go of, lose control of, fail to take hold of’. In Kune it can appear as a free form.

            • Ngalkudji bikebbadjdji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

              He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He hit the other woman, but he didn't manage to hit her hard, and she just fainted.

              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

            • Ngad ngarrikarrme mankare mankarre kerrngekenh wanjh ngarribarlanhmang.

              We have the old law from the very beginning but we are letting it go [losing it].

              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 260)

            • Nganbarlankebdoy.

              He nearly punched me.

            -barlanhmang

              Let go of something, lose something, not hold something properly.

            Crooked, twisted, skewed, bent, bandy (legged).

            • Kukbarli.

              Crooked body/crippled/object out of shape.

            • Mimbarli.

              Cross-eyed/having an off-centred iris.

            • Wanjh kumwam, ngandjawam ngadberre nawu ngarridanjbik ngarrihdi: Ngalngarridj June, ngaye, Ngaldengebarli Ngalkodjok.

              Then he came and asked the three of us who were there, June, myself, and that Ngalkodjok with the bandy legs.

              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

            -barlidan

              Become crooked.

            Fill up a container to capacity.

            • Benebokenh kohbakohbanj benewam benehmangi mandem. Benemey benebarlkeng, ngalkudji yimeng, "yimray ngarrdokme ngabarlkeng ngayembu".

              Two old women were gathering waterlily roots. They filled up their bags, and one of them said "Come here, let's go, mine is full already".

              (Manakgu, Andrew ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

            Be filled to capacity.

            • Karriborrahkendong rowk wanjh barlmeng karriyirrurndeng.

              Let's fill up all the containers with water and then take them back full.

            Change course, turn and travel in another direction, turn off a track.

            • Kabolhbarlungme.

              The track curves around.

            • Kukbarlungmeng.

              It has twisted around [e.g. a crocodile swerving to catch a fish].

            • Mahni karribarlungmen!

              We turn off here!

            In the daytime.

            • Barnangarra kakeyo kaluk kukak kayawan nawu djenj dja kordbolbok dja nawern nawu mayh kilekilelh.

              It sleeps in the daytime, then in the nighttime it looks for fish and frogs and many other small animals.

              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation, Bokorn (spangled grunter) story.)

            Stone axe with wooden haft.

            Synonymskarramalk

              Be high up, be situated in a high place.

              • Ngurribarndin!

                Stay up there!

              • Ngadedjbarndi manih.

                I'll sit up on this [chair].

              GrammarNominal subjects can be incorporated.

              Carpet python.

              Scientific nameMorelia spilota variegata

              • Barndol kukdahdadjmiken.

                The carpet python has striped blocks of colour.

              • Ngalbu barndol ngalkka kabirringun kore kubolkbubuyika.

                In other places, the people eat carpet pythons.

                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

              LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

              Place in a high position, hang up.

              • Yibarnamen wardi duruk kangun.

                Put it up high otherwise the dogs might eat it.

              Long wooden-headed 'shovel-spear', with bamboo shaft and head having an exceptionally long (>320mm) broad, leaf-shaped blade of ironwood (Erythrophleum chlorostachys) although today the points are typically fashioned from hammered steel.

                Kunbalakdjerrkudmiken

                The sprouting seeds of the waterlily, edible raw or cooked.

                • Bu benebebmeng kured wanjh beneworrhmeng benewilkdi nawu kalawan dja mandem dja manu barrdjungka benekinjeng kore kuyirrke dja nawu mankung benedelengbarnnameng kore balabbala.

                  When they got back to camp they made a fire and cooked the goanna in the ashes and the water lily seeds on the coals and put the honey they had gathered up in the roof of the shelter.

                1Sunrise, the appearance of the sun at dawn.

                • Ngurridolkka barrhbom!

                  Get up you mob, the sun's up!

                2Cover over, wrap up.

                • 'Kanwo', bimarneyimeng ngalu ngalbadjan 'kanwo kunkod ba ngabarrhburren.' Barrhburrinj wanjh yonginj ngaleng.

                  'Give me some', said the mother, 'give me paperbark so I can cover myself [to use as a blanket]. She covered herself over and she slept.

                Kunbalakkumbehmerren.

                -barrhburren

                  Cover self, be a canopy of vegetation.

                Crack or split open an OBJ, burst.

                • Mibbarr nungkah kabun nawu dabuno kangun karrowkke, kabarrhke 'dek' kukebyih.

                  The white bellied sea eagle breaks the [emu] egg to eat it, 'crack' it smashes it open with its beak.

                Shatter, crack or split, burst open.

                • Milhbarrhmeng namekke murrika.

                  That car has a smashed windscreen.

                • Ngardbakan nakka karohrok yiman karnubirr. Bu ngarridjare kuk ngarringun wanjh kunwardde ngarridong kabarrhme wanjh ngarringun

                  Saltwater mussels are similar to freshwater mussels. If we want to just eat them raw, we hit them with a rock, they split open and we can eat them like that.

                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                Kunbalak-barrhyamidokan

                Male black rock wallaroo.

                Scientific nameMacropus bernadus

                • Nakidjkidj kakarrme barrk kelebuk nuye.

                  Nakidjkidj spirits keep black wallaroos as pets.

                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                LanguageKune, Kunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi

                Smear, paint, cover a surface with a wet or viscous substance. This word can be contrasted with bimbun, which means to paint a picture, draw or write.

                • Kunrodjbe kabirribarung wanjh delek kabirribimbun kore dolobbo nawu mayh njale nawu kunj djenj dja nawern.

                  Let's paint ourselves with pipe clay and dance.

                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                -barurren

                  Smear oneself with ochre or other substance.

                1Leave alone, leave untouched.

                • Yuwn ngurrikilekme, ngurribawo!

                  Don't touch it, leave it alone!

                2Abandon.

                • Ngandibawong.

                  They left me.

                3Part contact with OBJ.

                • Nakimuk nganbawon.

                  They [the trousers] are too big, they're falling down off me.

                4Give up a previous habitual activity, stop.

                • Bakki ngabawong.

                  I've given up smoking.

                Kunbalak-warnmorrhme

                -baworren

                  Divorce each other.

                --yibawon

                  Leave something to someone, pass something on to someone.

                Purchase, buy.

                • Manme nganebayahme karrewoneng.

                  We'll buy some food for ourselves.

                  (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                Etymologyfrom English 'buy'

                Inside, within, deep down.

                • Wanjh bikodjbayeng biyibkeng kanjdji wanjh bikani kanjdji bidjalngani [bidjalkani] kurorre baybay.

                  Then it [the rainbow serpent] swallowed her head first and took her deep down into the earth.

                  (The example phrase comes from some texts Peter Carroll has deposited with AIATSIS. )

                • Daluk baybayken.

                  Women’s internal reproductive organs.

                • Ngalengman baybaywi djahdjalburrbuni.

                  She knew within herself, was convinced of it.

                  (Nawirridj, Grace & Rowe, Meryl (eds), 'Karriburlume God: Kunwinjku Song Book', Gunbalanya, 1985, p. 7.)

                -baybaywi

                  Inside, internally, within oneself.

                1Bite.

                • Nganbidbaye.

                  It's biting my finger.

                • Birribayerrinj duruk.

                  The dogs were fighting (biting each other).

                2Cause an illness, cause pain, cause fright etc.

                • Njale ngunbayeng?

                  What's the matter? What’s happened? [lit. “What’s bitten you?”]

                Kunbalak-lawme

                Each, individually, separately.

                • Birribebbehwam.

                  They each went on their own.

                • Ngarrbenbebbewon.

                  Let's give to each of them.

                • Mankung nawu yiman kayime kabebbengeybuyika nawu mankung kardderre lorlbban nabiwo njalenjale.

                  The varieties of honey for example each have a different name, such as kardderre, lorlbban, nabiwo and so on.

                GrammarThis verbal prefix has a distributive function which can include spatial separation. The 'distributive share' (see Evans 2003:497) can be focused on an intransitive or transitive subject but in some cases for the latter, also on the object and verb.

                1Take out, bring out, reveal, cause to appear.

                • Yibebkemen bakki nguddangke ngawungme!

                  Take out your tobacco and I'll have a smoke!

                2Produce children.

                • Wamuddjan nganemarren ngarridj la ngarridjdjan ngabebke.

                  I'll get married to a woman of wamuddjan subsection and I'll have (produce) children of ngarridj and ngarridjdjan subsection.

                Kunbalak-worrbayhke

                1Appear, arrive.

                • Birrbebmeng.

                  They're here (they have arrived).

                • Dungbebmeng.

                  The sun is up.

                2Go/come out of an enclosure or dwelling.

                • Yibebmen!

                  Go outside!

                Kunbalakworrbayhme

                1Theirs, of theirs.

                • Dabborrabbolk kunwok bedberre.

                  The language of the ancestors.

                2For them, to them.

                • Ngadmanwali karrikan bedberre.

                  It's our turn to take it for them.

                • Wardi yiyolyolme bedberre Balanda.

                  Explain it for those non-Aboriginal people.

                Grammarcan express a benefactive function when there is no benefactive applicative [i.e.-marne-] in the verb complex. The first sense expresses basic possession of a noun

                They, them

                • Bedda Nakorrkko benekabokurrmeng.

                  The Nakorrkko [ancestral father and son heroes] placed the creek there.

                • Kunekke kabirriyime bedda.

                  That's the kind of thing they [those people] do.

                Apply paint to a surface, flick a liquid or viscous substance. Also used for the process of applying paint during screen printing (e.g. at Injalak Arts and Crafts in Gunbalanya).

                • Karribedjekmerren delek karriborrkke.

                  Let's flick ourselves with white ochre and dance.

                Themselves, by themselves.

                • Nawu Mimih nakka yiman ngad bininj djaying, dja bedman djal kuwarde kuwarderurrk kabirriyo.

                  It's said that Mimih spirits are similar to us people, but they live by themselves in rocky country in caves.

                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                • Nakka bukka bedberre bedman na-Buyhmi.

                  That [land] there belongs exclusively to the Buyhmi clan themselves.

                GrammarThis is a pronoun of the emphatic series (there being three kinds of free-standing pronouns: direct, oblique and emphatic). Evans

                Death adder.

                Scientific nameAcanthiphis praelongus

                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                  Kunbalakngalwirnyi

                  1Listen, hear.

                  • Bukbuk karribekkan kawokdi kayime bukbuk bukbuk bukbuk.

                    We hear the pheasant coucal calling out “book-book, book-book, book-book”.

                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                  • Yibekka wanjh.

                    Listen to him/her.

                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                  2Feel, touch

                  • Bekkarrinj nungan kunkurlah nuye kahbuyikahmen wanjh yimerranj madj.

                    He felt his skin becoming different and he became an octopus.

                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                  See alsomanjbekkan

                  Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                  Consider, think about before making a decision.

                    Kunbalakmarrngalahmerren.

                    Stick together (as in one surface to another).

                    • Nganbelbme.

                      It's sticking to me.

                    • Belbminj.

                      Stuck together.

                    1White.

                    • Kukbele.

                      White skinned person.

                    • Kunngolbele.

                      White clouds.

                    2 Clean, clear.

                    • Manbobele.

                      Clear water.

                    -belemen

                      Become white or brighter in colour.

                    Numbness, pins and needles, cramp.

                    • Bele ngandengekarrme.

                      I've got a cramp in my leg.

                    1Lick.

                    • Duruk kumwam benmenebelenghmeng, dja yakminj.

                      A dog came and licked them, then disappeared.

                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                    2Drink leaking or dripping fluid, lick up.

                      Generic name for most geckos.

                      Scientific nameDiplodactylus spp.

                        LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                        1Subsiding of a swelling, go down.

                        • Ngamokbelngdanj.

                          The swelling on my sore has gone down.

                        • Kandiddjawa yiwilkdeng karung kalurlme. Kaluk karriwilkmang kabuhme kabelngdan wanjh.

                          You put a damper in the coals and it cooks and swells up. We get it out and it when it's cooled the swelling subsides.

                        2Deflate, go flat (tyre).

                          1Make distracting noise, annoy, disturb.

                          • Marrek bekkan, wurdurd kandibengbun.

                            I can't hear you, those kids are making too much noise.

                          2Offend or say something improper to somebody, particularly to talk with a man about his sister or to a woman about her brother.

                          • Ey, kanbengbun!

                            Hey, you're offending me (i.e. Don't talk to me about my sister).

                          Notify, let someone know, remind.

                          • Yimray kanbengdayhke.

                            Come and let me know.

                          Remember something, be reminded of, realise.

                          • Ngudda ‘young people’ wanjh ngudda bu ngurribengdayhmen wanjh ngurribolknahnan. Ba bu ngarridowerren, ngarriyakmen, wanjh ngudda ngurribolknahnan.

                            You young people, you should realise you can look after the place. So then when we die, when we’ve gone, you’ll be able to look after the place.”

                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                          1Understand, know.

                          • Yibengkan konda Kurrurldul yibengkan kahyo Balang, la kaddum djang kahdi.

                            You know here at Kurrurldul where Balang lives, well upstream from there is that sacred site.

                          2Know how to, be able to.

                          • Bolkkime minj nangale kabengkan bu kamarnbun manbu bokko larrk.

                            These days nobody knows how to make barbed spears.

                            (Andrew Mankgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                          3Think.

                          • Med kabengkan.

                            Wait, she'll think about it.

                          See alsowernhbengkan

                          Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                          Forget something.

                          Synonymskodjmukmeng

                          • Dja ngabengmidjdanj, ngaye ngayahwurdni.

                            But I've forgotten, I was very young at the time.

                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                          1Deaf, hearing impaired.

                            2Heedless person, one who doesn’t pay attention or take sensible advice, stupid person, unable to learn.

                            • A: Nangale? B. Nawu nanih bengwarr.

                              A: Who? B. This one here, the stupid one.

                              (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. 252)

                            Kunbalakkunmardorrhyambah

                            Australian bustard or plains turkey, often referred to as a ‘bush turkey’.

                            Scientific nameArdeotis australis

                            • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk minj ngandiwoyinj ngalbu benuk bu ngarringuyinj. Ngandimarneyimi ngahli mayh benuk minj ngurringun ngaldjamun. Benuk kakarrekan ceremony manbu Mardayin.

                              In the past, the Old People didn't give us any bush turkey to eat though. They used to tell us we don't eat this bird, it's taboo because it's part of the Mardayin ceremony.

                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                            LanguageKunwinjku

                            Circumcise. This is a less polite word than the synonym lakkayenwon.

                            Synonymsberddadjke, lakkayenwon

                            • Kabindihberddjobke bukka, dja konda larrk.

                              They practice circumcision over there [in the east], but not here.

                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 123)

                            Aunty, FZ.

                              1Claim ownership over.

                              • Nakka duruk yaw ngardduk. Ngayi werrk ngaberrebburrinj.

                                That puppy is mine. I was first to claim it.

                              • Kanyingkihberrebbom.

                                He claimed us from the start.

                              2Promise (object to indirect object).

                              • Nganberrebbom manme.

                                He promised to give me food.

                              3Promise to give a woman or girl in marriage.

                              • Kumekke nganemarrinj ngalbu ngandiberrebbom Mary Lilinjdji.

                                That's where we got married, me and Mary Lilinjdji, who had been promised to me.

                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                              Rainbow bee-eater.

                              Scientific nameMerops ornatus

                              • Berrerdberrerd karrinan kabarndi kore kundulk manyende yika karrolkan kare kubuyika mayh kayawan.

                                We see Rainbow Bee Eaters sitting on tree branches, or flying off somewhere else to look for insects.

                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentaton)

                              Them (2), theirs (2).

                                Further, further along.

                                • Kondah kore karrihni dja borledmikenh kore Nimbabbirr dja bewh kurredjdubbe kabbal kabolkngeyyo Wurrmarninj.

                                  On the other side of Nimbabbirr from where we are here, and further down to the very end of the floodplain, that place is called Wurrmarninj.

                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                Ancestral being, said to be the progenitor of mako 'didjeridu'.

                                  Baby

                                  • Ngalbu ngalyawkyawk kayawkan wanjh ngarrimarneyime bibbidj minj ngarringeybun, warddi kabikebkadjung bu kabenekebrohrok. Dja bibbidj ngarrimarneyime ba kornkumo kabikebkadjung bu kabenekebrohrok.

                                    When a girl has a child, we call it 'bibbidj', we don't use it's name, otherwise it will end up looking like its mother. We call it 'bibbidj' so it will look like its father. (In Kunwinjku culture it is considered preferable that a child takes after its father in terms of looks).

                                    (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                  1Climb, climb up.

                                  • Nani yina bobbidj, la ngabidbun wanjh ngarradje.

                                    Look at that wild honey, alright I'll climb up and cut it out.

                                  • Birribidbuni kundulk kore kurrula darnkih.

                                    They used to climb a tree close to the river.

                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                  2 Get into or onto a raised object, e.g. a vehicle.

                                  • Korroko muddikayakni… Dja bolkkime muddika kabirribidbun.

                                    There were no cars in the old days… Nowadays they can all get in vehicles.

                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                  3Rise, rise up. Can refer to the action of many things that rise, such as blistering.

                                  • Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                    When the tide comes up, we don't see any mud crabs.

                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                  • Nganbidbom, ngakurlahlurlmeng.

                                    It caused a blister on my hand, my skin was swollen.

                                    (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                  4Leave camp to enter a ceremonial place.

                                  • Bu kunwok Kunwinjku ngarriyime mayh ngarriwarlbun. Dja bu ngarriyime mayh ngarrire ngarribidbun karrkad wanjh nakka kore ceremony yiman Kunabibi mandjamun manbu bininj ngadberre.

                                    In the Kunwinjku language, we say that we hunt mayh (animals). But when we say we’re going up to a mayh, in that case it means we’re going up to a ceremony, like Kunabibi or another sacred event of ours.

                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                  1Lift something up.

                                  Synonyms-wayhke

                                  • Bu kinga birridulubom doweng wanjh birrikukbidbuyhweng kore kurlabbarlbeh.

                                    When they had shot the crocodiles, they lifted the dead animals out of the billabong.

                                    (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                  2Give someone a lift (in a car etc).

                                  • Muddika kabindibidbuyhwe kabirridjarrkre.

                                    They give them a lift in the car, and they all go together.

                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                  2Send someone to ceremony.

                                  • Ngarrbenbidbuyhwe kore mayh.

                                    We send them to ceremony.

                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                  Generic term for two dolphin species; 1. Australian snubfin dolphin, 2. Australian humpback dolphin.

                                  Scientific nameOrcaella heinsohni (Australian snubfin dolphin), Sousa chinensis (Australian humpback dolphin).

                                  • Biddurangkan kabobuhme.

                                    Dolphins blow water [from their blow-holes].

                                  Turn, spin, rotate etc. Manipulate with the hands in a circular motion eg. stir, mix (with an implement), fasten a bolt, screw on a lid. etc.

                                  • Bidjurdu kabidjibbidjibme karrinan.

                                    We can see a whirlwind spinning around

                                  Manually skilled, dexterous or clever.

                                    Help, assist.

                                    • Kanbidyikarrme ngarrwayhke nanih.

                                      Help me lift this up.

                                    • Karribidyikarrmerrimen.

                                      Let's help one another.

                                    • Kabindibidyikarrme daluhdaluk bu kabirriyawmang.

                                      They are midwives.

                                    Feral pig.

                                    • Bik kabolkarung kabolkwarrehwarrewon.

                                      Pigs dig up the ground and damage the country.

                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                    Etymologyfrom English 'pig'

                                    Spotted tree monitor.

                                    Scientific nameVaranus scalaris

                                      LanguageKuninjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                      1Painting, drawing, image, picture.

                                      • Birribimbuni bim kurdukadji kore kunburrk bedberre.

                                        They painted pictures of emus on their bodies.

                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                      2Written letter, word or character.

                                        3Cat's cradle string game.

                                          LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                          See alsobimbun

                                          -bimdi

                                            There is an image, word etc, to be (of images, words etc).

                                          1Draw, paint or otherwise use markings to create a picture.

                                          • Kabirribimbun mayh mimih djenj dja nawern.

                                            They paint animals, Mimih spirits, fish and lots of different things.

                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                          • Yibengkan Kodjok nawu bimbohbimbom?

                                            Do you know that man of Kodjok skin who used to be an artist ('used to paint')?

                                          2Write.

                                          Synonymswokbimbun

                                          • Yingeybimburren!

                                            Write your name!

                                          Take photo with camera (still or moving film).

                                          • Ngandihbimmangi munguyh, ngangudjwarreminj.

                                            They were always taking pictures of me, I got tired of it.

                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                          1Look at a picture, see an image.

                                          • Nahni nabarlek karribimnan kabimdi kore kuwardderurrk.

                                            We see paintings of rock wallabies in rock shelters.

                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                          2Read, see written material.

                                          • Ngarrbenbukkani Kunwinjku ngarrbimbuni djurra. Ngarrimarnbuni, ngarrbihbimbuni wurdwurd birribimnani.

                                            The two of us used to teach them Kunwinjku, we would write it. We used make books, we used to write them for the kids to read.

                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                          • Minj djurra ngabimnayinj.

                                            I'd never seen writing on paper before.

                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                          1Man.

                                          • Bininj yameng kunj.

                                            The man speared a kangaroo.

                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly, 'Bininj Yameng Kunj', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                          2Person/human being.

                                          • Ngalkudji ngalkohbanj kuni ngalkangila wanjh ngaleng kangeyyo kurdukadji kaluk ngaleng wanjh bininjni korroko wanjh yerre mayh yimerranj.

                                            There was an old lady whose skin name was Ngalkangila and now we call her emu, a long time ago she was really an old lady. [Wildfire Band song text].

                                          3Aboriginal person/people.

                                          • Nawu bininj dja balanda kabirrimang nawu mayh wanjh kabirrikelebukwon kakelebukmen kabirrimarnbun kelebuk mayh bedberre.

                                            Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people get animals and tame them, and make them into pets.

                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                          4Male.

                                            See alsobinihbininj

                                            Kunbalakyol

                                            Quartz, stone tool or point made from quartz.

                                            • Manbu birddurrk makka wurd manwarddeyahwurd dja manwarddebele.

                                              Quartz stones are small and white.

                                              (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                            1Flame, fire, torch. This term is always incorporated into verbs, e.g. birlikan, 'to carry a fire stick'.

                                            • Birriwurlhkeyi kunak wanjh nawu djebuyh birlikengemi manbu kunak kumkolungi birribuni birrikani birrikinjeyi birringuni.

                                              They would light a fire, and the possum would be scared of the flames, so it would come down and they would hit it, then take it to cook and eat.

                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                            • Ngandibukkani how bu ngandiburdebmi - kunak ngarribirlumarnbuni, en ngarrimarnbuni kunrurrk kore ngarriyoy.

                                              They taught us how to rub sticks to make a flame and how to make shelters to camp in.

                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                            2Light of a fire, an electric light or of lightning.

                                            • Wolbu kambirlikadjung.

                                              The bugs are attracted to the light.

                                            • Mandjewk nganbom ngadberre, ngurdulmeng la birlibirliwern ngarrinang.

                                              The rain fell on us and there was thunder and we saw lots of lightning.

                                            LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                            Grammarincorporable

                                            -birlikan

                                              Carry a fire stick, torch, light etc.

                                            Generic term for Silver Barramundi, adult.

                                            Scientific nameLates calcarifer

                                            • Andy bimbom komrdaw, narin la birlmu.

                                              Andy drew a long-necked turtle, a snake and a barramundi.

                                              ('Nakimuk Djurra: a Big Book', Marrkolidjban School, 1993)

                                            LanguageKuninjku

                                            Grammarsee also mankumirli and wardurrkku

                                            1Mosquito. There is a djang totemic site for the mosquito near Marrkolidjban.

                                            • Bu Kudjewk wanjh birringimi kuwarderurrk birriyoy dja mandjewk dja birndu.

                                              In the wet season they moved into caves to stay, because of the rain and mosquitos.

                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                            2March fly.

                                              3Glossy ibis (which is black and has a beak like a mosquito proboscis thus the polysemy).

                                              Scientific namePlegadis falcinellis

                                              • Ngalbu birndu ngalkka mayhmayh karrinan kore kabbal bu kudjewk dja kurrung karrolkarren karrinan mirndewern.

                                                We see glossy ibis on the floodplain in the wet season, and we see lots of them flying in the build-up season.

                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                              Kunbalakmernengel

                                              Rice.

                                              • Birradjdja ngarringuni… ngarrikurrmi, ngarribuni wanjh yoy. Manwerrk manu rey warreka.

                                                We used to eat rice… we used to put it there and thresh it. The husks would fly off all over the place but the rice would stay where it was.

                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                              Etymologyfrom Makassarese = berasa 'milled rice'

                                              1Clear the ground of vegetation, make a clear space to sit down or camp, sweep.

                                                2(Of weather, clouds) clearing of clouds after rain or a storm.

                                                • Konda kadjakdung, la kuni korroko birrhmeng.

                                                  It's raining here but over there the clouds have already cleared.

                                                LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi, Kunwinjku

                                                Sacred boomerangs used in pairs as musical instruments in various ceremonial contexts. Not used for hunting in West Arnhem Land.

                                                Synonymsbarlkkan

                                                • Birrkala kabirrimarnbun kore kundulk mandubang.

                                                  Ceremonial boomerangs are made from ironwood.

                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                Place finger or hand into something.

                                                • Kakebbirrkarren.

                                                  He's sticking his finger up his nose.

                                                • Bu korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey birridjuhmi kore kuronj birribobirrkani birriyawani kedjebe.

                                                  In the old days, people would go into the water, then poke around in the water with their hands looking for file snakes.

                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                1Green pygmy-goose.

                                                Scientific nameNettapus pulchellus

                                                • Biwudj namak bu ngarringun bu ngarrire ngarriwarlbun manimunak djilikuybi ngarriyawan.

                                                  The green pygmy goose is good eating, when we go hunting magpie geese or whistle ducks we look for pygmy geese as well.

                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                2Some speakers also refer to the pink-eared duck as biwudj.

                                                Scientific nameMelacorhynchus membranaceus

                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                  Water or other liquids. Incorporated form of the word water, which appears when it forms part of other words.

                                                  • Kaboyo.

                                                    Water lies there / there is water.

                                                  • Manbomak.

                                                    good drinking water.

                                                  • Minj kabirrire kabirribongun kunbang.

                                                    They don't go and drink alcohol.

                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                  LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                  Grammarincorporable

                                                  Kind of wild honey or 'sugar bag' which is found in tree hollows and has a crumbling cerumen or brown resinous wax which is not favoured for tool and artifact production. The honey of this bee is much relished. The base of the hive, called ngeyhno is made from a harder cerumen which can be used for material culture production although other honey type hives are preferred.

                                                  Synonymskarderre

                                                  Scientific nameAustroplebeia magna

                                                    LanguageKune, Rembarrnga= yurduh

                                                    Kunbalaknamawul

                                                    1Tide come in.

                                                    • Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                                      At high tide, we don't see any mud crabs.

                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    2Water rise up (e.g. flood, start of wet season).

                                                    • Kabobidbun wanjh kankebngun.

                                                      The water rises up and drowns us.

                                                    Good-bye.

                                                    • Ma bonj bobo.

                                                      OK, that’s all, bye.

                                                    • Yikah mak kabbal ngarrirey bu ngarribuni kalawan, ngarrimarmeyimi, "Bobo!". Kalawan, kunekke ngurriyimen "Bobo" wanjh kakurrmerren kalawan. Ngurrire ngurribun.

                                                      Or, sometimes, we would be go out on the floodplains getting goanna, and we would say to the goannas “Goodbye!”. If you say goodbye, the goanna will just stay still for you, then you can go and kill it.

                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                    1Fly (insect).

                                                    • Mandudjmi karung wanjh bod kawernmen.

                                                      When the green plums are ripe, it is the time when there are many flies.

                                                    2Native honey bees of the Tetragonula (previously Trigona) and Austroplebeia genera.

                                                    Scientific nameTetragonula mellipes, Austroplebeia magna, Austroplebeia essingtoni

                                                    • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey manberrk birriyawani birridulknani kaddum birrinani mankung bod kahboddolkan wanjh birridulkrderdmi birriwodjburriweyi birrimonbuhmi, wanjh birrimangi nawu yiwk dja mandabu birrirawoni birridahkendongi kore billycan.

                                                      In the old days, people would go into the forest searching [for honey], looking up at the trees. When they saw honey bees flying around they would chop down the tree and open it up, then they would get the liquid honey and pollen sacs and put them all together in a billy can.

                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    Kunbalakmuk

                                                    Crouch down, hunch over, bend down.

                                                    • Munguyh benehdjalkarungi kaluk wanjh kukku kumbobebmeng benebiddjuhmeng kunbid berrewoneng kore benekaruy wanjh beneboddanj benebonguyinj.

                                                      They just kept on digging, and when they reached water they washed their hands from all the digging, then they crouched down and drank the water.

                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    Two.

                                                    • Daluk bokenh wakkidj benehweyi.

                                                      Two women were fishing.

                                                      (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                    • Ngunebokenh.

                                                      You two.

                                                    LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                    Kunbalakburlalh

                                                    Follow tracks.

                                                    Synonymsbokkadjung

                                                    • Yika mak bu nganabarru karribokkan wanjh karribokkadjung karribekkan ngarradj kawokdi kabimulewan namekke nganabarru.

                                                      Sometimes when we're tracking a buffalo, we follow its tracks and we hear a cockatoo calling out, which gives away the buffalo's position.

                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    Spear type with many barbs running along the shaft.

                                                    • Bokko birrimarnbuni manbu kunyidkenh bu birridurreni.

                                                      People used to make barbed spears for fighting.

                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    LanguageKuninjku= bardangarr

                                                    Spangled grunter. These fish form schools and migrate to breed in the early wet season or after the first storms of kunumeleng.

                                                    Scientific nameLeiopotherapon unicolor

                                                      LanguageKuninjku= boddowk

                                                      Follow a path or road.

                                                        Follow after something, come after something.

                                                        • Bu njale karringun karribawon kore kunrurrk wanjh karrinan nawern djak bu kanome dja kabolkan.

                                                          If we're eating something and we leave it in the house, then ants will smell it and lots of them will come after it.

                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        1Conduct earthworks, dig tunnels or mine, create environmental damage, destroy a place, create the landscape of a place.

                                                        • Nabangardi dja Nawamud beneyimeng konda kunred wanjh bolkdoweng ngad ngadberre, bu balanda birrimwam birribolkbom dja birribolkwarrewong.

                                                          Nabangardi and Nawamud said “This place of ours has been destroyed, when white people came they dug the place up and ruined it”.

                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                        2Make a racket, make a noisy disturbance.

                                                        • Wurdwurd kabirribolkbun.

                                                          The children are making a lot of noise.

                                                        Sacred place, restricted place.

                                                          1Now.

                                                          • Yoh bolkkime kamkan.

                                                            Yes, he's bringing it now.

                                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                          2Nowadays, these days, now.

                                                          • Dja bolkkime larrk minj nangale kadjuhme kinga nawern kahyo kore manlabbarlkimuk kahboyo wardi kanbaye kanbun.

                                                            But nowadays no-one gets into the water at the big billabong, there are lots of crocodiles and they would bite and kill us.

                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                          3Today.

                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                            Kunbalakkolhkol

                                                            Stay at home, stay at a place, refuse to come when called.

                                                            • A: Baleh kabirrini? B: Ngabenkayhmeng korroko, bonj birribolkmaddi.

                                                              A: Where are they? B: I've already called them but they're staying where they are.

                                                            • Ngalkudji wurdyaw Ngaldjawonj / bolkbawong kunred ngalengarre / Bolkmaddi kore Manginburru bedberre

                                                              There is a little girl from a Jawoyn clan / who left her country / And who has stayed for a long time on Manginburru land

                                                              (Wildflower Band, ‘Ngaldjawonj ‘The Jawoyn Girl’’, from the Album ‘Maningburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                            1Be on the watch for, look out for.

                                                              2Care for country, look after a place, caretake a place.

                                                              • Kaluk wurdurd ngadberre / kabirribolknahnan kondah kunred ngadberre.

                                                                When we pass away our children / will carry on looking after this land for us.

                                                                (Wildflower Band, ‘Manginburru’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                              Little black cormorant.

                                                              Scientific namePhalacrocorax sulcirostris

                                                              • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh.

                                                                Cormorants eat small fish.

                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                              Long-tailed rock monitor, also known as the black-palmed monitor.

                                                              Scientific nameVaranus glebopalma

                                                              • Nawu bongka ngarringeybun nawu yiman djanay kakukyime nungan kuwarde kaddum kukorlh kayo.

                                                                Rock monitors look similar to yellow-spotted monitors, but they live up in rocky country.

                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                              LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku, Kunwinjku

                                                              Drink.

                                                              • Ngarre kab kukku ngarrbongun.

                                                                Let's go and drink some water.

                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                              • Birrimey kunbang bedberre wanjh birridjalbonguneng.

                                                                They got their grog and just kept drinking.

                                                              Kunbalak-djurlkkinjyakwan

                                                              1Finish, finished.

                                                              • Bonj yakminj.

                                                                Finished, all gone!

                                                              2The end (used at the end of a story or narrative).

                                                              • Wanjh birridokmeng kured. Bonj.

                                                                Then they went home. The End.

                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                              3 That's all, just, just like that, it's OK just like that. Marker used to delineate or limit.

                                                              • A: Yidjare marnekan? B: Bonj, kamak, ngakan.

                                                                A: Do you want me to take it for you? B: No, it's OK, I'll take it.

                                                              • Kabenengeyboken, bonj kangeyboken.

                                                                They've got two names, just two names.

                                                              • "Yuwn yikan mankukyahwurd makka" "Bonj warribo ngadjalkan ngakinje ngangun. Bonj bu mankukyahwurd"

                                                                "Don't take that yam, it's too small". "Whatever, I'll take it anyway and cook it up and eat it. Doesn't matter if it's small".

                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                              4Finally, in the end. Marker used to indicate the end of a process.

                                                              • Wanjh duhkeng, duhkeng. Bonj bohborrolkang.

                                                                He lanced it and lanced it (an infected wound) and then the fluid burst out.

                                                              5Marker used to describe the size, shape, extent etc. of something.

                                                              • Djalmey kundulk yiman bonj kunekke kayime.

                                                                He just went and got a stick which was about 'there' (demonstrates size), this big !

                                                              Cold.

                                                              • Ngabidbonjdjek.

                                                                My fingers are cold.

                                                              Kunbalakkurrbele

                                                              Sniff (a liquid, especially petrol).

                                                              • Nanih nawu wurdwurd might be kabirridjordmen minj kabirrire kabirribongun kunbang, or petrol kabirribonome or kundalk kabirriwunghme, larrk.

                                                                So when those kids grow up they probably won't drink, or sniff petrol or smoke grass, no way.

                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                              Flow.

                                                              • Bu kudjewk mandjewk nawern kadjakdung wanjh kabore kore mankabo.

                                                                When it rains a lot in the wet season, the water flows in the rivers.

                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                              1Learn, become familiar with something eg. language, a skill.

                                                              • Kandibukkan ba ngaborlbme.

                                                                You show me so I will learn it.

                                                              2Get used to something or someone.

                                                              • Ngarriborlbmeng di.

                                                                We've got used to drinking tea.

                                                              • Ngudda yiborlbmeng ngarduk.

                                                                You've got used to me.

                                                              GrammarTakes possessive pronoun if the object is human.

                                                              Turn over to other side, change.

                                                              • Ngaborledkeng nawu djenj, wanjh ngayawoyhyerrkang ngamadbom korroko wanjh nganang ruy, wanjh ngawayhkeng.

                                                                I turned over the fish and sat down again, waited a while, then when I saw that it was cooked I pulled it out (of the hot coals).

                                                                (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                              • Birrikodjkurluborledkeng.

                                                                They changed their minds.

                                                              See alsosee kodjborledke

                                                              Kunbalakdordedjke

                                                              1Turn around, rotate, turn over.

                                                              • Yimborledmen kanmirrkma!

                                                                Turn facing me!

                                                                (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                              2Change.

                                                              • Bolkkime wurdwurd nahni yiman birribuyikaminj, borledmeng kadberre.

                                                                Nowadays the kids are different, they’ve changed on us.

                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                              See alsokukborledke

                                                              Kunbalakdordedjme

                                                              On the other side, behind.

                                                              • Warde borledmiken yiyawan.

                                                                Try searching on the other side.

                                                              Australian Magpie-lark. The word also describes the call of the Magpie-lark, which is said to ‘call its own name’.

                                                              Scientific nameGrallina cyanoleuca

                                                              • Borliblib karrinan Kudjewk Kurrung Bangkerreng Wurrkeng Kurnumeleng bu baleh karrire karribekkan kawokdi kangeyburren kayime borliblib borliblib borliblib.

                                                                We see the Magpie Lark in the wet season, dry season, late wet season, late dry season and build-up season - wherever we go we hear its call, calling out its name “borliblib borliblib borliblib”.

                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                              Water python and possibly also the freshwater keelback.

                                                              Scientific nameBothrochilus fuscus (previously known as Liasis fuscus), Amphiesma mairii

                                                              • Bininj dja daluhdaluk kabirrire kabirriyawan kore kukku kabirribobirrkan kabirrimang borlokko kedjebe ngalmangiyi kore kuronj.

                                                                Men and women go looking for water pythons in the water, they poke their hands into the water and pull out the pythons, file snakes and long-necked turtles.

                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                              Father a child.

                                                              • Nangale ngunbornang?

                                                                Who is your father?

                                                              • Beywurd bornarrinj.

                                                                He fathered a child (for himself).

                                                              Kunbalakwalebonghme.

                                                              Spear thrower, woomera.

                                                              • Bolkmelmeng mankole mey kolhmibom borndok kamak rowk.

                                                                He placed his foot down, got his spear and tested it with his spear thrower; everything was fine.

                                                              Kunbalakkarndubbu

                                                              Wipe, rub.

                                                              • Balmey kunworr kurlba borndungi.

                                                                Then he got some leaves and was wiping off the blood with them.

                                                                (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                              • Kano manburrba ngaborndurren.

                                                                Give me the cloth, I'll wipe myself.

                                                              Play with, pat or stroke.

                                                              • Wurdurd yuwn ngurriborrkbun wardi ngunbaye.

                                                                Kids, don't play with it, it might bite you.

                                                              Dance.

                                                              • Korroko birriwayini birriborrkkeyi kore mamurrng dja kore mulil.

                                                                In the old days, people would sing and dance at Mamurrng ceremonies and public feasts.

                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                              • Yawkyawk dja yawurrinj kabirrire kabirriborrkke kore disco.

                                                                Girls and boys go dancing at the disco.

                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                              Kunbalakborrkidjbonghme

                                                              Snore.

                                                                LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                Recently, before, in the recent past, some time ago but with the sense of a more specific point in time and not a time in the very distant past.

                                                                • Nabulanj wam mankung kore nang boyen.

                                                                  I guess people assigned a skin name to buffalo in recent times, it's from a different place.

                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                -boyehboyen

                                                                  In recent times, over the last few months/years with the sense of a recent length of time extended over a continuous period.

                                                                Northern knob-tailed gecko, prickly knob-tailed gecko.

                                                                Scientific nameNephrurus sheai, Nephurus asper

                                                                • Boywek karrinan kore kunrurrk kurrambalk karrihyo karrinan kahbarnbarndi.

                                                                  We see geckos in the houses where we live, sitting up on things.

                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                1When.

                                                                • Bu ngayahwurdni.

                                                                  When I was a child.

                                                                2About, concerning, in relation to.

                                                                • Ngayolyolme bu namarrkon djang.

                                                                  I'll tell a story about lightning dreaming.

                                                                • Bu ngudda.

                                                                  That's up to you.

                                                                3If (conditional sense).

                                                                • Bu yinan kelebuk yuwn yibun.

                                                                  If you see a tame animal, don't kill it.

                                                                Grammarsubordinating conjuction

                                                                Bottle.

                                                                • Budjdjulung kaburriwe, kabarrhme.

                                                                  He throws a bottle and it smashes.

                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                Etymologyfrom Makassarese

                                                                Cat, feral cat.

                                                                Synonymsbiyawo

                                                                • Bolkkime nawu budjiked karrikarrme nawern karri kore kurehrered kadberre kore karrihyo.

                                                                  Nowadays we have lots of cats on our lands where we live.

                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                1Blow.

                                                                • Kunkurra kabuhme, darnki mandjewk kadjakdung.

                                                                  The wind is blowing, soon it's going to rain.

                                                                • Nangale kabuhme mako?

                                                                  Who's going to play the didjeridoo?

                                                                22. be blown on.

                                                                • Med ngaladminj, ngarrbuhme.

                                                                  Hang on, I'm hot, let's take the breeze.

                                                                Kunbalakburrhnjudjbonghme.

                                                                Dry or shallow.

                                                                • Bukminj rowk kamak karridjowkke.

                                                                  It's all dry, we can cross OK.

                                                                • Birndu kangun dumdum dja yehyeng nawu kayo kare kore kukku kukadjid dja kore kubuk.

                                                                  The glossy ibis eats beetles and all kinds of things that live in the water, the sand and the shallows.

                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                See alsokelebuk

                                                                -bukmen

                                                                  Dry out.

                                                                Pheasant coucal.

                                                                Scientific nameCentropus phasianinus

                                                                • Bukbuk karribekkan kawokdi kayime bukbuk bukbuk bukbuk.

                                                                  We hear the pheasant coucal calling out “book-book, book-book, book-book”.

                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                Dream.

                                                                  -bukirrinan

                                                                    see something in a dream.

                                                                  -bukirriyo

                                                                    Dream.

                                                                  Dream of something.

                                                                  Synonyms(kodj)bukirrire, bukirriyo

                                                                  • Ngarrnan, marrek ngarrnan, yika yiyo yibukirribun Wakkewakken o ankung.

                                                                    We see it, not really see it, sometimes when you sleep you will dream and see the Wakkewakken or the honey.

                                                                  Kunbalakborridjbonghme

                                                                  That probably, over there probably, might be, thing.

                                                                  • Yimankek mununminj, bonj, wanjh ngarriwam. Bukka Arrkuluk.

                                                                    When it was dark enough , that was it, off we went. Over there by Arrkuluk.

                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                  Show, demonstrate, teach, make manifest.

                                                                  • Wardi kanbukkan bale kayime.

                                                                    Try and show me, what do you do?

                                                                  • Kabukkarren nawu kundjak karrihkarrme kuburrk kadberre.

                                                                    Symptoms which are manifest when we have physical illness.

                                                                  Kunbalakbuyukme

                                                                  Dry up (of bodies of water), dry out (of plants etc), evaporate.

                                                                  • Bu kurrung manbu kabbal kabukmen.

                                                                    In the dry season, the floodplain dries up.

                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  • Kabirridakurrme manbu kunngobarn kabukmen wanjh kabirrimarnbun nawu badjkid.

                                                                    They put the pandanus out in the sun, it dries out and they make baskets from it.

                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  Kunbalakburnduyhmen

                                                                  Earthquake; also the name of a Jawoyn ancestral being and concomitant religious cult in which earthquake and subterranean fire feature as part of apocalyptic beliefs.

                                                                  • Yibekkang kukak bolkrokahrokang? Ngarringeybun bula.

                                                                    Did you feel the earth shaking last night? We call that bula.

                                                                  1Erase, rub out, delete.

                                                                  • Yimarneyimen kabularrbun.

                                                                    Tell him to delete it.

                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                  1Finish a task.

                                                                  • Ngayeh ngayakwon story ngawernhbularrbun, ngare, ngare wanjh kuwadda, ngahdurndeng.

                                                                    I'm going to finish telling all this information completely and then I'm off, I'm going back home.

                                                                  Dilly bag tightly woven from light fibres.

                                                                  Synonymskul-kolborn

                                                                  • Bolkbawong wam manberrk yawani manme mangi dahkendongi ngalengarre manme kore bulbbe.

                                                                    She left that place and went into the bush looking for food, which she collected in her dilly bag.

                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                  1Middle, centre.

                                                                  • Kubuldjdjarn yikurrmen.

                                                                    Put it in the middle.

                                                                  2Deep (of water or substance).

                                                                  • Kabuldjarn.

                                                                    It's deep.

                                                                  -kumurrng buldjdjarn

                                                                    Very early before sunrise

                                                                  -Bininj buldjdjarn.

                                                                    Ethnonymic reference: ‘the people from the middle/central regions’. This is one of several terms of this nature that indicate the place of origin of a person ideally through their matriline.

                                                                  Cattle, male or female.

                                                                  • Nahni bininj kukbele kangeyyo Paddy Cahill nawu kumwam kondah Kunbarlanja kondah durrkmirri manme dudjengi dja djarrang dja bulikki benhbukkani bininj ngad nawu birrikukburlerri.

                                                                    That white man named Paddy Cahill came to Gunbalanya, he was working here planting vegetables and he also showed the people horses and cattle, us Aboriginal people.

                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  Etymologyfrom English 'bullock'.

                                                                  Middle, centre.

                                                                  Synonymsbuldjdjarn

                                                                  • Beneyimerranj mahni manlabbarl manbardmo karri. Mandulkkimuk kahdi kore bulkayh.

                                                                    Those two [Yawkyawk spirits] became that billabong, with waterlilies on it. There is a big tree in the middle of it.

                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 172)

                                                                  Properly, really, seriously.

                                                                  • Bu bulkkidj duninjh ngurridjare wanjh ngurrimray karridjarrkbidyikarrmerren.

                                                                    If you really want it, come and let’s all help each other [to make it happen].

                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                  1Ghost Bat.

                                                                  Scientific nameMacroderma gigas.

                                                                  • Bumabuma minj karrinan kore kubolkwarlah kuberrk. Nungan kadjalyo kore kuwarderurrk kaddum kuwarde.

                                                                    We don't see ghost bats out in the open. They just stay in caves up in the rocks.

                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  2.Mythical hero ancestor who turned into a bat.

                                                                  • Daluk bikang biyiwam Bumabuma marnburrinj warlang wanjh.

                                                                    He took the women, went with her and then turned himself into a bat.

                                                                  1Hit, strike.

                                                                  • Ngalkudji bikebbadjdji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

                                                                    He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He almost hit the other one, but she fainted with fright and fell down.

                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                                  • Kunberl nganmarnebom.

                                                                    He broke my arm.

                                                                  2Kill, injure.

                                                                  • Ngalyod kumwam kanjdjibeh kurorre benbom birriwern bininj nawu birrihyoy kumekke.

                                                                    The Rainbow Serpent came up from under the earth and killed all the people who were there.

                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  3Burn.

                                                                  • Manbang manekke ngandjenbom.

                                                                    That food's strong, it burnt my tongue.

                                                                  4Produce.

                                                                  • Manih kundulk yekke kanguybun.

                                                                    This tree produces flowers in the dry season.

                                                                  5Suffer effects of a storm, be rained on.

                                                                  • Mandjewk nganbom ngadberre.

                                                                    The storm fell on us.

                                                                  6Ring on the telephone.

                                                                  • Kaluk kukak kabirribun delebon birriyimeng.

                                                                    They said they would ring up by phone tonight.

                                                                  Kunbalakbonghme

                                                                  -burren

                                                                    Fight, fight each other.

                                                                  Term used to refer to a blind person or someone who can't see well, a substitute for using the person’s name.

                                                                    Kiss.

                                                                    • Kabenebunjhmarren.

                                                                      They are kissing each other.

                                                                    Merten's Water Monitor.

                                                                    Scientific nameVeranus mertensi

                                                                    • Burarr namak mayh bu ngarringun yiman kalawan karohrok.

                                                                      Water goannas are good to eat, just like other goannas.

                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                    • Nawu kukku kayo nakka kunngey bokenh bu ngarringeybun burarr dja durrbu dja nayahwurd nakka djerlih.

                                                                      We have two names for those (goannas) that live in the water, 'burarr' and 'durrbu', and the smaller type we call 'djerlih' (Mitchell's water monitor).

                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                    LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                    Kunbalakdedjronj, djingronj

                                                                    Spangled Grunter.

                                                                    Synonymsbokorn

                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                      Social category based on ceremonial grouping of the following subsections; ngarridj/ngarridjdjan, bangardi/bangardidjan; kamarrang/kamanj, balang/belinj.

                                                                        See alsokuyal

                                                                        Rub quickly back and forwards between the hands such as in the use of fire sticks.

                                                                        • Korroko kundjakkorl birriburdebmi birrinami wurlhmi manbu kunak.

                                                                          In the old days, people would rub fire sticks together to start a fire.

                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                        Kunbalakbidjirrbonghme

                                                                        Mould or other rotting substances with a greenish hue.

                                                                        • Kanudbore buriburi.

                                                                          There is a greenish pus discharge [from an infected wound].

                                                                        Black.

                                                                        Synonyms-kurduk

                                                                        • Kukbulerri.

                                                                          Black (skinned) person.

                                                                        See also-bulerriwon

                                                                        Kunbalakkurlngunj.

                                                                        -burlerran

                                                                          Blacken, become black.

                                                                        1Grub, moth larvae, adult moth; tiny ant sp.

                                                                          2Boil (infected sore).

                                                                            GrammarThe semantic connection between the two senses of this word is that the various insects described as ‘burlng’ are believed to bite humans and cause infections such as boils.

                                                                            Freshwater eels, single gilled eel.

                                                                            Scientific nameSynbranchus bengalensis, Ophisternon gutturale

                                                                            • Burlukkurri kayo kore kukku kubak dja kukih.

                                                                              Slippery body.

                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                            Praise.

                                                                            • Kabirriburlume nawu namekbe yawurrinj.

                                                                              They praise that boy.

                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                            -burlumerren

                                                                              Show off, perform with confidence.

                                                                            Finish, stop.

                                                                            • Mayh ngarriyakwong, bonj burnbom.

                                                                              We completed the ceremony and now it's finished.

                                                                            • Bonj wanjh, ngurriburnbu wurdwurd. Ngurrikeyo, karrikeyo.

                                                                              OK that's it, cut it out kids. Go to sleep, let's all go to sleep.

                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                            1. Understand, know.

                                                                            • Daluhdaluk nawu dabborrabbolk kabirriburrbun manbu manrakel mankinjdjek dja karrbarda.

                                                                              Older women know [how to distinguish] the foliage of long yams and cheeky yams.

                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                            2Think, think about.

                                                                            • Med, ngaburrbun.

                                                                              Wait, I'm thinking.

                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                            Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                                                                            Fight one another.

                                                                            • Yawkyawk bokenh beneburrinj.

                                                                              Two young girls had a fight.

                                                                              (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                            Throw, chuck, throw away, push down.

                                                                            • Yimburriwemen!

                                                                              Chuck it over here to me!

                                                                            • Bikukburriweng.

                                                                              She pushed him down.

                                                                            Kunbalakwarlhke

                                                                            Deep part, middle area.

                                                                            • Kaboburrk.

                                                                              The water is deep.

                                                                            Recognise, understand (literally, 'see the shape' or 'see the main substance' of something).

                                                                            • Ngad bininj ngarringun manbu badjdjo... ngarrire ngarrirakelnan ngarrirakelburrknan wanjh ngarrikarung.

                                                                              We Aboriginal people eat bush radishes... we go and we see the leaves, we recognise the leaves and we dig them up.

                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                            • Ngawernhburrkburrknang manekke English manbu kunwok.

                                                                              I really understood English.

                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                            Kunbalakwalngakurrurdme

                                                                            1No, nothing.

                                                                            • Burrkyak, minj korroko ngunnayi, djalbolkkime bu kerrngekkenh duninj ngunkuknan.

                                                                              No, she's never seen you before, she’s going to see you in person for the first time now.

                                                                              (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Manakgu, Andrew et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

                                                                            2It was no use, nothing happened, to no avail.

                                                                            • Birriyawam birrikayhmeng burrkyak.

                                                                              They looked for him and called out, but to no avail.

                                                                              (Garnarradj, Elaine, ‘Nakudji Wurdyaw Bengwabom’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                            LanguageKuninjku,Kune= kayakki

                                                                            Without purpose or cause, lacking a motivation, with no specific intent.

                                                                            • Djal burudjang bibom.

                                                                              He just hit him for no reason.

                                                                            1Other, another.

                                                                            • Birribadbom nabuyika benuk.

                                                                              Then they speared another bush turkey.

                                                                              (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                            • Kernalk bokenh ngalbu ngalmudbele dja ngalbuyika ngalmudburlerri.

                                                                              There are two types of ibis, the one with black feathers and another one with white feathers.

                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                            2Different, different kind.

                                                                            • Nawu karrkkanj nakka mayhmayh yiman marram dja nungan kukbuyika.

                                                                              The brown falcon is a bird like the whistling kite, but it looks a bit different.

                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                            Faded, dim, indistinct, not bright.

                                                                            • Nakka banikkin melkbuyu.

                                                                              The inside of that tin is rusty (not shiny).

                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                            • Battery karrowen wanjh muddika kamimbuyumen minj kawernhbolkwolkan.

                                                                              When the battery dies, the car's lights become dim and don't light up the surroundings anymore.

                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                            -buyungmen

                                                                              Become faded, indistinct, not bright.

                                                                            In the sun.

                                                                            • Karrayo.

                                                                              It's lying in the sun.

                                                                            LanguageKuninjku= larrhmikurrme, larrhme

                                                                            -dakurrme

                                                                              Place out in the sun.

                                                                            -dayo

                                                                              Lie in the sun.

                                                                            1Feather, feather like crest and tail on the rainbow serpent.

                                                                              2White egret, a name derived from the bird’s plume.

                                                                              • Kunngey kakarrme danjbik bu ngarringeybun. Komorlo kabakaba dja dabberrk dja ngaldjalkudji ngalbu mayhmayh.

                                                                                It has three names that we call it by. Komorlo, kabakaba and dabberrk, but they all refer to the same bird.

                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                              3Plume of smoke, can be used as a signal e.g. that someone is on their way.

                                                                              • Bu kabirriwurlhke djarre wanjh kundolng manekke kamarnburren dabberrk.

                                                                                If people make a fire a long way away, the smoke forms a plume in the sky.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                              1Old person, adult, elder, (human) ancestor.

                                                                              • Manbu karrbarda mandule dja kunborrk bu korroko nakudji nakohbanj dabbolk Nakangila Nabarrbinj marnbom.

                                                                                An old Nakangila skin man of the Barrbinj clan made the Long Yam song cycle, a long time ago.

                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                              2Friend.

                                                                              • Kabenedabbolk.

                                                                                They're friends.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              1Elders, adults, old people.

                                                                                2Ancestors, the 'Old People'. The human ancestors of present-day people, as opposed to mythological Ancestors.

                                                                                • Korroko dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dolek.

                                                                                  In the old days, people [our ancestors] used to eat wood grubs.

                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                See alsodabbolk

                                                                                Kunbalakkarrabolko

                                                                                Grammarreduplication of dabbolk

                                                                                1Press in on, crowd around.

                                                                                • ‘Oh barrk bolkki ngarduk kunj ngarrabke’ ngarriyime.

                                                                                  'Oh I'm going to close in that black wallaroo there, a kangaroo for me' we say.

                                                                                • Benedjalwam bu kunred djarre benerrabkeng kumekke.

                                                                                  They kept going to places far away in order to close in on him there.

                                                                                • Ngalbu makkakkurr ngalka ngalkimuk mayhmayh ngalbu ngalengman kadjalngun djenj... Dabborrabbolk birrirey birridabkeyi kore kurrubbe yiman kayime Mandjaworlbidji wanjh birribuni kundulk birrimangi birrikerribuni wanjh birringuni.

                                                                                  The pelican is a big bird that eats fish. In the old days, people would herd them into a closed-off area like Mandjaworlbidji (the 'Big Waterfall' at Gunbalanya) and kill them, gather wood and cook them in a ground oven.

                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                2Meet, meet halfway, come across.

                                                                                • Nabulanj bimarneyimeng Nakangila "yimray kandabke kore manbolh". Wanjh Nakangila yimeng "Ngamre, dabke kore manbolh nan".

                                                                                  Nabulanj said to Nakangila "Come and meet me halfway, on the road". And Nakangila said "I'll head over then and meet you there".

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                • Barrk kare kukku kabongun kore kahboyo, wanjh bininj kare kabidabke kore kukku kaboyo wanjh kabiyame.

                                                                                  The black wallaby goes to the waterhole to drink, and the man goes and comes across it there and spears it.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                King brown snake.

                                                                                Scientific namePseudechis australis

                                                                                • Bolkkime karrbennan kalawan dja dadbe kabeneburren wanjh kalawan kakarrme.

                                                                                  Now when we see a goanna and a brown snake fighting, the goanna will always win.

                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                Kunbalakdarrmayal

                                                                                1Cut, slice.

                                                                                • Kabindibukkan bu mako kabirridadjke kabirrimarnbun.

                                                                                  They show them how to cut (trees for) didjeridus and how to make them.

                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                2Divide, draw a dividing line.

                                                                                  3Cut off, interrupt.

                                                                                  • Diledadjkerren.

                                                                                    Abruptly interrupt urination.

                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                  See alsodadjme

                                                                                  Kunbalakdilhke

                                                                                  1Be cut.

                                                                                    2Cease, stop.

                                                                                    • Mandjewk karradjme wanjh karrimang.

                                                                                      When it stops raining we can get it.

                                                                                    Give.

                                                                                    Synonymswon

                                                                                    • Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng.

                                                                                      Give me a (turtle) leg, I'm starving.

                                                                                      (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                    Be inside or within the boundary of something, e.g. a container. Sit, sleep or lie on or in something e.g. a mat, blanket, canoe or car.

                                                                                    • Baladjdji nang kahdarlkan manbu manme dahkedahkendi mankinjdjek, wanjh yimeng, "Ngurrimray, ngurrinan... Minj mak njale karrahkendi. Manme manu yakminj".

                                                                                      He saw the dillybag, which had been filled with cheeky yams, floating in the water, and said "Come and have a look... There's nothing in there, the food is gone".

                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 190)

                                                                                    • "Nahni marebu ngunedahkendi." "Kek", beneyimeng, wanjh benemey benehdahkendi.

                                                                                      "That mat is for you two to sit on." "Really?" they said, and they took it and sat on it.

                                                                                      (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                    Place into a container.

                                                                                    • Yiborrahkendo!

                                                                                      Fill up the water (container).

                                                                                    Kunbalakdahkenlorlme

                                                                                    Block an action, refuse permission, stop someone from doing something.

                                                                                    • Yimarnek kamrayinj la Ngarridj birrahmeng.

                                                                                      She was going to come but Ngarridj wouldn't let her.

                                                                                    Place out in the sun.

                                                                                    • Kabirridakurrme kore kurrungbang kadayo kabukmen.

                                                                                      They put it out in the hot sun, it lies there in the sun and it dries out.

                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                    LanguageKuninjku= larrhmikurrme

                                                                                    Dingo. Literally dalk-ken, 'from the grass'.

                                                                                    Scientific nameCanis lupus dingo

                                                                                    • Ngahli daluk Ngalyangdoh dja dalkken ngalengarre benewam benehwarlbuni kukak.

                                                                                      That woman Ngalyangdoh and her dingo went off hunting at night.

                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                    1Woman.

                                                                                    • Daluk bokenh benewam ngalmangiyi kore kabbal.

                                                                                      Two women went looking for long-necked turtles on the floodplain.

                                                                                      (Nabobbob, Rose, ‘Kunbidkudji Kunwok’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                    2Wife.

                                                                                    • Daluk kakarrme.

                                                                                      He's married (he has a wife).

                                                                                    3Female.

                                                                                    • Merlbbe daluk ngalkka nabininjkobeng ngalengarre warradjangkal.

                                                                                      Merlbbe is the female agile wallaby, and her mate is the male agile wallaby, warradjangkal.

                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                    See alsodaluhdaluk

                                                                                    Kunbalak1.kardukardu 2. ngaldjubdjubken

                                                                                    1Close a door, window or opening, shut one's mouth.

                                                                                    • Yirrangbalhmen!

                                                                                      Close the door!

                                                                                    • Yirrangbalhmerrimen!

                                                                                      Close your mouth!

                                                                                      (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                    2Lock someone in, shut someone in.

                                                                                    • Kumunun wanjh ngandidangbalhmi.

                                                                                      At night they used to lock us in.

                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                    1Stand, reach a standing position, come to a standstill.

                                                                                    • Beneburriweyi madjawarr durndengi djabdangeni kore benedanginj.

                                                                                      The two of them were throwing spears, but the spears were bouncing back and coming to stand upright in the ground where the two of them were standing.

                                                                                      (From Evans 2003:379, (9.115))

                                                                                    • Ngarridanginj wanjh ngarrikoluy.

                                                                                      We stopped and got down (from the truck).

                                                                                    2Come to live in a place.

                                                                                    • Bu korroko ngarranginj, bu mandjewk mandjewk ngadjaldi munguyh.

                                                                                      I came here to live a long time ago, for many years and I'll stay here always.

                                                                                      (Margaret from Manmoyi in Gerhalter translation)

                                                                                    3Be siblings.

                                                                                    • Mongerrk benbenenang daluk bokenh. Bedda benedanginj.

                                                                                      One day, Mongerrk saw two women. They were sisters.

                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                    4Was born.

                                                                                    Synonyms-dolkan

                                                                                    • Nawamud kumekke kunred danginj wanjh kunuka kaborndokdi.

                                                                                      Nawamud was born in that place, that’s his birthplace.

                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                    5Grow, appear, come to be, become. Form of the verb -di ('there is, stand') that implies the process of coming into being, literally 'standing up'.

                                                                                    • Minj karribukkan bu kayahwurd. Kadjalle kadjawurrkdangen bu kabidbun.

                                                                                      We won’t teach him when he’s too young. When he grows some whiskers, then he can go up to the ceremony ground.

                                                                                    • Ngurringeynamerrimen, wanjh ba membership ngurriyimerran, dja ngurringeydangen kore djurra.

                                                                                      Sign your names, so you'll become members and your name will appear on the list.

                                                                                      (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015)

                                                                                    Grammarthis idiomatic sense being a semantic extention of the verb to stand is also only represented by the past perfective form -danginj

                                                                                    -kukdangen

                                                                                      Fruit, start fruiting, grow fruit.

                                                                                    -djawurrkdangen

                                                                                      Grow a beard.

                                                                                    -balemdangen

                                                                                      Grow fat (of game animals).

                                                                                    Siblings, brothers, sisters.

                                                                                    • Nganedanginj.

                                                                                      We are siblings / we are brothers / we are sisters.

                                                                                    • Birridanginj.

                                                                                      They are all siblings.

                                                                                    • Ngarriwen nawu ngarrimarnbun manbu badjkid nawu ngaye ngarridanginj.

                                                                                      There are lots of us here making baskets, me and my sisters.

                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra, quoted in Hamby, Louise (ed.), Twined Together: Kunmadj Njalehnjaleken, Injalak Arts and Crafts, Gunbalanya, 2005, p. xiii)

                                                                                    See alsodangen

                                                                                    Opening, entrance, mouth, lid (of cave, basket, room, didgeridoo etc).

                                                                                    • Dulklorrkkelorrkken nakka yiman nayuhyungkih kabirriyo kore kundulk manlohlorrk kore kurrangmaye kundulk kore Ankung Djang.

                                                                                      Dulklorrkkelorrkken spirits are like creation Ancestors, they live in hollow trees, where the trees have an opening, in Honey Dreaming country.

                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                    -kurrangmaye

                                                                                      The area just outside of the entrance to a rock-shelter; just beyond the overhang of a rock-shelter, typically a domestic space associated with a rock- shelter.

                                                                                    Strict, strict person, one who can speak strongly.

                                                                                      Loudmouth, literally ‘mouth-wide’.

                                                                                        Argue, discuss with each other.

                                                                                        • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                          Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us the story.

                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                        Three.

                                                                                        • Mandengeyi danjbik wam kore Kunnanj.

                                                                                          Three cars went to Kunnanj.

                                                                                          (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 19’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981.)

                                                                                        • Wurdwurd birridanjbik birriwam djenj.

                                                                                          Three children went fishing.

                                                                                          (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                        • Birriburdebmi danjbikkah, dja yika kunkarrngbakmeng, wanjh wurlhmi manu kunak.

                                                                                          They would rub it [the fire stick] back and forth three or four times, and the fire would start.

                                                                                          (Maralngurra, Dolly, ’Korroko Bu Bininj Birrimarnbuni Kunak’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974)

                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                        GrammarIf referring to people, the prefix 'birri-' is often added to make 'birridanjbik', 'the three of them'.

                                                                                        Kill, spear, especially with a multi-pronged 'fish wire' spear.

                                                                                        • Nawakadj dja Nabulanj benewam djenj benehdanjbuni kubbunj benehkani.

                                                                                          Nawakadj and Nabulanj went spearing fish with a canoe.

                                                                                          (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj Dja Nabulanj Benewam Djenj’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre.)

                                                                                        Dry, dried out.

                                                                                        • Nahni kunj kangeyyo ngorlomorroh, kaluk kadi yiman kayime kore kubolkdarleh.

                                                                                          That kangaroo is called "ngorlomorroh" (Northern nail-tail wallaby), and it lives in dry areas.

                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                        • Nang kayerrkan kore mandulkdarleh

                                                                                          He saw there was some [wild honey] in a dead tree

                                                                                          (Kunwinjku texts collected by Peter Carroll, on file at ASEDA)

                                                                                        -darlehmen

                                                                                          Dry out.

                                                                                        -darlehwon

                                                                                          Dry something out.

                                                                                        Float.

                                                                                        • Baladjdji nang kahdarlkan manbu manme dahkedahkendi mankinjdjek.

                                                                                          He saw the dillybag, which had been filled with cheeky yams, floating [empty] in the water.

                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 190)

                                                                                        Close up, closely.

                                                                                        • Karridarnhnan.

                                                                                          Let's have a close look at it.

                                                                                        1Close, close up.

                                                                                        • Nawu kinga kumhdjalwam darnkih kore ngalmekbe daluk kore ningihni.

                                                                                          The crocodile just came right up close to where that woman was sitting.

                                                                                          (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                        2Soon, nearly, about to.

                                                                                        • Kordbolbok ngarribekkan kawokdi kukak kamulewan mandjewk bu darnkih kadjakdung.

                                                                                          When we hear frogs at night, it means that it’s going to rain soon.

                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                        1Alive.

                                                                                        • Kunubewu benedarrkid. Kunubewu benedoweng.

                                                                                          Maybe the two of them are alive. Maybe they're dead.

                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                        • Nungka karrarrkid.

                                                                                          He is alive.

                                                                                        2Actual, in person.

                                                                                        • Ngarribokkadjuy nganabbarru wanjh ngarribebmeng kure darrkid ngarrinang.

                                                                                          We followed the buffalo tracks until we arrived and actually saw it (the buffalo).

                                                                                        Red-collared lorikeet. Affiliated with duwa moiety.

                                                                                        Scientific nameTrichoglossus rubritorquis

                                                                                        • Dedded kunmud kabirrimudmang kabirrikurrme kore djerrh wongkorr mardayin kunmadj.

                                                                                          People get lorikeet feathers and weave them into sacred dilly bags for the Mardayin ceremony.

                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                        Black ant.

                                                                                        • Wanjh kunu Mamik bibayeng deddel.

                                                                                          And Shorty got bitten by a black ant there.

                                                                                          (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja nakodjok benekang’ in ‘Kunwinjku Stories’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1982)

                                                                                        Cut open the guts of a kangaroo during cooking.

                                                                                        • Birridedjbuni birrinjamduhkeyi birribebkeyi mannjam kundurddu kudiw kunbalem dja njalehnjale rowk kore kunj kunjam.

                                                                                          They would cut open the kangaroo, make an opening in its belly and pull out the stomach, heart, liver, fat and everything else inside.

                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                        Begin, be ready to start.

                                                                                        • Ngaleng nalkbom, nalkbom dja dedjdjingmey wayihwayini.

                                                                                          She cried and cried, then began to sing.

                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                                                        Short.

                                                                                        • Ngaldedjdjumbung ngalkka.

                                                                                          That short woman.

                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                        1Naked.

                                                                                        Synonymslahlarrk

                                                                                          2 Without a base, missing its bottom.

                                                                                          • Banikkin dedjlarrk.

                                                                                            A cup without a bottom, a cup with a big hole in the bottom of it.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          3 Empty, with nothing in the bottom (e.g. of a bag), finished down to the last piece.

                                                                                          • "Kankukwo kunwardde." "Minj ngakarrme kunwardde, dja dedjlahlarrk nawu baladjdji."

                                                                                            "Give me some money." "I don't have any money, the bag is empty."

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          • Dedjlarrkminj nawu bakki.

                                                                                            All the tobacco is gone.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kunwinjku

                                                                                          Shake or shiver.

                                                                                          • Mamamh ngamngimen dja mandjewk nganhbun ngabonjdjekdoweng ngahdeldelme.

                                                                                            Grandpa let me come in, I'm getting rained on and I'm freezing and shivering.

                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                          White ochre or clay, kaolin, huntite.

                                                                                          • Manih delek ngukmak, kakukbarme duninj.

                                                                                            This white clay is 'good shit' (of the rainbow serpent), it really is very bright.

                                                                                          Kunbalakkabbarrk

                                                                                          1Contents. Nominal suffix which indicates the idea of contents being held within a container of some kind.

                                                                                          • Kadjalbodelengkurrme kabongerdkendi wanjh.

                                                                                            The water goes in until it is full.

                                                                                            (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal & Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘A Kundedjnjenghmi Wordlist of Eco-zone Terminology’, Northern Land Council Caring for Country Unit, 2007)

                                                                                          2Only, just, nominal suffix 'exclusive involved participant'. Only me, just each other, all by ourselves etc.

                                                                                          • Dalukdeleng beneburrinj?

                                                                                            Was it only the two women [and not men] who were fighting?

                                                                                          • Wanjh ngadman deleng bu ngarrinahnarren / Minj nangale ngankongibun bu konda kamre, ahwurd, ahwurd.

                                                                                            We look after ourselves / No one feels sorry for us, no one is staying here, we are sad, we are sad.

                                                                                            (Wildflower Band, ’Maburrinj (The lonely place called Maburrinj)’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                                          GrammarFree noun in the form of delengno (with the third person possessor suffix -no only in Kuninjku, Kune and Kundedjnjenghmi dialects) and has the sense of 'contents (of a container)'. In a second sense the word appears as a suffix on core nominals with the sense of 'exclusive involved participant' (see Evans 2003:154). Incorporable in verbs such as delengkan, delengmang, delengkurrme, delengdahkendong

                                                                                          -delengkan

                                                                                            Take contents in a container, vehicle etc.

                                                                                          -delengmang

                                                                                            Get or pick up a container/bag etc. with contents in it.

                                                                                          -delengdahkendong

                                                                                            Put contents in container, put luggage in vehicle etc.

                                                                                          Splash or spill fluid on something.

                                                                                          • Bu kabbal karrire wanjh kunkih karrikihmelme wanjh kandelkke kunkih.

                                                                                            When we go onto the floodplain and step in the mud, the mud splashes us.

                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                          Cause an object to stop or slow down, delay someone, stop someone doing something, hinder someone.

                                                                                          • Kanwohdenghke.

                                                                                            You're delaying me (i.e. I want to go).

                                                                                          • Bu yiman wurdwurdbubuyika mak kabirridurren, wanjh karrbendenghke o karrbenmarneyime “Yuwn ngurrimarneyidngalkerren”.

                                                                                            If other kids start arguing with them, we stop them, or we tell them “Don’t go looking for trouble for yourself.”

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                          Stop moving (of large objects), be stalled (also figuratively).

                                                                                          Synonymskukdenghme

                                                                                          • 'Parachute' kabebme wanjh kakukdenghme manekke.

                                                                                            The parachute appears and it (the aircraft) comes to a stop.

                                                                                          • Karridjalkukdenghme munguyh.

                                                                                            We're stalled, we're not moving forward (no-one is co-operating or taking decisive action).

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                          Move something away (or if -mderrehke, movement is towards speaker).

                                                                                          • Yiderrehkemen darnki kodbarre.

                                                                                            Move it away (and put it) close to the house.

                                                                                          1Move (a short distance).

                                                                                          • Yiderrehmen!

                                                                                            Move away a bit.

                                                                                          • Yimderrehmen!

                                                                                            Come closer.

                                                                                          2Move forward, make progress (towards a plan or goal etc), move on, move away.

                                                                                          • Karridubberrong yiman bolkkime karridi, karridubbedoy wanjh. Dja bu bewh wurd karribalderrehme.

                                                                                            We don’t know which way to go at present, as we are now, we're stuck. We need to make progress.

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                          • Yuwn ngurriwernhre kunrayek kore Balanda. Bokenh ngurrirlobmen. Ngad kadberre mak kunwok ngurrikarrmen rerrih, yuwn ngurriwe, la ngurrire kore kunkukbele, burrkyak. Marndi bewh ngurrihderrehme djarreh ngurrikarrebarlanhmang manbu ngad kadberre.

                                                                                            Don’t dedicate yourself to the Balanda way of doing things. You must run with both. You must also hold on to our own language as well. Don’t discard it and go to the white language, no. If you move too far away (from our traditions), you'll lose the Law, our law.

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                          3Make way, make room, move on.

                                                                                          • Bindimarneyimeng, “Ngurriderrehmen ngudda ngurrikukbele ngurriderrehmen wardi bu ngadman bininjwi.”

                                                                                            They’ve said to them, “Right, you just move on. You white people move on, its our turn" (to get the jobs, etc).

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                          Kunbalakderrehbonghme

                                                                                          1Stand.

                                                                                          • Med yirrin!

                                                                                            Stay there, wait. (lit. you sing. stand imper.)

                                                                                          • Dingihdi.

                                                                                            He stood there for some time.

                                                                                          2Be present (especially temporarily or in a phase).

                                                                                          • Minj diwirrinj.

                                                                                            She wasn't there.

                                                                                          • Ngudda bale yihrri?

                                                                                            Where have you been?

                                                                                          • Yekke kabalemdi [kunj], yekke nakka bonj.

                                                                                            In yekke season [kangaroos] are fat, certainly in yekke season.

                                                                                          3Be in affinal relationship with someone.

                                                                                          • Bale yiyime kela? Ngunehdi?

                                                                                            What kinship relationship are you to Kela? Do you call him brother-in-law?

                                                                                          Kunbalakdjarrbelme

                                                                                          -dingihdi

                                                                                            Reduplicated form of 'di' meaning to stand or be somewhere for some time.

                                                                                          A bush potato.

                                                                                          Synonymsmardidjdjad is the duwa name. Didjkala is the yirridjdja name

                                                                                          Scientific nameCartonema spicatum, Cartonema trigonospermum (Altman also records Cartonema parviflorum as didjkala).

                                                                                            Various kinds of rainbow fish and hardyheads e.g. Banded rainbow fish, Mariana's hardyhead. Some speakers also include the spotted blue-eye or the delicate blue-eye.

                                                                                            Scientific nameMelanotaenia trifasciata, Craterocephalus marianae

                                                                                            • Dilebang nakka djenj kilekilelh yiman nadjirrkku dja kukbuyika. Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dilebang.

                                                                                              Rainbow fish are small, like glassfish but different. In the old days, people used to eat them.

                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                            Paint or draw dots.

                                                                                            • Yoh dilhdilhmeninj la ngaleng Mardayin birrirarrkwemeninj mankarre nawu nadjamun 'old fashion one'.

                                                                                              Yes, he used to paint dots but for Mardayin ceremony they used 'rarrk' (cross hatching) which was the old fashioned way.

                                                                                            Dive under water, dive down.

                                                                                            • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh yiman marrngunj burd djakolk nawern nawu djenj kare kore kukku kubowinjku. Karrbennan birriwern kore kukku kabirridjuhmiyindi kabirridimhme kanjdji kore kukku kabirriyawan djenj kabirridanjbun kundang bedberre wanjh kabirringun.

                                                                                              Cormorants eat small freshwater fish, like baby eel-tailed catfish, spangled grunter and purple spotted gudgeon. We see lots of them in the water, diving down under the water to look for fish and spearing them with their beaks and eating them.

                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                            1Moon.

                                                                                            Synonymskarrakbal

                                                                                            • Ngad karrinjilngmak bu dird kabolkwolkan, wanjh karribolknan bu kukak, nungka kayawoyhmimbimen.

                                                                                              We are happy when the moon lights up the sky, so we can see at night. The moon comes back to life [every night].

                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                            • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                              Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us that story.

                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                            2Month, the lunar cycle.

                                                                                            • Ngamadbom nakudji dird.

                                                                                              I waited one month.

                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                            -dirdko

                                                                                              Moonlight.

                                                                                            -dirdbuyika

                                                                                              Next month.

                                                                                            Play.

                                                                                            • Wurdurd beh ngurridirri kandibengbun.

                                                                                              You kids go and play over there, you're driving me crazy.

                                                                                            1And. Can link both nouns and clauses.

                                                                                            • Ngarrbek dja Ngalmangiyi benemdolkkang kakbibeh.

                                                                                              The Echidna and the Long-necked Turtle came down from the north.

                                                                                              (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                            • Ngudda yiyawnahna, dja ngaye ngawarlbun ngarrku.

                                                                                              You look after the kid, and I’ll go hunting for us.

                                                                                              (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                            2But.

                                                                                            • Ngalbu ngalkordow ngalka mayh ngadberre bu ngarringun bu korrokoni dja bolkkime larrk.

                                                                                              The egret is one of the animals we used to eat, but not any more.

                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                            • Ngurrurdu korroko dolkani rey kaddum kaluk bininj benebokenh yimankek beneyameninj dja larrk.

                                                                                              One day the Emu flew up into the air, two men tried to spear her but without success.

                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                            3Because.

                                                                                            • Bu Kudjewk wanjh birringimi kuwardderurrk birriyoy dja mandjewk dja birndu.

                                                                                              In the wet season they moved into caves to stay, because of the rain and mosquitos.

                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                            4So; and so.

                                                                                              Northern (spotted) quoll.

                                                                                              Scientific nameDasyurus hallucatus

                                                                                              • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us that story.

                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                              LanguageKune,Kuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                              Kunbalakyulukyuluk

                                                                                              To stick into the ground, to end up standing upright.

                                                                                              • Wanjh nakudji yimeng njalekenh manbu mankole ngarrburriwe kamdurndeng kadjabdan kore kubodme ngarrku. Wanjh bu benebalwam djarrehwurd benenang ngalbu Ngalyod kahyo wanjh benedurndi kured.

                                                                                                One of them said “Why does the spear end up landing [sticking into the ground] behind us when we throw it?”. Then when they went a little further they saw that the Rainbow Serpent was there, and they went home.

                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                              1Stand upright, be standing, an elongate object standing on its base.

                                                                                              • Kadjabdi lorrkkon.

                                                                                                The bone pole is standing upright.

                                                                                              2Travel directly to the destination without stopping, "straight up kare".

                                                                                                Mouth Almighty.

                                                                                                Scientific nameGlossamia aprion

                                                                                                • Nahni djenj djabel korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birringuni yiman nadjirrkku dja bolkkime minj ngarringun.

                                                                                                  People used to eat mouth almighty fish, just like they used to eat glassfish, but these days we don't eat them.

                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                LanguageKuninjku= djenjbarrang

                                                                                                Place an elongate object on its end, place into the ground (such as a pole or a stick).

                                                                                                • Yirrulkdjabnamen wanjh yirrukka midjikked.

                                                                                                  Place some sticks in the ground and tie up your mosquito net.

                                                                                                Generic term for common grasshoppers.

                                                                                                • Djaddedde kangun kunmalaworr. Kubolkwern ngarrbennan.

                                                                                                  Grasshoppers eat leaves. You can see them anywhere.

                                                                                                Ant.

                                                                                                Scientific nameIridomyrmex sanguineus

                                                                                                • Djak nganbayeng.

                                                                                                  An ant bit me.

                                                                                                  (Dakgalawuy, Nancy, ‘Wurdyaw dirrihdirri’ in ‘Kunwinjku Stories’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1982)

                                                                                                • Bu njale karringun karribawon kore kunrurrk wanjh karrinan nawern djak bu kanome dja kabolkan.

                                                                                                  If we're eating something and we leave it in the house, then ants will smell it and lots of them will come after it.

                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                Black-necked stork, also known as the jabiru. Associated with the yirridjdja moiety.

                                                                                                Scientific nameEphippiorhynchus asiaticus

                                                                                                • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey kore kudjorlok manlabbarl birrinani djakarna kangun djenj wanjh birridanjbuni djalakiradj.

                                                                                                  In the old days, people would go down to the billabongs and see jabirus eating fish, and they would spear them with multi-pronged spears.

                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                Kunbalakdjanarra

                                                                                                Fall (rain).

                                                                                                • Bu kudjewk kayimerran mandjewk nakimuk kadjakdung.

                                                                                                  When the wet season starts, heavy rains fall.

                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                1Only, just. Exclusively one thing and not another.

                                                                                                • Minj ngad karrinan nawu Nakurrurndilhba birridjalkudji kabirrinan nawu marrkidjbu nawu birrikurdang.

                                                                                                  We can’t see Nakurrurndilhba spirits, only clever men with special powers can see them.

                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                2That's all, exactly, just. Adverb which indicates the extent of something.

                                                                                                • Bedman mak morlehmorlenj djal kunmekbe rerrih, mankarre bokenh bu kabirrikadjung laik- mahni bu kunkukbelekenh, mahni kunkukburlerrikenh.

                                                                                                  It's just the same for the women - there are two laws they have to follow: one black, one white.

                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                • Nja, ten dollar djal bonj, wardi kanmarneyakwon.

                                                                                                  Here you are, here's ten dollars and that's it, or you'll clean me out.

                                                                                                  (Evans, Nicholas (ed.), How to write Kundjeyhmi, prepared for the National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Gagudju Association.)

                                                                                                3Keep on doing something, just keep doing something etc. Adverb of duration which indicates that an action or situation is continuing or repeating for some time.

                                                                                                • Yidjalbun.

                                                                                                  Keep hitting it.

                                                                                                • Djal munguyh kabenedjarrkdi.

                                                                                                  They just stay together permanently [as a couple].

                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                4Just, anyway. Do something for no specific reason, purpose or intent, do something despite reasons not to, do something freely without restrictions or limitations.

                                                                                                • Ngamdjalbom.

                                                                                                  "Yuwn yikan mankukyahwurd makka" "Bonj warribo ngadjalkan ngakinje ngangun. Bonj bu mankukyahwurd"

                                                                                                • "Don't take that yam, it's too small". "Whatever, I'll just take it anyway and cook it up and eat it. Doesn't matter if it's small".

                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                • Wanjh nunganwali wurdyaw kamayhmakmen - kadjalre nawu kambun mayh. Kaluk minj bidlarrk kamdurndeng.

                                                                                                  The child in turn will become a good hunter, he just goes and gets an animal, and he never comes back empty handed.

                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                GrammarPrefix on verbs, noun-adjective compounds, adjectives, numerals and locations. When it restricts nouns, it is a separate word rather than a prefix. Despite being a complex word, the semantic range of 'djal' is very similar to 'just' in English, so speakers of either language should find the translation fairly intuitive. It can mean 'only' (just the women and not the men), 'exactly' (that's just the thing, just ten and no more). 'keep on doing, continuously' (he just stayed there), 'for no particular reason' (I just decided to come along') or 'despite reasons to the contrary' etc ('I just did it anyway').

                                                                                                'Fish wire' spear, wire. Spear with three or four sharpened metal prongs at the end, used for fishing or hunting smaller animals such as aquatic birds. A similar spear with barbed wooden prongs is known as mandanj and is considered to be the more traditional prototype for djalakiradj.

                                                                                                • Bolkkime nawu djalakiradj karrimarnbun nawu balanda marnbom wire. Karridjobke karrimarnbun dad danjbik kunubewu kunkarrngbakmeng nawu wire dad. Karrimang mankole wanjh karridadname nawu dad djalakkiradj.

                                                                                                  These days we make fishing spears out of wire, a non-indigenous material. We cut it and make three or four prongs, then we cut spear shafts and fasten the prongs onto them.

                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                EtymologyEvans writes that this comes from Malay "tali kəras" meaning "taut line". "This would presumably refer to the way in which the string holding the prongs in place must be pulled taut". Yolngu Matha = djalakaritj 'spear with long thin steel prongs, used for fishing'

                                                                                                See alsomandanj

                                                                                                1Tree orchid. The juice from the base of the plant was used as a fixative for ochre pigments on bark, stone or body decoration.

                                                                                                Scientific nameDendrobium dicuphum

                                                                                                • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birribimbuni kore dolobbo wanjh birrirey birriyawani djalamardi. Wanjh birrimangi birrikani kured, birridongi yika birribayeyi birrikerlkwoni. Wanjh birribarungi nawu dolobbo birribimbuni njale.

                                                                                                  In the old days, when people wanted to paint on bark, they would go looking for tree orchids. They would get them, take them home and pund them up, or chew them to make them soft. Then they would paint something on the bark (using the orchid as fixative).

                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                2A plant with edible tuber but leaves similar to the orchid.

                                                                                                  Kunbalaknone

                                                                                                  Dragonfly.

                                                                                                  • Nawu djalangkarridj-djalangkarridj bu kabirrinan nawu dabborrabbolk wanjh kabirriyime bonj wanjh djenj kamulewan.

                                                                                                    When people see dragonflies, they say that means there are fish (ready to be caught).

                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                  Centipede.

                                                                                                  • Djalarr djang bedberre birri-Madjba.

                                                                                                    The centipede is a dreaming for Madjba (Jawoyn) clan people.

                                                                                                  LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                  Keep doing action, keep going.

                                                                                                  • Yidjalay.

                                                                                                    Keep going further.

                                                                                                  • Nawu Nawamud bimarneyimeng Nangarridj mah ngudda wanjh yidjalay kurih kakbi.

                                                                                                    Nawamud said to Nangarridj "OK, you just keep on going north then".

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  • Mah yidjalay munguyh yidjalmarnbu.

                                                                                                    OK just keep on doing it.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  Grammarfrom imperative form of djal+re > djal+ray

                                                                                                  Keep going, keep doing something.

                                                                                                  • Yidjalay.

                                                                                                    Keep going further.

                                                                                                  • Bu bininj kabirriwohre kunbarnangarrakuyeng yiman malamalaywi kabirridedjdjingmang kabirridjale kadungborledme bu kabaldungyibme.

                                                                                                    When people walk around all day, for example they might start in the morning and keep on going until the afternoon and the sun starts to go down.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  • Nawu bininj kabiwabun nabuyika bininj wanjh kadjalkukyakmen minj nangale kabingalke. Kunekke birrikurduyimi korroko nawu dabborabbolk bu bindiwabuni namarndekah wanjh birridjalkukyakmeni minj mak birridurndeyi kore kured dja wanjh birridjaley kore kuwardderurrk munguyhmunguyh.

                                                                                                    When a man curses another man, the other man just disappears, nobody can find him anymore. That's what people used to do in the old days, they would sing people over to the evil spirits, and they would just disappear and not come back home, they would just go on into a cave and stay there forever.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  GrammarAn abbreviation of 'djal'+'re’. Conjugated like 're', e.g. kadjale (he/she keeps going), yidjalay (keep going!), birridjaley (they would keep going), ngadjalwam (I kept going).

                                                                                                  Cut into pieces, slice in half.

                                                                                                  • Wanjh nawu ngalmangiyi dja kedjebe nakka benewilkdi wanjh benehni benehmadbuni wanjh bu djolengminj wanjh benewayhkeng benedjalkmey benenguneng wanjh beneworrkminj.

                                                                                                    Then they cooked the long-necked turtles and file snakes in the ground oven, sat and waited a while, and when they were done they lifted them out, cut them up, ate them and were full.

                                                                                                    (Garnarradj, Elaine N, ‘Ngalbadjan dja Ngalyaw’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Oenpelli, 1975)

                                                                                                  1Just do some little thing, just do something temporarily, for the time being, only, nothing more.

                                                                                                  • Ngabendjalwohkan wurdurd.

                                                                                                    I'll take the children for the time being [until you return].

                                                                                                  • Manmekbe ngadjalwohyolyolmeng bonj, la ngaburnbun.

                                                                                                    That's all I had to say, I'll stop now.

                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                  2For no purpose, to no result.

                                                                                                  • Karridjalohwamwi karrikowerrinj.

                                                                                                    We just went there for nothing, we were under an incorrect belief (that something could be obtained there).

                                                                                                  Grammardjal+woh

                                                                                                  Trousers.

                                                                                                  • Yidjongburren djalawarra!

                                                                                                    Put on those trousers!

                                                                                                  Etymologyfrom Makassarese saluwara 'trousers’

                                                                                                  Tamarind tree and fruit.

                                                                                                    EtymologyFrom Makassarese camba.

                                                                                                    Police.

                                                                                                      Sacred, restricted, secret, set apart.

                                                                                                      • Nadjamun minj karriyolyolme.

                                                                                                        That's secret/sacred, we don't talk about that.

                                                                                                      Kunbalaknjeknjek

                                                                                                      -bolkdjamun

                                                                                                        Restricted area, sacred place.

                                                                                                      -manbodjamun

                                                                                                        A sacred water body, sacred water hole.

                                                                                                      Yellow spotted monitor which is a goanna similar in size (up to 1 metre) to kalawan Varanus gouldii but with different colour and skin patterning.

                                                                                                      Scientific nameVaranus panoptes

                                                                                                        Bludge off other people, e.g. hang around waiting for offers of food, asking for money or cigarattes.

                                                                                                        • Nguddu yidjandi ngadberre!

                                                                                                          You’re bludging off us!

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        1Sunday.

                                                                                                          2Week.

                                                                                                            Etymologyfrom English 'Sunday'.

                                                                                                            1Place of religious significance where the spiritual essence of a totemic being, plant, animal or other emblem resides in a particular location.

                                                                                                            • Nawu Manimunak wirlarrk djang kahdjangdi kore kaddum kuwarde Arrkuluk.

                                                                                                              There is a sacred site for Magpie Goose eggs on the top of Arrkuluk rock.

                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                            2Totemic emblem, 'dreaming'.

                                                                                                            • Djalarr djang bedberre birri-Madjba.

                                                                                                              The djalarr centipede is a dreaming for Madjba (Jawoyn) clan people.

                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                            -djangdi

                                                                                                              There is a sacred site, a sacred site exists.

                                                                                                            -djangkurrmerren

                                                                                                              Place oneself as djang, said when an ancestor becomes a sacred site.

                                                                                                            -djangwarrewon

                                                                                                              Disturb a sacred site.

                                                                                                            Have a sacred site or totemic emblem.

                                                                                                            • Durlmangkarr konda kadjangdi Kudjaborrng. Barrk kumekke djang kayo. O njamed nawaran.

                                                                                                              The Durlmangkarr clan have a dreaming place here at Kudjaborrng. There is a black wallaroo dreaming or whatsit, an Oenpelli python dreaming there.

                                                                                                            Be stuck, locked in a position.

                                                                                                              Want, desire, love, like.

                                                                                                              • Ngaye ngawarnyak makka yaldanj, minj ngadjare.

                                                                                                                I don't want that waterlily root, I don't like it.

                                                                                                                (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Nakudji Namarladj Ngiwkmihngiwkmirey’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                              Kunbalakdjaloy

                                                                                                              -marnedjare

                                                                                                                Love somebody, want to see somebody.

                                                                                                              -kundjare

                                                                                                                Desire.

                                                                                                              -djaredowen

                                                                                                                Long for something, crave something.

                                                                                                              Connect two parts together, attach.

                                                                                                              • Bu korroko nakka mandanj birrimarnbuni kundulk birrimirrhmarnbuni. Wanjh kore mankole birridjarlkkennami wanjh djenj birridanjbuni.

                                                                                                                In the old days people would make mandanj type spears. They would sharpen small pieces of wood and attach them to a spear shaft and spear fish.

                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                              • Key yidjalkkennamen kure murrika.

                                                                                                                Put the key in the car [in the ignition].

                                                                                                              • Kandjalkkenname kuburldjarn.

                                                                                                                Put me in the middle [of a queue, or a line of dancers].

                                                                                                              • Konda ngadjalkkennamerren.

                                                                                                                I'll put myself in the middle [of the queue].

                                                                                                              Fork in branch. Larger Y-shaped forked branches are used as a ladder to climb trees. The fork is laid against the tree and you climb up.

                                                                                                                GrammarOften the locative prefix ku- is attached kudjarnngal ‘in the fork of the branch’.

                                                                                                                -kudjarnngal

                                                                                                                  In the fork of the branch.

                                                                                                                Horse.

                                                                                                                • Nabulanj wam kabbal wanjh nawu djarrang dja nganabbarru mirndeyarlarrkeng.

                                                                                                                  Nabulanj went down to the floodplain, and all the horses and the all buffalo ran off and dispersed (as he walked near them).

                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                Etymologyfrom Makassarese j·rang 'horse'.

                                                                                                                Far, distant, a long way away.

                                                                                                                Synonymsbalay

                                                                                                                • Wam djarreh wanjh mandjewk kumhwam nayahwurd wanjh yerre kimukminj.

                                                                                                                  He went a long way away and it started to rain a little, then the rain got heavy.

                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                • Minj kawernhbolknan djarreh.

                                                                                                                  He’s short-sighted, he’s suffering from myopia.

                                                                                                                  (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                -djarrehwurd

                                                                                                                  A bit further.

                                                                                                                Together, all acting together, all.

                                                                                                                • Karridjarrkre.

                                                                                                                  Lets all go together.

                                                                                                                Ask.

                                                                                                                Synonymsdjawayhme

                                                                                                                • Wanjh Nawakadj wam benhyawani, benngalkeng, bendjawam, "Ngudda ngurriyameng djarrang?"

                                                                                                                  Then Nawakadj went looking for them. He found them and asked them "Did you manage to spear a horse?".

                                                                                                                  (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                -djawarren

                                                                                                                  Ask each other, ask oneself, reflect.

                                                                                                                Ask, request.

                                                                                                                • Wurdyaw bidjawam kornkumo ngalbadjankah, djawayhmeng, "Karrard baleh wam?”

                                                                                                                  The child asked his father about his mother, he asked “Where’s mum gone?”

                                                                                                                  (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                • Nawu ngundidjawayhme yibenngeykurrme

                                                                                                                  Friend Requests (on Facebook)

                                                                                                                1Friend.

                                                                                                                  2Disciple (Christianity).

                                                                                                                    EtymologyProbably from Makassarese toana 'guest'.

                                                                                                                    1Supposedly, apparently, they say. Introduces falso complements of reportative verb. 'That's what the claim is...'

                                                                                                                    • Korroko bininj bokenh benedanjbom benekinjeng benenguneng benedoweng djaying bu birrimulewam.

                                                                                                                      In the past two people speared one, cooked it and ate it and they died. That's what people say.

                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                    2Possibly, might be, whether or not, (introduces predicates whose epistemic status is uncertain).

                                                                                                                    • Nakka maydbi bedberre, old man nakka kabengkan Wamud. Nakka djaying bedberre Wurrbbarn.

                                                                                                                      It [a place] might belong to them, old man Wamud will know. It possibly belongs to the Wurrbbarn clan.

                                                                                                                    3Expresses lack of commitment or uncertainty to the truth value or otherwise of a reported claim. 'Apparently'.

                                                                                                                      4Expression of misapprehension.

                                                                                                                      • Djaying ba-rayinj kurih.

                                                                                                                        I thought he was going to come (but he didn't) (Kundjeyhmi).

                                                                                                                      Grammarcounterfactual particle

                                                                                                                      Northern brushtail possum.

                                                                                                                      Scientific nameTrichosurus arnhemensis

                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                        Address term used by a woman to her children (of both genders) or a man to his sister’s children.

                                                                                                                          Scrape with a tool; carve or sculpt.

                                                                                                                          • Namarden bolkdjedmeng kure Kukkurr.

                                                                                                                            The Lightning Spirit carved out that place at Kukkurr (Kukkurr is a large red cliff on the eastern bank of the Liverpool river).

                                                                                                                          Laugh, smile.

                                                                                                                          • Ngarridjekmeng ngarridoweng ngarribodmedadjmeng.

                                                                                                                            We laughed until it hurt and we doubled over.

                                                                                                                          • Nakudji nakimukkenh borrkkeng wanjh karridjekmeng.

                                                                                                                            One fat man danced and we laughed (at him).

                                                                                                                          Kunbalakyedjekme

                                                                                                                          1Fish (generic).

                                                                                                                          • Nakodjok dja Nawamud benewam Kunnanj, djenj benehmangi.

                                                                                                                            Nakodjok and Nawamud went to Kunnanj, catching fish.

                                                                                                                            (Galamirnda, Barbara N., ‘Nakodjok Dja Nawamud Benewam Kunnanj Djenj’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, 1975)

                                                                                                                          2Fishing (when combined with the verb re, 'to go'). (Literally 'go for fish').

                                                                                                                          • Daluk benebokenh benewam djenj wakkidj.

                                                                                                                            Two women went fishing with fishing lines.

                                                                                                                            (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                          Kunbalakkorrngelk

                                                                                                                          -djenjmak

                                                                                                                            Good at fishing.

                                                                                                                          Mitchell's water monitor.

                                                                                                                          Scientific nameVaranus mitchelli

                                                                                                                            String bag (looped or knotted) with string woven from a great variety of plant fibres including Acacia difficilis, Acacia latifolia, Brachychiton diversifolius, Brachychiton megaphyllus, Clerodendrum floribundum, Ficus virens, Hibiscus arnhemensis, Pandanus spiralis, Pandanus aquaticus, Planchonia careya and Sterculia quadrifida.

                                                                                                                            • Djerrh korroko birrimarnbuni manmekenh bu birriwarlbuni nawu morlehmorlenj.

                                                                                                                              In the past, women used to make dilly bags for gathering fruits and vegetables.

                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                            Kunbalakkaledjerrk

                                                                                                                            -kunkorndjerrh

                                                                                                                              Scrotum.

                                                                                                                            Tip onto side, capsize, start to sink.

                                                                                                                            • Doy kunwardde djerrkdanj, barrabarrhmeng.

                                                                                                                              [The boat] hit the rocks, capsized and broke up.

                                                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 246)

                                                                                                                            • Kadungdjerrkdan.

                                                                                                                              The sun is sinking.

                                                                                                                            -djerrkname

                                                                                                                              Tip something over.

                                                                                                                            -djerrkdi

                                                                                                                              Be on its side, capsized.

                                                                                                                            Dwarf spirit being. Some are said to inhabit the honey dreaming country in Mok clan estate.

                                                                                                                            • Name nungan djenj kangun djidjnguk nakka.

                                                                                                                              Those djidjnguk spirits eat fish.

                                                                                                                            • Djidjnguk nakka dedjdjumbung murrngrayek dja nabang warridj.

                                                                                                                              Djidjnguk spirits are short and strong, and dangerous too.

                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                            Willy wagtail. Possibly also the grey fantail.

                                                                                                                            Scientific nameRhipidura leucophrys, Rhipidura fuliginosa

                                                                                                                              Breast-feed, allow to suckle.

                                                                                                                              • Kabiyawdjikkawon.

                                                                                                                                She's breast-feeding the baby.

                                                                                                                              Kind of cane grass sometimes referred to as 'bush sugar cane' because of the sugary juice it contains. Some speakers say that mayadjdja is sweet grass that has ripened and has plenty of juice whilst younger grass without much juice is called djilidjilih.

                                                                                                                              Synonymsmayadjdja

                                                                                                                              Scientific nameHeteropogon triticeus

                                                                                                                              • Birriwern wurdwurd birriwam birrihmangi kundalk birrihbakkeyi njamed mayadjdja dja djilidjilih birribayeyi.

                                                                                                                                Lots of children went and were breaking themselves pieces of grass to chew on, bush sugarcane.

                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                              • Bu kabirriwohre kore kudahdadalk wanjh wanjh kabirringalke djilihdjili, kukku kabokarrme, wanjh kabirridalkbayehbaye kukku kabirribongun.

                                                                                                                                When people walk around in grassy areas they find bush sugar cane, which has juice in it, so they bite the grass and drink the juice.

                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                              Wandering whistle duck.

                                                                                                                              Scientific nameDendrocygna arcuata

                                                                                                                              • Nganere djilikuybi nganedulubun, dja manimunak.

                                                                                                                                We're going to shoot Whistle Duck and Magpie Goose.

                                                                                                                                (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 40-43)

                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku

                                                                                                                              Itch, fungal rash, ringworm.

                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                Steal.

                                                                                                                                • Nangale djirdmey kunmadj ngarduk?

                                                                                                                                  Who stole my clothes?

                                                                                                                                Salt.

                                                                                                                                • Ngarrihyoy Nimbuwa mankabo ngarridulubuni kinga ngarrikurlahbuni djirla ngarrikurlahkani Kunbarlanja.

                                                                                                                                  We were camping at Nimbuwa creek and hunting crocodiles. We would salt the skins and carry them back to Gunbalanya.

                                                                                                                                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, biography section.)

                                                                                                                                Etymologyfrom Makassarese 'salt(y), brackish'

                                                                                                                                Most larger quails e.g. stubble quail, brown quail, chestnut-backed button-quail.

                                                                                                                                SynonymsI= djiribbidj, mehme, E= merhmerh

                                                                                                                                Scientific nameCoturnix pectoralis, Coturnix ypsilophora, Turnix castanota

                                                                                                                                  LanguageKundjeyhmi,Kundedjnjenghmi,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                  A stick or string used to carry fish, being inserted through the gills and out of the mouth.

                                                                                                                                  • Yika kunyarl dja kundulk bu kabirridjirribiwon nawu djenj.

                                                                                                                                    People carry fish with either a stick or a string through the gills.

                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                  Wash, clean something with water.

                                                                                                                                    1Cut; cut off, end (a process or activity).

                                                                                                                                      2Draw a line on something.

                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                        -berddjobke

                                                                                                                                          Circumcise.

                                                                                                                                        Finish up, cut off, come to an end.

                                                                                                                                        • That bolkno, Warlang Karrulkkarrme, Dedjbang kadjobme, beh duwa.

                                                                                                                                          That place Warlang Karrulkkarrme, and then at Dedjbang, that’s where it finishes, [i.e. the border between two clan estates] and that's duwa moiety country this way.

                                                                                                                                        Cough.

                                                                                                                                        • Kangurdke kore karridjohme bu karribarurren nawu delek kukodj, kadjale kanjdji kurrenge.

                                                                                                                                          It stops us from coughing when we rub [a special white ochre] over ourselves from head to foot.

                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 196, additions Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                        Narrow, tight.

                                                                                                                                        • Kubarrarndjokko.

                                                                                                                                          A narrow passage.

                                                                                                                                        1Cooked, ripe, ready.

                                                                                                                                          2Skilled, experienced, ‘pro’ [colloquial]

                                                                                                                                          • Djoleng nakka.

                                                                                                                                            He’s a real pro.

                                                                                                                                            (Ray Nadjamerrek, referring to ‘Batman’ the helicopter pilot. )

                                                                                                                                          -djolengmen

                                                                                                                                            Ripen, get cooked.

                                                                                                                                          Put on clothes.

                                                                                                                                          • Yidjongburren djalawarra!

                                                                                                                                            Put on those trousers.

                                                                                                                                          Grammarusually only used as reflexive

                                                                                                                                          Axe head.

                                                                                                                                          • Wurrakkak benedurrinj Nimbuwa wanjh Wurrakkak mey karramalk bidjuddjobkemeninj dja larrk nawu karramalk djord djorddolkang bolkngadji.

                                                                                                                                            Wurrakkak and Nimbuwa fought, and Wurrakkak took a stone axe and tried to cut off Nimbuwa's head, but it didn't work and the axe head flew off and buried itself in the ground.

                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                          Grow, grow up.

                                                                                                                                          • Wurrmarninj kadjordmen kore kabbal.

                                                                                                                                            Red lilies grow on floodplains.

                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                          • Djordohdjordminj nawu ngarridudji.

                                                                                                                                            The ones we planted have all grown up.

                                                                                                                                          -djordmerren

                                                                                                                                            Grow (in large numbers).

                                                                                                                                          -djordmiwe

                                                                                                                                            Bring something or someone up, raise a child, make something grow, cultivate.

                                                                                                                                          Run away, head off somewhere without others’ knowledge, run off and get lost.

                                                                                                                                          • Kunkare wurdyaw djorlkmeng, dja ngalbadjan kornkumo beneni kured, dja nungan wam. Wam kore kungarrebuldjarn, wanjh dulknang mandulkkimuk.

                                                                                                                                            One day a long time ago, a child ran away. His mother and father were at home, and he set off alone. He went to the middle of the forest, and saw a big tree.

                                                                                                                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly W, ‘Kunkare Wurdyaw Djorlkmeng’, C.M.S, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                                                          • Ngad wanjh silly ngarriyimeng, kunkudjikenh bu ngarridjorlkmeng.

                                                                                                                                            Well, we had been silly that one time when we ran away.

                                                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                          Rock ringtail possum.

                                                                                                                                          Scientific namePetropseudes dahli

                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakdolhwarr

                                                                                                                                            Straighten.

                                                                                                                                              -djorrngmerren

                                                                                                                                                Stretch oneself, stretch out.

                                                                                                                                              Cross over (a creek, river etc).

                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakdjorrbowke

                                                                                                                                                Prod, jab, poke, spike.

                                                                                                                                                • Ngandengedjurrudjudmeng.

                                                                                                                                                  It poked my feet all over [walking on spiky vegetation].

                                                                                                                                                • Yun yikanemdjudmerren!

                                                                                                                                                  Don't poke things into your ear!

                                                                                                                                                Grammarthe noun being spiked is incorporated as a verbal prefix

                                                                                                                                                Immerse in water, splash.

                                                                                                                                                • Bimimdjuhkeng.

                                                                                                                                                  She washed his eyes.

                                                                                                                                                • Kandimimdjuhkeken.

                                                                                                                                                  Eye drops.

                                                                                                                                                  (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                Be in water, get into water, shower, bathe.

                                                                                                                                                • Dja bolkkime larrk minj nangale kadjuhme kinga nawern kahyo kore manlabbarlkimuk kahboyo wardi kanbaye kanbun.

                                                                                                                                                  But these days no-one gets into the water at the big billabong, there are lots of crocodiles and they would bite and kill us.

                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                Female black wallaroo.

                                                                                                                                                Scientific nameMacropus bernadus

                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                  See alsobarrk

                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakngalwarddedjenngorrmo

                                                                                                                                                  Sugar.

                                                                                                                                                    Etymologyfrom English

                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakkunkarnalanj

                                                                                                                                                    Matches.

                                                                                                                                                      Etymologyfrom either Makassarese colo? 'match' or from Malay or Bajau sulu 'torch'.

                                                                                                                                                      Short.

                                                                                                                                                      • Kebkuyeng kumoken, ngahbimbom. Nakang kondanj Kubumi, Kabarrebarre, kebkuyeng kaluk dolobbo djumbung.

                                                                                                                                                        I've painted the freshwater crocodile with its long snout. It lives here at Kubumi and Kabrrebarre and has a long snout but the bark I've painted it on is too short.

                                                                                                                                                      -dedjdjumbung

                                                                                                                                                        Short (of people/animals), opposite of konamkuyeng.

                                                                                                                                                      Call someone matrilineal grandkin, i.e. the kin term kakkak, ie. mother's mother and mother's mother's siblings and recipricol.

                                                                                                                                                      • Ngandidjumdoy.

                                                                                                                                                        They call me kakkak (mother's mother/mother's mother's siblings or a woman's daughter's children or a man or woman's sister's daughter's children).

                                                                                                                                                      Ritual manager, person in opposite moiety to moiety affiliation of ceremony and also person whose mother is a traditional owner of an estate of land.

                                                                                                                                                        Shortened, chopped off, amputated.

                                                                                                                                                        • Biddjurdu.

                                                                                                                                                          Chopped off finger.

                                                                                                                                                        • Daddjurdu.

                                                                                                                                                          leg amputated/one legged person.

                                                                                                                                                        Round in shape.

                                                                                                                                                        • Badjkid kabirrimarnbun dedjdjurduhdjurduh.

                                                                                                                                                          They make baskets with round bases.

                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                        • Dedjdjurduhdjurduh.

                                                                                                                                                          Fat / nice and fat (buffalo, pig, kangaroo etc).

                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                        Paper, book, document etc.

                                                                                                                                                          Etymologyfrom Macassan, sura? 'letter'.

                                                                                                                                                          Waterfall. This is expressed as a verb in Bininj Kunwok languages.

                                                                                                                                                          • Karrire Kunburray bolkbukkan kadjurrhbume kumekke.

                                                                                                                                                            We'll go to Kunburray and I'll show you the waterfall there.

                                                                                                                                                          Do an action quickly, with haste, quick 'slap up' e.g. poor quality artwork.

                                                                                                                                                          • Mahni yidjurrkdjurrkmeng.

                                                                                                                                                            You've just made this too quickly [without care].

                                                                                                                                                          Pressure someone, tempt someone.

                                                                                                                                                          • Ngaye ngakeleminj, ngaye ngamarneyimeng Yirawala, 'Ngudda kanhdjurrkkani bu ngayameng.' Ngaye ngayidduy.

                                                                                                                                                            I was scared. I told Yirawala ‘You were pressuring me to spear him’. I was angry.

                                                                                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 198)

                                                                                                                                                          Great Bower Bird.

                                                                                                                                                          Scientific nameChlamydera nuchalis

                                                                                                                                                            1Grind (to produce a flour or pulp).

                                                                                                                                                              2Press, push, squeeze, massage, grasp, clutch.

                                                                                                                                                              Synonymsbiddjuyme

                                                                                                                                                              • Mayhmayh nawu kangeyyo mibbarr kabarndi kore kurrulk kore mankabo wanjh bu djenj kanan wanjh karrolkan kadjuyime namekke djenj.

                                                                                                                                                                The bird called mibbarr (white-bellied sea eagle) stays up in trees by the river, then when it sees a fish it flies down and clutches it in its claws.

                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                              3Point, stick out one's thumb (when hitchhiking).

                                                                                                                                                              Synonymsbiddjuyme

                                                                                                                                                              • Bininj nawu kare manbolh kahdi, bu kadjare kare kore kubolkkimuk wanjh muddika kadjuyme kare.

                                                                                                                                                                When a man is on the road and wants to go into town, he sticks out his thumb and hitches.

                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                              • Nakka djuymeng muddika wam.

                                                                                                                                                                He hitched a lift, he's gone.

                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                              Chestnut quilled rock pigeon.

                                                                                                                                                              Scientific namePetrophassa rufipennis

                                                                                                                                                              • Doddorok kabenekukrohrok korlobok dja ngahli doddorok ngalengman kuwardde kani.

                                                                                                                                                                The rock pigeon, is similar to the diamond dove, but lives in escarpment country.

                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                              1Set out, get going, start walking.

                                                                                                                                                              • A: Bonj ngarrokme. B: Ma yirrokmen!

                                                                                                                                                                A: Well I'll go home now. B: Ok you go home.

                                                                                                                                                              2Go ahead, go first (leaving others behind), overtake.

                                                                                                                                                              • La ngarridokme ngarriyingkihdi. Nawu dokmeninj wanjh diwirrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                So we would go ahead and stand there beforehand [before fires were lit]. Those who would go on ahead would just stay there.

                                                                                                                                                              • Kanmarnedokmedokmen yimmadjngorrkngorrka, kumekke yirrahkenwe kumekke ngarryo.

                                                                                                                                                                [song text] You go on ahead for me and get [my] swag; lay it out on the ground there and we will sleep there.

                                                                                                                                                              3Get ahead, win.

                                                                                                                                                              • Bedda kabirridokme nawu balanda, dja ngad bininj larrk.

                                                                                                                                                                The Balanda are getting ahead, but we Aboriginal people, no.

                                                                                                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku

                                                                                                                                                              -dokorrokme

                                                                                                                                                                Move ahead quickly, get a move on.

                                                                                                                                                              Larvae of various insects which lives in timber including witchetty grubs and various large species of termites.

                                                                                                                                                              • Korroko dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dolek.

                                                                                                                                                                In the old days, people used to eat wood grubs.

                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                              1Surface from beneath the water.

                                                                                                                                                              • Benenang kumdolhmeng kinga.

                                                                                                                                                                They saw a crocodile come up from under the water.

                                                                                                                                                                (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                                                                                              2Born, appear as a new generation.

                                                                                                                                                              • Larrk, marrek mardayin birribimbuyi, ya nadjamun and ngarrikerrnge and ngarrikernge ngarridolhmeng djang ngarribimbun, ngarribimbom and ngalyod and njalehnjale.

                                                                                                                                                                No, they didn't paint Mardayin ceremony designs, they are sacred, but we, the new generation have appeared and we paint sacred dreamings such as rainbow serpents and what have you.

                                                                                                                                                              1Jump, jump out, jump up.

                                                                                                                                                              • Kurrkabal dolkang kore Injalak kanjdji djangkurrmerrinj wanjh kadjangdi kurrkabal djang.

                                                                                                                                                                The Long Tom fish jumped down to the base of Injalak hill and placed itself there, so now there is a Long Tom sacred site there.

                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                              2Rise up, bubble up.

                                                                                                                                                              • Kaborrolkan.

                                                                                                                                                                The water is boiling, the water/fluid is rising up.

                                                                                                                                                              3Fly.

                                                                                                                                                              • Kunkare Ngalwamud benkang yawkyawk, birriwarlbom kalawan dja mankung. Birriwam, wanjh ngalkudji nang kahboddolkan.

                                                                                                                                                                Long ago Ngalwamud took some young women and they went hunting for goanna and bush honey. They went along and one of them saw bees flying around.

                                                                                                                                                                (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 28-31)

                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku

                                                                                                                                                              1Get up, arise; from lying down to sitting or sitting to standing, get out of bed.

                                                                                                                                                              • Kareh kanjdji kahdungyo kahkakyo wanjh karridolkkan kunukka six o'clock.

                                                                                                                                                                Maybe when the sun is still down, when it’s night, we’ll get up then - six o’clock.

                                                                                                                                                                (http://bininjgunwok.org.au/2013/batchelor-course-birriyakwong/)

                                                                                                                                                              2Set off, set out on a journey.

                                                                                                                                                              • Madjinbardi ngarridolkkang ngarriwam, ngarridjalwam Pine Creek - kurrenge.

                                                                                                                                                                We set off from Madjibardi and went all the way to Pine Creek - on foot.

                                                                                                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                              3Come from place of origin.

                                                                                                                                                              • Yingarna kumdolkkang kore kurrulabeh kore kakbi.

                                                                                                                                                                Yingarna came from the ocean in the north.

                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakrumhme

                                                                                                                                                              Bark of Eucalyptus tetrodonta used for hundreds of uses, today one of the most popular being for bark paintings.

                                                                                                                                                              • Dolobbo ngabimbun.

                                                                                                                                                                I'll do a bark painting.

                                                                                                                                                              • Bu korroko duninjh nawu dabborrabbolk birrimangi nawu dolobbo kundjurle birrimarnbuni kore birriyoy bu kudjewk.

                                                                                                                                                                In the old days people used to get bark and make shelters with it, where they would live in the wet season.

                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakkungkuh

                                                                                                                                                              1Extinguish a fire, put out flames.

                                                                                                                                                                2Turn off something eg. light, radio, engine.

                                                                                                                                                                • Dombom.

                                                                                                                                                                  He turned it off.

                                                                                                                                                                • Hey nakka nangale wokdombom, hello… wokdombom… hello?

                                                                                                                                                                  Hey, who disconnected the line, hello… it’s disconnected, hello?

                                                                                                                                                                  (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. 211)

                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkamukke

                                                                                                                                                                -birlidombun

                                                                                                                                                                  Put out flames.

                                                                                                                                                                1Hit one object against another, crash against something.

                                                                                                                                                                • Murrikang birridorrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                  The cars crashed into one another.

                                                                                                                                                                • Birrikodjdorrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                  They hit their own heads (in grief).

                                                                                                                                                                2Strike.

                                                                                                                                                                • Namarrkon kamarnbun kangurdulme kamayhke dja kandong bininj.

                                                                                                                                                                  Namarrkon makes thunder and lightning and strikes people.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                • Marla nakka nabang bu kanbaye dja kandong kunberd ngalengarre.

                                                                                                                                                                  Scorpions are dangerous if they bite you, they strike you with their tail.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                3Pound.

                                                                                                                                                                • Yo birridoy mandudjmi. Ya birrikang kondanj dabborrabbolk wanjh ngandibukkang ngadberre wanjh ngarrihdoy manih manbu kunwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes, they used to pound the green plums. The old old people used to take them here and they showed us and we pounded up that Buchanania obovata fruit.

                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalaklorlme

                                                                                                                                                                -dongohdong

                                                                                                                                                                  Knock, tap on something.

                                                                                                                                                                Louse, head louse.

                                                                                                                                                                • Dord nakka kahdjangdi kore Malirrku karrkad manberrk kabolkngeyyo Ngilikurrkbung.

                                                                                                                                                                  There is a head louse sacred site at Malirrku, up in the forest at a place called Ngilikurrkbung.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakbarndidj

                                                                                                                                                                -dordnan

                                                                                                                                                                  Look for lice, check someone for lice.

                                                                                                                                                                Curly, twining, coiled.

                                                                                                                                                                • Nahni wurdyaw nakka ngabekdordidordi.

                                                                                                                                                                  That child has curly hair.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                • Manrakeldordidordi kadukkan kore kundulk bu kabidbun kaddum.

                                                                                                                                                                  The twining vine wraps around the tree and climbs upwards.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                Fold up, roll up, coil.

                                                                                                                                                                • Blengked karridorname.

                                                                                                                                                                  Let's fold up the blankets.

                                                                                                                                                                • Birrikurlahdaweyi kurrungbang birrikurlahkurrmi kurlahdayoy kurlahbukmeni. Wanjh birrikurlahdornami.

                                                                                                                                                                  They would put the hides out in the hot sun, where they would lie until they dried out. Then they would fold them up.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakdonabonghme

                                                                                                                                                                -dornamerren

                                                                                                                                                                  Coil up, lay in coils (e.g. a snake).

                                                                                                                                                                1With, accompanied by, together with, including.

                                                                                                                                                                • Birrikakrey duruk dorrengh birrirey birrikebkani duruk nomi ngalbu ngarrbek wanjh birrinani birrimangi ngalbu ngarrbek birrikani kured.

                                                                                                                                                                  They would go out at night with a dog, which would smell out an echidna and they would see the echidna it and take it home.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                • Ngad dorreng.

                                                                                                                                                                  Us and everyone else.

                                                                                                                                                                • Donald dorrengh birrirey school.

                                                                                                                                                                  They all went to school, Donald too.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                2Using, with. Indicates the instrument used to carry out an action.

                                                                                                                                                                • Bu kabirridowen daluk bininj wurdwurd wanjh mandubang kunworr kabirrimang kabirrirurrkwolngwon kundolng dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                  If people die, women, men or children, then people get ironwood leaves and use them to ritually cleanse their house with smoke.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                3With, having, possessing, wearing etc.

                                                                                                                                                                • Delek birribarurreni nawu bininj daluk wurdwurd birriborrkkeyi delek dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                  Men, women and children would smear themselves with white clay and dance covered in white clay.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                • Lobmeng kunnalk dorrengh nalkbuni bu lobmi. Djahdjallobmeng benmarnebebmeng namud ngalengarre.

                                                                                                                                                                  She was running with tears in her eyes, crying as she ran. She kept running until she came to her family.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                GrammarThis is used in similar senses to 'with' in English, and can mean together with ('with his dog'), using ('speared the fish with a spear') or having/possessing/wearing etc ('meat with lots of fat').

                                                                                                                                                                1Drag.

                                                                                                                                                                • Mongerrk benbenebom daluk bokenh wanjh benbenekukdahkendoy kore baladjdji nawu yibarlirrng wanjh benbenedorrorrkeyi.

                                                                                                                                                                  Mongerrk hit the two women, put them in his string bag and was pulling them along.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                2Tow (eg. a truck).

                                                                                                                                                                • Yidjare marnedorrorrke Bridge Autos?

                                                                                                                                                                  Do you want me to tow you to Bridge Autos?

                                                                                                                                                                  (Evans, Nicholas (ed.), How to write Kundjeyhmi, prepared for the National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Gagudju Association.)

                                                                                                                                                                3Lead around.

                                                                                                                                                                • Yekke wanjh kayawdorrorrke kawohre.

                                                                                                                                                                  In the cool dry season the adult (emu) leads the chicks around.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus : Indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 14)

                                                                                                                                                                4Tell a long story.

                                                                                                                                                                • Yiman kabirriwoknan kabirridorrorrke Namayhkurdihwarr Kundedjwarre kabirriwokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                  Just like when they sing out to the ancestors they tell a long story in Kundedjwarre clan lect and use the word Namayhkurdihwarr.

                                                                                                                                                                1Be sick, ill.

                                                                                                                                                                • Ngaye kebdjined ngadoweni.

                                                                                                                                                                  I was sick with a head cold.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                2Die.

                                                                                                                                                                • Kunubewu benedarrkid. Kunubewu benedoweng.

                                                                                                                                                                  Maybe the two of them are alive. Maybe they're dead.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University )

                                                                                                                                                                3Diminish, recede. Used in various constructions where something 'shrinks down to nothing', e.g. the moon waning, water receding, a sore healing.

                                                                                                                                                                • Dird karrowen.

                                                                                                                                                                  The moon is waning.

                                                                                                                                                                4Laugh hard, "die laughing".

                                                                                                                                                                • Karrowen nakka.

                                                                                                                                                                  He's really laughing hard.

                                                                                                                                                                5Crave something.

                                                                                                                                                                • Bakki ngarridowen.

                                                                                                                                                                  We're starving for tobacco.

                                                                                                                                                                • Ngakombukdowen.

                                                                                                                                                                  My throat is dry.

                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakngarirrihme

                                                                                                                                                                -dowerren

                                                                                                                                                                  Die in large numbers.

                                                                                                                                                                -mokdowen

                                                                                                                                                                  Sore heals.

                                                                                                                                                                -bodowen

                                                                                                                                                                  Water recedes.

                                                                                                                                                                Fire a gun, cause to explode.

                                                                                                                                                                • Nangale dowkkeng?

                                                                                                                                                                  Who fired that shot?

                                                                                                                                                                • Nakudji birrikorndowkkeng wanjh mimborledmeng doweng.

                                                                                                                                                                  They kicked one in the groin [busted his balls], his eyes rolled and he collapsed.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Iyuna, James, 'Birriburrinj', Maningrida, N.T.: Maningrida Community Education Centre, 1990.)

                                                                                                                                                                • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey kore kudjorlok manlabbarl birrinani djakarna kangun djenj wanjh birridanjbuni djalakkiradj dja bolkkime mako karridulubun karridowkke manbu balanda marnbom.

                                                                                                                                                                  In the old days, people would go down to the billabongs and see jabirus eating fish, and they would spear them with multi-pronged spears. But these days we shoot them with guns, we fire guns made by non-Indigenous people.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                Explode, the discharging of a gun, the bursting of a balloon.

                                                                                                                                                                  -biddowkme

                                                                                                                                                                    clap hands

                                                                                                                                                                  -djulngdowkme

                                                                                                                                                                    Raise dust, cause an 'eruption' of dust.

                                                                                                                                                                  Father-in-law; especially reciprical referent term for uncle and nephew when they are in an actual or classificatory in-law relationship but also MMM(B) and (Z)DDS; FFM(B) and (Z)SSS. Amongst dialect groups the class of kin designated as doydoy can vary. In Kundjeyhmi it includes FFM, FMF and MFF.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Manu Kudjaborrng wanjh kumekke bibayeng ngalyuhyungki doydoy ngaldurlmangkarr.

                                                                                                                                                                    Kudjaborrng is the place where the ancestral woman my MMM a Durlmnagkarr clanswoman was bitten by the Oenpelli python.

                                                                                                                                                                  1Dense, blocked, impeding passage.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngakebdubbe.

                                                                                                                                                                    My nose is blocked.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Manberrkdubbe.

                                                                                                                                                                    Dense forest, difficult to walk through.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Kawarddedubbe.

                                                                                                                                                                    Rough dissected sandstone country with many large boulders making travel very difficult or impossible.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngadjarlandubbe.

                                                                                                                                                                    I am unable to urinate. [djarlan 'bladder’ dubbe 'blocked']

                                                                                                                                                                  2Dysfunction of physical or sensory faculty.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Yikanemdubbe!

                                                                                                                                                                    Can't you hear?

                                                                                                                                                                  • Yiberddubbe!

                                                                                                                                                                  See alsomirrhdubbe

                                                                                                                                                                  Grammar'Dubbe' has a similar range of meaning to 'thick' in English, which can mean both dense and impassable (a thick forest), and wide or stubby as opposed to thin and pointy (thick end of the wedge). Both of these senses lead to the idea of something being dysfunctional or lacking acuity (thick-witted, a voice thick with emotion, a thick accent).

                                                                                                                                                                  -kurrubbe

                                                                                                                                                                    In a densely forested area, in a dead-end or blocked off space.

                                                                                                                                                                  1Be unable to pass through a place, e.g. because of impenetrable rock or vegetation.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Karridubbedong minj bale karriyime.

                                                                                                                                                                    We can’t pass through, it’s impenetrable, what can we do?

                                                                                                                                                                  2Be blocked or stuck, be unable to progress with a particular issue.

                                                                                                                                                                  Synonyms-mikkendong, -ngalkwarredong

                                                                                                                                                                  • Karridubberrong yiman bolkkime karridi, karridubbedoy wanjh. Dja bu bewh wurd karribalderrehme.

                                                                                                                                                                    We don’t know which way to go at present, as we are now, we're stuck. We need to make progress.

                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                  Become dense or blocked, become dysfunctional (of physical senses); become blunt (of cutting blades).

                                                                                                                                                                  • Med, ngabengdubberranj.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hang on, I've forgotten (can't think of it).

                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngakebdubberranj.

                                                                                                                                                                    My nose is blocked.

                                                                                                                                                                  -bengdubberran

                                                                                                                                                                    Forget.

                                                                                                                                                                  Land snail, the shell of which was traditionally used to make necklaces or dog collars.

                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameFamily Camaenidae

                                                                                                                                                                  • Duberrk nawu doweni wanjh ngalng birrimarnbuni kunkomkenh nawu morlehmorlenj bu Wubarr yoy wanjh birrikomdukkarreni kore kukom bedberre wanjh birriyiborrkkeyi namekke duberrk ngalng dorrengh. Dja bu karrire manberrk karrirednan nawu djuwe karrinan nawern duberrk ngalng.

                                                                                                                                                                    When snails die and leave their shell behind, women used to make necklaces from the shells and dance with them in the Wubarr Ceremony. If we're walking around the forest, we sometimes see lots of snail shells in the bower of djuwe, the Great Bowerbird

                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                  1Bury in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Nawu bininj daluk wurdyaw ngad karrikukburlerri bu bolkkime karridowen wanjh kandidudjeng kore kurorre.

                                                                                                                                                                    Nowadays when Bininj people die, men, women or children, we're buried in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                  2Plant something in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngarridudjengi manme.

                                                                                                                                                                    We used to plant vegetables.

                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkamukke

                                                                                                                                                                  Puncture, make a hole in something, penetrate.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Kukmey kunj mudkinjeng. Wanjh njamduhkeng mey kundurddu kundiw kundayken dja mannjam.

                                                                                                                                                                    He took the kangaroo and singed its fur off. Then he opened up its belly, taking out its heart, liver, kidneys and stomach.

                                                                                                                                                                    (Maralngurra, Dolly, 'Bininj Yameng Kunj', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                                                                                                  Punctured (eg. a tyre), have a hole, container with leakage.

                                                                                                                                                                    1Tie up, wrap with string/rope or cloth, tie a knot.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Karrimang nawu kunj karribardngorrowke karribiddukkan.

                                                                                                                                                                      We get a kangaroo and break its leg joints, then tie its limbs together (to facilitate cooking).

                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                    2Grab with arms and hold tightly, coil around (e.g. python).

                                                                                                                                                                    • Wanjh yimankek birrikuyinkelelobmerrinj Ngalyod bennanganang kunberd bendukkang rowk.

                                                                                                                                                                      Then they tried to run away in fear but the Rainbow Serpent was watching them and she wrapped her tail around them.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Carroll, Peter, 'The old people told us : verbal art in Western Arnhem Land' (Thesis), University of Queensland, 1996)

                                                                                                                                                                    3Put in handcuffs.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Balanda yimarnekarrewarrewon wanjh ngundukkan djamun.

                                                                                                                                                                      If you break the Balanda law, the police will put you in handcuffs.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakdurrbidme

                                                                                                                                                                    -dukkarren

                                                                                                                                                                      Tie something onto oneself, put something on (cloth etc), coil oneself up (snake etc).

                                                                                                                                                                    Get sick.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Minj nangale kawarddeburriwe, karrulkbakke, manme kangun dja kabongun kukku kumekke kunred. Marndi bedmanwali kabirridulkkimankan.

                                                                                                                                                                      Nobody throws rocks, breaks the trees, eats the fruit or drinks the water in that place. Otherwise they would get sick themselves [like the Ancestors who got sick there].

                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 156)

                                                                                                                                                                    1Heavy.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Wernhdulmukminj nawu mandjewk.

                                                                                                                                                                      The rain got very heavy.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                    2A complex or serious matter.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Kohbahkohbanj birriyolyolmi ngadberre, ngandimarneyimi, “Mahni mankarre mandulmuk.”

                                                                                                                                                                      The old people used to tell us, and they would say, "This is the really important Law".

                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                    3Bad, serious (illness, pain).

                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngardduk kundjak kahdulmukmen.

                                                                                                                                                                      My sickness is getting worse.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                    -kukdulmuk

                                                                                                                                                                      Pregnant, heavy with child.

                                                                                                                                                                    1Shoot, spear, penetrate, pierce.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Birrihdulubuni nawu nganabbarru djarrang dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                      They would shoot the buffalo from horseback.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                    • Dengedulubom.

                                                                                                                                                                      Punctured tyre/foot.

                                                                                                                                                                    2Flow into, intersect (of watercourses).

                                                                                                                                                                    • Madjanngalkkubeh Yidakdakbeh kawanjdjadduluburren kure Djabulu.

                                                                                                                                                                      [Heading upstream] from Madjanngalkku and Yidakdak there is a confluence of small tributaries at Djabulu.

                                                                                                                                                                    Beetle, various kinds of scarab beetles and darkling beetles.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Birndu kangun dumdum dja yehyeng nawu kayo kare kore kukku kukadjid dja kore kubuk.

                                                                                                                                                                      The glossy ibis eats beetles and all kinds of things that live in the water, the sand and the shallows.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKune= manwurrkeng

                                                                                                                                                                    1Sooty grunter, also known as black bream.

                                                                                                                                                                    Scientific nameHephaestus fuliginosus

                                                                                                                                                                    • Dunbuhmanj nakka kanjkimuk kanjmak bu ngarringun.

                                                                                                                                                                      The black bream has a lot of meat on it, it's good eating.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                    2Jenkins' grunter.

                                                                                                                                                                    Scientific nameHephaestus jenkinsi

                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKundedjnjenghmi syn.= nakerdmi, Kundjeyhmi= nakerdmi, kalarrk

                                                                                                                                                                      Speak roughly, swear, get angry with someone, scold.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kunwarre benhmarneyimi bedberre, benhdungi bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                        He used to talk hard to them, go crook at them.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                      See alsoyiddung.

                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalak-ngangarrbun

                                                                                                                                                                      -durren

                                                                                                                                                                        Argue with each other.

                                                                                                                                                                      Really, actual, 'really one', proper.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Wurdurd ngurrina ngaleng kabengkan kaborrkke duninj.

                                                                                                                                                                        Look you kids she knows how to dance the proper way.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Woybukki duninj

                                                                                                                                                                        Really true.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Korroko duninjh.

                                                                                                                                                                        In the distant past, in the old days, in the Ancestral past

                                                                                                                                                                      Go back, return.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Yimdurnde!

                                                                                                                                                                        Come back here!

                                                                                                                                                                      • Korroko birridurndi.

                                                                                                                                                                        They've already gone back.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Minj karridurndeng wanjh.

                                                                                                                                                                        There's no turning back [we need to go forward, make these ideas happen].

                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalak-warnduyhme

                                                                                                                                                                      GrammarIn Kune dialect, there is no use of the directional'-m-' marker as in Kunwinjku and Kuninjku. Thus, in Kune, yidurnde! may mean either 'come back' or 'go back'. The meaning is made clear by the context.

                                                                                                                                                                      -yirrurndeng

                                                                                                                                                                        Take or bring someone back, take or bring something back for someone.

                                                                                                                                                                      1Return, take back, throw back.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngarrbenbenedurndiweng kured.

                                                                                                                                                                        We took the two of them back home.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                                                                                                      2Give back, return ownership to someone.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Manbu Adjumarllarl nawu bininj kabirriwohrnan, wanjh birridurndiweng bu mandjewk 2012 ni, ba bu bedman bininj kabirrikarrme, dja kabirrinahnan, minj mak kabirriyawoyhnahnan nawu Shire.

                                                                                                                                                                        The Adjumarllarl store is managed by Aboriginal people, it was retured to them in 2012 so that they could run it themselves. The Shire won't be running it any more.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015 )

                                                                                                                                                                      3Rewind (cassette player).

                                                                                                                                                                      • Yidurndiwemen kunkudji karribekkan.

                                                                                                                                                                        Rewind it and let's listen to it one more time.

                                                                                                                                                                      Argue, shout at each other.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Njalekenh birridurrinj?

                                                                                                                                                                        What were they fighting about?

                                                                                                                                                                      See alsodung

                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakngarnarrbonghmerren

                                                                                                                                                                      Pull out, pull off, pluck.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Bu korroko ni bininj ngad karrikukburlerri birridjareni mankung wanjh birrirey birridjuhmi kore mankabo birridalkdurrkmangi kore mankod kore Wakkewakken wanahwam.

                                                                                                                                                                        In the old days when Aboriginal people like us wanted bush honey, they would go into the river and pull out water weeds near the base of paperbark trees where the Wakkewakken spirits resided [an increase ritual].

                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                      1Tug, short pull.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kundulk ngadedjmaddurrkme.

                                                                                                                                                                        I'll pull out the trees by the roots.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Carroll, Peter, 'The old people told us : verbal art in Western Arnhem Land' (Thesis), University of Queensland, 1996)

                                                                                                                                                                      2Attempt to obtain someone as a companion.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Wardi yirrurrkmen Kamarrang.

                                                                                                                                                                        Try and get Kamarrang to go with you.

                                                                                                                                                                      Work.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngaye ngahdurrkmirri Katherine ngahdjirridjbuni mako ngabenhmarnedurrkmirri army.

                                                                                                                                                                        I was working in Katherine cleaning guns, working for the army.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                      Dog, camp dog, wild dog (as opposed to dingo).

                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameCanis familiaris

                                                                                                                                                                      • Waw, nganbayeng duruk!

                                                                                                                                                                        Ah, the dog bit me!

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kabirrire kabirribekkan kangokme duruk bu kangalke, ngalekke ngarrbek.

                                                                                                                                                                        They walk along and hear the dog bark when it finds an echidna.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Manakgu, Andrew, 'Nakudji wurdyaw bibayeng duruk', in 'Kunwinjku Stories', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre 1982)

                                                                                                                                                                      • Korroko duruk birrikebkani, nomi nawu kalawan, birribuni.

                                                                                                                                                                        In the old days they used to take a dog when they went hunting, it would sniff out a goanna and they would kill it.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakdjungdjungh

                                                                                                                                                                      One of the two patrilineal moiety names, the other being yirridjdja.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kubolkduwa bukka.

                                                                                                                                                                        That place is associated with the Duwa moiety.

                                                                                                                                                                        (John Mawurndul in ''I am the old and the new': the stories behind the masterworks of John Mawurndjul', www.theguardian.com, 10/07/2018.)

                                                                                                                                                                      Powdered form of a substance.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Delek nakka kukbele ngarrimang duyh yika nguk ngarrimang.

                                                                                                                                                                        We can collect white clay when it’s dried out and powdery, and also when it’s wet.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                      Let’s, how about it.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kab ngarre ngarrnan

                                                                                                                                                                        Let’s go and have a look

                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 148)

                                                                                                                                                                      Plain country, open area, floodplain.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngad kabbal konda warddeyak.

                                                                                                                                                                        We are plains people, there is no stone country here.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Wanjh daluhdaluk kabirrimang kubba bedberre wanjh kabbal kabirrire kabirriyawan ngalmangiyi kabirrimang.

                                                                                                                                                                        Then women take their turtling sticks and go out onto the floodplain to find turtles [by poking the mud with the sticks].

                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                      Boat, generic for all kinds.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kuhni bu kunkare korroko duninjh manbu kabbala Mangkadjarra birrimwam nawu Malayu birribidbom wadjbud kore Nalaberrberr dja mak kore kubolkbubuyika wadjbud.

                                                                                                                                                                        A long time ago people came here by boat from Macassar, those Malay people arrived on the beach at Nalaberrberr and other beaches too.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                      Etymologyfrom Macassarese k·ppala? 'boat'

                                                                                                                                                                      See alsowubbunj

                                                                                                                                                                      Resin from ironwood tree roots used to haft axeheads to handles and spear points to their shafts (as well as other uses). The roots of the ironwood tree Erythrphloeum chlorostachys are dug up and broken off. They are then heated over a fire and the resin or gum will exude. The exudate is collected on a stick or rock until it has been exhausted. The resin is highly toxic and the extraction is conducted away from domestic areas.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Nahni kabbay, kabirrimang kore kundulkbarndad beh, mandubang kundulk. Wanjh kabirriwirrkme, yerreh wanjh kabirrikinje kore kunak bu kabelebelbme kabirrimarnbun yiman kayime borndok, karramalk, dja wirlam.

                                                                                                                                                                        Ironwood resin is extracted from the roots of the ironwood tree. People scrape the bark off, then heat the wood over a fire [until the resin comes out]. They use it to stick things together, for example in making spearthrowers, stone axes, and bark rafts.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                      1Sleepy cod.

                                                                                                                                                                      Synonymskodjkewarre

                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameOxyeleotris lineolata

                                                                                                                                                                        2Flathead goby.

                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymsmilhbalabala

                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameGlossogobius giuris

                                                                                                                                                                        • Manih bus kamrlobme manu mankebkabbungurr.

                                                                                                                                                                          The bus is coming, the vehicle with the flat front (literally "with a nose like a goby").

                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakngandjakberberh

                                                                                                                                                                        Green ant. Symbol or totem of the matry (kunkoymud) yarriwurrkarr.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Kunkare bu bininj ngad daluk dja wurdwurd bu kundjak benmangi yiman kebdjirned, wanjh birrirey birrinani kabo wanjh birrimangi birrikani kukku birridjuhkeyi birribonguni wanjh birrimakmeni.

                                                                                                                                                                          In the old days, when any Bininj man, woman or child was sick with something like a cold, then they would go looking for green ants, put them in water and drink the mixture and then they’d get better.

                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngarradj nawu kabo nakka, Yarriwurrkkarr, yiman kayime ngad.

                                                                                                                                                                          The white corella is from the Green Ant matry, Yarriwurrkkarr, just like us.

                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku= bodbang

                                                                                                                                                                        See alsoyarriwurrkarr

                                                                                                                                                                        Us (you 3+ and me), ours (3+).

                                                                                                                                                                          1Up high, at the top, up, above, in the sky.

                                                                                                                                                                            2Loudly.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Kaddum yiwokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                              Talk loudly.

                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakkadwohka

                                                                                                                                                                            1Chase.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Kambirlikadjung birndu.

                                                                                                                                                                              The mosquitoes are attracted to the light.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Karribolhkadjung.

                                                                                                                                                                              Let's follow this track.

                                                                                                                                                                            2Follow in fashion or custom.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngarrbenyikadjung marradjirikenh.

                                                                                                                                                                              We follow their custom of the Marradjiri ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                            3Used idiomatically in constructions referring to labour and labour pain during childbirth. The person is the object of the verb.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Kabikadjung.

                                                                                                                                                                              She is in labour.

                                                                                                                                                                              (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                                            -kadjurren

                                                                                                                                                                              Follow one another, be of the same tribe.

                                                                                                                                                                            Ackowledgement of receipt, said on being given something.

                                                                                                                                                                              In, to, at. Locative suffix.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Kondakah.

                                                                                                                                                                                On this side.

                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKune, Kuninjku

                                                                                                                                                                              -bokenhkah

                                                                                                                                                                                Two times, twice.

                                                                                                                                                                              -danjbikkah

                                                                                                                                                                                Three times.

                                                                                                                                                                              North.

                                                                                                                                                                                Mother's mother and reciprocal MM,MMB,ZDD,ZDS,FF and also possibly MMBSD, MMBSS. In some dialects of Bininj Kunwok, this term can also refer to one’s FF(Z) and reciprocal.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Term of reference or address for someone in a cross-cousin spouse or spouse's sibling class who is an actual or intended in-law. Kinship classes include certain cross-cousins (FZC, MBC) or second cross cousin (e.g. MMBDD/MFZDS, FFZSD/FMBSS, also a FZDDD/MMMBS).

                                                                                                                                                                                    -kakkalihme

                                                                                                                                                                                      Call someone 'kakkali'.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Colour, or colour producing substances such as natural dye plants used for weaving.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kala makka kabirrimang kundulkbarndad manbu mandjurndum, dja mandjum wirdilwirdil, dja mak wirndilk, mandjum dja manmim. Wanjh kabirrikinje kunngobarn dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                      People get dye colour from the roots of the Pogonolobus reticulatus bush, from the bulb of Haemadorum brevicauli grasses and also Haemodorum coccineum, bulb and seeds. Then they cook these things up with pandanus [to dye it].

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                    • "Line" kakarrme kure kunngarlabak. Kangarlabakyirriyo kala kala.

                                                                                                                                                                                      [The short-eared rock wallaby] has a line running along its cheeks. The [fur] colour alternates along the cheeks.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Etymologyfrom English ‘colour’.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Oxeye herring, tarpon.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Scientific nameMegalops cyprinoides

                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKuninjku= warlkkarrah

                                                                                                                                                                                      Eastern curlew (may also include grey plover and oriental plover).

                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameNumenius madagascariensis

                                                                                                                                                                                        1Gould's Sand Monitor.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameVeranus gouldii

                                                                                                                                                                                          2Generic term for all goannas.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakmayawurlhwurl

                                                                                                                                                                                            Male wallaroo or euro.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameMacropus robustus

                                                                                                                                                                                              See alsosee wolerrk

                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalaknjamlurruk

                                                                                                                                                                                              1After, later, afterwards.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kaluk yerre (Kunwinjku) / kaluk rerre (Kuninjku).

                                                                                                                                                                                                Later, after.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kaluk nan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                See you later.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bu korroko duninjh nawu karrkkanj nakka bininjni kaluk yerre mayhmayh yimerranj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                A long time ago the Brown Falcon used to be a man, he only became a bird afterwards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                              2Then, and then.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Morlehmorlenj bindikani nawu nanikud kore kabbal birriwohrey birridalknguni. Kaluk bu wolewoleh bindikani bindingimowoni kore yard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Women used to take the goats onto the floodplain to eat grass. Then in the afternoon they would herd them back into the yards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                              3And, but. Used in senses where one piece of information is added to another, or follows from another. 'And furthermore'.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nahni kunj kangeyyo ngorlomorroh, kaluk kadi yiman kayime kore kubolkdarleh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                That kangaroo is called "ngorlomorroh" (Northern nail-tail wallaby), and it lives in dry areas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kaluk bu dungyibmeng, wanjh benekaymi beneyimi 'Nakomdudj, Nakomdudj' kaluk minj benkaymimayi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Then when the sun was setting, they started calling out 'Nakomdudj, Nakomdudj' but he didn't call back to them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Karrkanj Yimerranj’ in ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T, 2005, p. 88)

                                                                                                                                                                                              -kalukburrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                After that.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Coconut.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Etymologyfrom Makassarese kal˙ku 'coconut'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Small crab species.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kabarlekidyo kambuk djang kayo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  At Kabarlekidyo there is a kambuk crab sacred site.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1Pregnant.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskarrulmuk, kayawkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kamerlem yaw dorreng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  She's pregnant (with a child).

                                                                                                                                                                                                2Ready to open, about to open (of buds, seed pods etc).

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kamerlem wanjh kadangmarrhmire.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  [The bud] grows large and then opens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                See alsokunmerlem

                                                                                                                                                                                                Take or carry. When used with -m, i.e. ngamkan, yimkan etc. it means 'bring' towards the speaker.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • A: Yidjare marnekan? B: Bonj, kamak, ngakan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  A: Do you want me to take it for you? B: No, it's OK, I'll take it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Dolobbo kabirridadjke kabirrimkan kore Injalak Arts Centre kumekke kabirribimbun kabirriweykan kabenwon kunwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  They cut bark and bring it to Injalak Arts Centre, where they paint it and get money for it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalak-yirrolkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                Grammarpast perf.=kang, past imperf.= kayi

                                                                                                                                                                                                --mkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                  bring

                                                                                                                                                                                                From a place.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bininj nawu nakang kondah kunred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  A local Indigenous person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015)

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kebkuyeng kumoken, ngahbimbom. Nakang kondanj Kubumi, Kabarrebarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  I’ve painted the freshwater crocodile, the one with the long snout. It is from a site here at Kubumi and Kabarrebarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Mick Kubarkku, interview with Margie West and Murray Garde, Yikarrakkal Outstation, 1994)

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nawu wayarra nakka namarnde mam ngarringeybun. Wayarra kabirriyime kabirringeybun nawu bininj birrikang koyek nawu nahni ngad Kunwinjku karriwokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  'Wayarra' is a bad spirit. Our word for it is 'mam', but 'wayarra' is what other Kunwinjku speaking people from the east call it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                1Pregnant.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskayawkan, kamerlem

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Full.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kadjalbodelengkurrme kabongerdkendi wanjh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    The water goes in until it is full.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3Carry in belly, said when the Rainbow Serpent or other mythological beings swallow people and carry them inside themselves. When people participate in a ceremony they are also seen as being carried in the belly of the Rainbow Serpent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngarduk mawa bu ngarriwam yibengkan bu Kunabibi ngerdkenyoy ngarriwam Namimkabo mani kunrurrk ngarriyoy, kunrurrk. Ngarriyoy kunkare ngarriwam Kunabibi ngerdkenyoy ngarriyikani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    My father’s father came with us here when we slept in this cave here at Namimkabo when we were travelling as part of the Kunabibi, taking the ceremony a long time ago. [literally: the Kunabibi was pregnant with us, i.e. the Rainbow Serpent holds the ceremony participants in her belly when they participate in the ceremony]

                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jimmy Kalarriya)

                                                                                                                                                                                                  -ngerdkendadjme

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Become full, fill up entirely.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nephew or niece, a man's ZS, ZD.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKuninjku, Kune

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Down, below, lower down.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wurdurd kanjdji, ngurrikengemen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                      You boys look down (at the ground) and be fearful.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Inside.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dulklorrkkelorrkken daluk, ngalkanemkuyeng, kururrk kayo. Kurrulk, kadjalyo bu kurrulk kawodjbakme yibengkan kayo kanjdjikanjdjibeh nomo kurrulk, kanjdjikanjdji kurrulk bu kayo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The dulklorrkkelorrkken female spirit being has long ears and she lives inside. She lives in the tree, such as a tree which has a broken trunk, you know, she sleeps inside the tree, not up in it, but inside the hollow log.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3Downstream, lowlands, area towards the coast or lower down in a drainage basin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Synonymskilhken

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkilhken

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lowlands, down near a water course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Yimankek bu wolewoleh yimerrangeni ngarrirey wanjh kanjdjikanjdji kunukka kore njamed manlabbarl kunekke djenj ngarrirey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sometimes in the afternoons we would go down to the billabong, we would go fishing there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Brother-in-law, wife, husband, sister-in-law, MBD, MBS, MMBDS, MMBDD.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Generic term for spiders.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nawu wurdyaw bolknang kahwake kardab kore kakkak keyohkeyoy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The child looked around and saw a spider crawling around where his grandmother was sleeping.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Mangiru, Faith, ‘Kakkak dja Wurdyaw Benewam Mankinjdjek’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, 1976)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Spider's web.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Snare or catch up OBJ.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kunyarl ngandengekardmey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            The fishing line caught up my foot.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wakkidj dulkkardmey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            The fishing line caught up/entangled the tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Maybe, perhaps, 'I don't know' (said in a high falling tone).

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bolkki nganmarneyimeng, "Ngamre kure ngudda." Kare kurrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Today he said,"I'll come over to your place." Maybe he was lying.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Old (of objects or things).

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Marla kayo kore kunmarlaworr manwern kayo dja kore mandulkkare karridulkwayhke karrinan marla kahyo dja kore kunkod mankare kabirribawon wanjh marla kare kangimen kanjdji kayo nawu marla yika djodj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scorpions live where there are lots of leaves, and when we lift up old logs we see scorpions there. If we leave old paperbark around, then scorpions go under there and live there, scorpions or centipedes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Same one, same as just mentioned.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mani mankare rerre manu ngadjalngeybom bolkkime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            This (tree) is the same one as that which I just named just now.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          See alsokohbanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Grammartakes a pronominal prefix but in third person singular will take a noun class prefix

                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kukare

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Same place as before or as previously mentioned.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yellow or mustard-coloured ochre; also may be used to describe things similarly coloured (tan, orangey yellow, mustard colours).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Freshwater long-tom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameStrongylura kreffti

                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tadpole.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Red-tailed Black Cockatoo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scientific nameCalyptorhynchus banksii

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku= ngarnarrh, Kune= ngarnarrngh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Common tree snake.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameDendrelaphis punctulata

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Female antilopine wallaroo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scientific nameMacropus antilopinus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakngalmarndamarndayi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mud crab of salt water habitat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameScylla serrata

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngalbu karndjawarra ngalkka ngalengman kore kurrula kadjalyo. Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mud crabs just stay near the sea. At high tide, we don't see them though.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Freshwater mussel.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonymskurruk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKundjeyhmi, Kunwinjku, M.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Stone axe with hafted wooden handle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymsdadken

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngaleng kanbukkang yehyeng rowk kahbimdi karramalk kunbarlkbu kundjakkorl ngalmangiyi dja kalawan nawu karrihngun namak mayh nadjalwern.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          She [Yingarna] established and taught Aboriginal people about all aspects of our culture such as the use of axes, fire drills and edible animals such as long-necked turtles, goannas and all kinds of good edible foods.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mother, mum. This is the vocative term, used when talking to one's mother.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mother, the mother, M.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            One’s mother’s country (or mother’s brother’s country).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kore kunred Djurlka kore kubolkmayirrkulidj kunred ngaye ngayime karrardwarrekenh bukka Djodj kadjangdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              At Djurlka in Mayirrkulidj clan country, which is my mother’s country, there is a centipede sacred site.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kind of jungle vine, used for making fish traps or armbands and in recent times for the frames of pandanus sculptures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameFlagellaria indica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Long yam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymskayawal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameDioscorea transversa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Karrbarda ngarriwilkdeng wanjh ngarringun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                We cook the long yam in the ashes and then eaten.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Name of a kunborrk song series sung by Bruce and Barndanj Nabegeyo from Kunbarlanja.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bolkki kabirriborrkke karrbarda.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                They'll dance 'yam style' dances today.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakmankarremudyi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Comb crested jacana (also called lily-trotter or Jesus bird); walks on floating plants. Associated with yirridjdja moiety and the Yabburdurrwa ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymskarrekuyengkuyeng

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameIrediparra gallinacea

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Us (you 2 and me), ours (we three).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  West.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nawu benuk kadjangdi kore karrikad kore duruk bokenh benemdolkkang benemwam kunred kabolkngeyyo Benukkadjang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The bush turkey has a sacred site to the west, where the two ancestral dogs came from, a place called Benukkadjang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yidjalay karrihkarri yibebme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Keep going west and you'll get there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kune

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  'I'm just joking', used as a kind of marker for humour or 'I don't really mean it I'm just joking'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nakudji bininj kabimarneyime nabuyika bininj "Ngudda wanjh ngalih daluk yimang". Dja nawu nabuyika bininj kayime "Larrk, minj ngamang". Wanjh nungka kayime "Karriyimen malehmalel ngayimeng".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    One man said to another "You're going to get that girl". But the first man said "No, I'm not". Then the other man said "Just joking, I'm kidding around."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Higher ground, at the top, above the escarpment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Birriyibidbuni karrkad birrirerrngmangi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They would go up to higher ground (away from the floodplain) to gather firewood.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Ceremony ground. Participants in a ceremony are said to 'go up' (bidbun) to a ceremony, and the ceremony ground is said to be karrkad, a 'high place'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bu kunwok Kunwinjku ngarriyime mayh ngarriwarlbun. Dja bu ngarriyime mayh ngarrire ngarribidbun karrkad wanjh nakka kore ceremony yiman Kunabibi mandjamun manbu bininj ngadberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the Kunwinjku language, we say that we hunt mayh (animals). But when we say we’re going up to a mayh, in that case it means we’re going to a ceremony, like Kunabibi or another sacred event of ours.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Brown falcon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameFalco berigora

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kakukbame kanmilanmila kodjok, ngudda kurduk bulanj wunwunbu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The light morph of the brown falcon is called kanmilanmila but you Bulanj are the dark morph wunwunbu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Have, own, possess.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bulanj dilib yikarrme?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bulanj do you have any tea leaves?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngandimarneyimeng kunred manih nguddangke bu yiman baleh ngarridowen wanjh nguddangke kunred yiworhnan. Ya yikarrme. Ya ngurrikarrme kunekke yerre birrimarneyimeng Wamud nungka ngakerrngedi wanjh young yimeyimeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They said to me that this place belongs to me and that "when we should die, then you have to look after this place. You will own it. You all hold onto it after," they said to Wamud and I was one of the new generation and Wamud was young.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Keep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Birringeybom wanjh ngarringeybekkang. Wanjh ngarringeykarrme kunngey nuye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They said the names and we heard them and so now we keep the names for it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3Hold on to.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • "Kokok, Kokok yikarrme?" "Woh, ngakarrme, ngakarrme, la yiray."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Brother, brother Are you holding on to it? Yes I've got it, I've got it, you go then.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4(man) have a child.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yibengkan Kodjok? Bale nakka kahngeyyo? Bulanj bikarrmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    You know that Kodjok? What's his name now? He has a son— Bulanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 Win (a fight etc.).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Synonymswinhme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bolkkime karrbennan kalawan dja dadbe kabeneburren wanjh kalawan kakarrme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Now when we see a goanna and a brown snake fighting, the goanna will (always) win.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakmonhme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dig, dig up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wanjh birribalwam mankuladj birrihkarungi, birrikaruy rowk, wanjh birridurndi kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Then they went further and started digging up some spike rushes. They dug them all up, then they went back home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalaklurribme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rufous Night Heron and also the sound made by this bird.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameNycticorax caledonicus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Awurd, mayh namekke ngankodjborledke Kawk Kabim Djang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    So dear to me is that bird, its call reminds me of the rufous night heron dreaming at Kawk Kabim (a place).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silver-crowned friar bird. Also the sound made by the Friar Bird.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific namePhilemon argenticeps

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cause an animal to run away in fright, startle an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nawu wirlihwirlih nakka manberrk kabirrire kabirrini karrbennan birriwern kabirridolkarren kaddum kabirrire kabirriwokkire kabirriyime wirlih wirlih wirlih bu karrbenkawon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Galahs live in open forest areas, we see them flying in big flocks up in the sky. When we startle them they fly off calling out “wirlih wirlih wirlih”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nothing, none, no.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku= burrkyak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkayakora

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Withhold from, refuse to give something to someone, deny someone something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • "Aa ngalkkan ngurribawo, ngalkkan ngurribawo. Minj ngalkka ngurriwon kunj, karrikaybun ngalengmanwali wardi kankaybun manme mandjay". "Yoh yoh bonj bonj karrikaybun, karrikaybun baw."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        "Ah, leave her, leave her. Don't give her any kangaroo. Now it's our turn not to give her because she won't give us any of the hypoxis grass". "Yeah, yeah, OK right, let's not give her any, let's not give her, quiet!"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See alsodahme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Call out to someone, yell. This word is also used when someone 'calls out to the Ancestors' when entering a country, for example when bringing a new person who has never been there before.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kakkak bikayhmi wurdyaw yimeng, "Yimray marndi namarnde ngunmang".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Grandma was calling out to the child, saying "You'd better come back here, or a Namarnde spirit will get you".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      GrammarThe direct object of the verb is the person or thing being called out to.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yours.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kunmadj ke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Your swag/clothes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Annoyingly persistent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngakohbanjminj bolkkime. Darnki ngarrowen bad Balanda nungan kebbabi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I've got old today and I could die soon but those white people are still being persistent (and coming to see me, making requests).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Spoonbill.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific namePlatalea flavipes, Platalea regia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kebbaldjurri kayawan nuye djenj kore kubuk nawu djenj kilekilelh kangun barnangarra dja kukak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The spoonbill looks for his fish in the shallow water, those small fish which he eats day and night.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Nasal mucus. Also used to refer to a cold or flu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngangadjihbun munguyh, kunubewu kebdjirned nganhmang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I keep sneezing, maybe I'm getting a cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Take dogs hunting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngakebkan mayh kure Barlbbanarra wanjh Barlbbanarra kang duruk, duruk kang djalbom mayh...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        'I'm taking the dogs hunting to Barlbbanarra', and so he took the dogs to Barlbbanarra and killed lots of game...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Birrikakrey duruk dorrengh birrirey birrikebkani duruk nomi ngalbu ngarrbek wanjh birrinani birrimangi ngalbu ngarrbek birrikani kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        They would go out hunting at night with a dog, which would smell out an echidna and they would see the echidna it and take it home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Good-looking, attractive, handsome, pretty, beautiful.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngalkebmak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An attractive woman.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      File snake (Arafura file snake, Acrochordus arafurae).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameAcrochordus arafurae

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalak1. ngaldjangarabunebune 2. ngaldjangarakerlkkerlk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cool, cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nahni Wakkewakken kabirriyo kore kundulk mankod kore kukabo kore manbokedjelk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Wakkewakken spirits live among the paperbark trees in the river, in the cold water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kedjelkmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cool down, become cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kedjelkwon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cool something down, make something cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        "Oh dear", "oh no", "Is that so?" (Said with falling tone).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngalkohbanj bidjawam, "Njalekah wanjh yihnalkbun?" Wanjh yimeng nawu namarladj, "Aba manburrangkali ngandikaybom." "Kek”, yimeng ngalbu ngalkohbanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The old woman asked him “Why are you crying?”, and the orphan boy said “Oh, they refused to give me any lily corms”. “Is that so?”, said the old lady.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Nakudji Namarladj Ngiwkmihngiwkmirey’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kek, baleh kore birrimankang?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Oh no, where did they crash?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • "Wam kuhri dja njilngwarrreminj.". "Kek, dja njalekenh njilngwarreminj?"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          "He went over that way, he's in a bad mood". "Oh no, why is he in a bad mood?"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crocodile's lair or tunnel near the water's edge (of both freshwater and estuarine crocodiles).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Afraid, scared, frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mimih minj kadi kore kuberrk bu mandjewk nakimuk kamre kakele wardi kunmayorrk kabiburriwe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A Mimih spirit doesn’t stay outside when there’s a storm, they’re afraid, the wind might blow them away.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kelemen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Become frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kelehme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scare, frighten.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Tame, domestic (of animals).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Nawu bininj dja balanda kabirrimang nawu mayh wanjh kabirrikelebukwon kakelebukmen kabirrimarnbun kelebuk mayh bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people get animals and tame them, the animals become tame and people turn them into their pets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Nakidjkidj kakarrme barrk kelebuk nuye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Nakidjkidj spirits keep black wallaroos as pets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Not easily frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kelebukmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Become tame.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kelebukwon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tame an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Be afraid, become frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Birrikeleminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They were frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ‘Oops’. Often also said when correcting something you have said, ‘I mean’, ‘Whoops I meant to say’ etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kenh ngawarrewong, ngabirliwarrewong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oops, I didn't light the fire properly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Djalbangurrk. Nabang banireyi, Wurrngiyele banireyi, ken Wurrlele.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Djalbangurrk, Nabang in Wurrngiyele I mean Wurrlele estate.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Suffix that indicates association or possession. ‘About’, ‘of’, ‘concerning’ etc. In English many of these concepts are covered by different words but in Kunwinjku the senses of ‘kenh’ are hard to seperate. It could be compared to the genitive case.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Moneykenh kabirriyidurren.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They argue about money.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mawah ngayekenh birridoweng birriyakminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My own father’s fathers [‘grandfathers of mine’] have died and gone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kabirriwernhbolbme kore kunkukbelekenh dja kunu kunkukburlerrikenh, kabindibukkan rowk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              [Kids] should learn both Balanda things and Aboriginal things properly, so they [teachers] should teach it all.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2In order to, for, for the purpose of (suffix that indicates the purpose of an action).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Benedanginj beneyerrkang benebolkkaruy kukkukenh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They stopped, sat down and started digging for water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3Suffix that can be added to adjectives, possibly as a focal marker.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • “Mamam, Djakku nawu nang nakuyengken nayin kore Wuk."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              “Grandpa, Lefty [nickname] saw a really long snake at Wuk”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (‘Lesson 15: Djurra ‘-ng’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bu kumdungbebmi ngalbadjan dja kornkumo benewam kore mankabo, kumekbe djenj nawernken rey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When the sun was going down, the mother and father went down to the river. There were lots of fish swimming around down there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Be afraid of, fearful of.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kulawuddul ngurrikengemen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              You initiates be fearful!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Soft, easy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kerlkmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Become soft.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kerlkdan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Become soft, go flat (of tyres).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Straw-necked ibis and also white ibis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameThreskiornis spinicollis, Threskiornis molucca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Cook food in a ground oven using antbed kunkerri.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kumuken namak mayh bu ngarringun. Korroko dabborrabbolk birribuni birrikerribuni wanjh birringuni wirlarrk warridj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Freshwater crocodiles are good to eat. In the old days, people would kill them, cook them in ground ovens and eat them. The eggs too.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Give someone a traditional steam bath for ritual cleansing, using wet foliage like water weeds placed over hot pieces of antbed. Logs are placed over the antbed and hot coals for the person to lie on and they are covered in paperbark. In this case there is no need to dig a pit and the fire is made on the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bu kabenmarneyawdowen wanjh ngalbadjan ngarrikerribun ba kangun nawu mayh dja djenj. Wardi kakanjwarremen bu minj ngarrikerribun ngalbu ngalbadjan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  If women have miscarriages, we have to give the mother a traditional steam bath (to cleanse her) so she can eat meat and fish again. If we don't do this, it would cause all the meat (of the animals in the area) to go bad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See alsokunkerri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                New.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mankerrnge muddikang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  New truck.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nakerrnge karrukmirri.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A new man is working.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Birrikerrhkerrnge kabirridjare konda kabirringimen kamak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  These new people, they want to come here, it's OK for them to enter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kerrngehme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Renew.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Previously, before, in recent times.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bu kerrngekenhni, nawu Shire birrinahnani store

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Previously the Shire was running the store

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sleep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskodjkeyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bonj wanjh, ngurriburnbu wurdwurd. Ngurrikeyo, karrikeyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  OK that's it, cut it out kids. Go to sleep, let's all go to sleep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Keyohkeyoy kore kudjorlok nawu nganabbarru.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The buffalo was sleeping in a hollow in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKuninjku=kodjdjeyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Under sorcery, spiritually dead though appearing still alive, doomed to die.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunkare kondanjkunu kunred ngalkudji daluk bibayeng nabang nayin yirrbardbard wanjh doweng. Minj burudjang bibayemeninj dowimeninj dja korroko kidni birridanjbom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A long time ago here at this place, a woman was bitten by a venomous snake, a taipan, and she died. It wasn’t just an accidental incident which killed her because some people had already killed her through sorcery.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wet, moist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Benekaruy benenang kakih wanjh benekarungi djarre, benekaruy benekaruy benenang kunyawurd kambobebme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  They dug and saw that the earth was moist, so they kept digging further, they dug and dug and saw some water coming out of the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Touch, take hold of something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wurdurd, yuwn ngurrikilekme mako mani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Children, don't touch this shotgun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Small, small amount, 'little bit'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cormorants eat small fish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wanjh bu ngayolyolmi munguyh birridjaldjekmi and birriwakwani med. Med nakka wurdwurd

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  As I was telling them the story they kept laughing all the time, because they didn’t know it. Now, these were very young kids.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Send word for someone to come, call someone or something to you, get someone to follow you.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngakimang Nawakadj kamhre konhda karriwokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I’m sending a message for Nawakadj come here so we can all have a discussion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bukbuk wirlarrk ngalengarre minj karrimang karriwirlarrkdjirdmang bu karrimang ngalengarre wirlarrk wanjh kahdjalwokdi munguyh wanjh mandjewk kakimang djaying bu dabborrabbolk birriyimeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We don’t steal the Pheasant Coucal’s eggs. If we take her eggs she will call out incessantly and might call up the rains, the old people told us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Big, large.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kabbala mankimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A big boat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngurrikihkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  All you big people...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Serious, significant, a lot, 'in a big way'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nawu Mamik djamun bibuni kunkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The police were really beating Mamik up badly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (‘Lesson 11: Djurra ‘i’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bolkkime kunkukbele ngimeng kunkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Now the white man’s world has arrived in a big way.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalak-korrongko

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kimukmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Become large.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kimukwon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Enlarge, make bigger.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -njamkimuk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  fat (lit. big intestines)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Salt-water crocodile.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymsnamanjwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scientific nameCrocodylus porosus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakngandjakdjalarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stars.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bu kukak dird dja kinhkinh kabenedjarrkbolkwolkan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    At night, the moon and stars bring light.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cook, burn, light up a cigarette.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kakanjkinje.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    She is cooking meat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakbobekke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -bokinje

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Boil water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pair of individuals who stand in a particular relationship of commonality with each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dabborrabbolkko

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Those two old men.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beneyidko (W), (I= Beneridko).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Those two who are always arguing with each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngeyko.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Namesake (term of address to someone with the same name).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yun kandung, nganebeyko.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Don't swear at me, we are a father-son pair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Birriyawkohyawko.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Numerous mother and child pairs (or technically, numerous adjacent generation matrilineal pairs).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plural form of ngalkohbanj and nakohbanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Synonymskobahkobanj, kobokohbanj, kobohkobanj, kohbahkohbanj, kobohbanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    GrammarThere is great variation in the plural forms of this noun which dispenses with the noun class prefix. This means the plural form no longer explicitly marks gender (i.e. a group of elderly males, females or mixed gender group).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bald.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Grey hair, old person, mature adult.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kakodjbulu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        She has grey hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Larrk, minj ngadjare nganeyo. Kodjbulu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No, I don't want to sleep with him. He's an old man (he has grey hair).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, Yirrbardbard story.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kodjbulumen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Get grey hair, go grey, enter middle age.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      To become sullen, dejected, sulky, offended and uncommunicative.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wanjh benedurreni. Wanjh nawu Djakku kodjdjobmeng, bimarneyimeng, "Minj kankimang yerreyerreh…”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        So they argued. Then Lefty got offended and told him "You're not taking me any further…”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 24-27)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      'Sleepy', a way to refer to someone who sleeps late. Literally means 'sleeping-bad', so it can also mean 'unable to sleep'. Also a way of referring to animals which are inactive or 'sleepy' for long periods, such as the sleepy cod (Oxyeleotris lineolata) or the death adder (Acanthiphis praelongus).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngoyongoyo kakodjkeyo djaddi. Kakodjkewarre, kabirrimerlemyembun (Kuninjku).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The ngoyongoyo frog is a sleeping frog. It is a sleepyhead (ie. it hibernates), they rub their bellies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kodjkewarreni

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sleep in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kodjkewarremen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sleep in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1An upright and good person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2A religious follower, member of the clergy, a pious person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Be born (baby).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Synonyms-rrolkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngudda bale yikodjngalmeng?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ngaye karrkad ngakodjngalmeng kore Dalabon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • I was born up in the escarpment country, on Dalabon land.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Older brother (address and referent), EB.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Go down, descend.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yikolu warde yimankan!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Get down from there or you'll fall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Return to camp after leaving a place of ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Lift or carry something down, take down, throw down.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rapunzel yimmudkoluyhwerrimen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rapunzel, throw down your hair!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Have dry throat, be thirsty.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An initiate or person newly introduced to ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cattle egret. This name refers to all of the white egrets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameArdea alba, Ardea ibis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunngey kakarrme danjbik bu ngarringeybun. Komorlo kabakaba dja dabberkk dja ngaldjalkudji ngalbu mayhmayh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    It has three names that we call it by. Komorlo, kabakaba and dabberrk, but they all refer to the same bird.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku= kabakaba

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Here.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Konda yimray kornbayeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Come here my friend.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Feel compassion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngayi kongibun ngudda.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I feel sorry for you.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Young catfish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wurdyaw wam kukabo kamang konjkonj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The child has gone to the river and is catching little catfish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Konjkonj kadjordmen kayimerran manmakkawarri.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Konjkonj [baby catfish] grow up into big catfish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Green tree frog, also generic for all frogs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameLitorea caerulea

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On, at, in, to, where.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wurrmarninj kadjordmen kore kabbal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The red lily grows on floodplains.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dolobbo kabirridadjke kabirrimkan kore Injalak Arts Centre kumekke kabirribimbun kabirriweykan kabenwon kunwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They cut bark and take it to Injalak Arts Centre, where they paint it and get money for it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngahli mayh kangeyyo kulabakku kunmud ngalengarre ngalmudburlerri dja kukom kore kakombele.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The bird which we call kulabakku (the Pied Heron, Egretta picata) has black feathers, but white on its neck.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Manbu kunmuluru ngarriyime makka ngarringeybun kundulk kore kunbalak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ‘Kunmuluru’ is what we call grass in mother-in-law language.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mandjimdjim kadjordmen kore kukku kaboyo kore mankabo manwanjdjad manlabbarl.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mandjimdjim (water pandanus) grows where there is water, by rivers, creeks and billabongs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Male antilopine kangaroo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scientific nameMacropus antilopinus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      daughter, son (address term used by F)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -korlonjhme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Call someone 'korlonj'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nakonamkuyeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          He is tall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nungka nawu Wurrakkak nakka nakuyengni kornnamkuyengni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          That man Wurrakkak was big and tall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An expression of affection used after someone is impressed with a particular action or as a term of endearment. It has no rude or vulgar connotation as the literal meaning may suggest. One informant gave the gloss 'friend'. It can also be used as an expression of happiness (eg. excitement after a successful hunt)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A:Ngayi ngare djarre, kaluk ngamdurndeng. B:Ya, yimdurnde, yikornbayeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          I'm going a long way away, but after I'll come back. Yes, my friend, you come back.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wabwabmeng, konda, konda, konda kundjangmelmeng drrr murrngbakkeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          He snuck up further, further, further, poised to spear and drrr he broke its bone (kangaroo). Yipee, yipee, yipee (I've speared it).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Referent term for someone else's father.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nakkan kornkumo nuye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          That is his father.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Agile wallaby.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameMacropus agilis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          See alsosee warradjangkal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalaknjamdjorrhdjorrh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Previously, in the past, a long time ago.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dja korroko dabborrabbolk birrimarnbuni mandjabu wanjh birridjuhkeyi kore kukku manlabbarl yika kore mankabo wanjh djenj ngimi birrimangi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            And in the past, the old people would make fish traps, put them in the water in a billabong or river, the fish would go in and them they would get them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Korroko duninjh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In the distant past, in the old days, in the Ancestral past

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bu korroko duninjh nawu karrkkanj nakka bininjni kaluk yerre mayhmayh yimerranj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A long time ago the Brown falcon used to be a man, he only became a bird afterwards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Already, before

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Burrkyak, minj korroko ngunnayi, djalbolkkime bu kerrngekkenh duninj ngunkuknan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No, she hasn’t seen you before, she’s going to see you in person for the first time now.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Manakgu, Andrew et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3For a while, for a long time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wanjh benebidbom kured kumekbe benekinjeng rowk, benemadbom korroko, wanjh benewayhkeng benenguneng dja yikahwi bindiwonowong kohbakohbanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Then the two of them went back up home and put all of them [the fish] on the fire, waited for a while, pulled them out and ate them, and also gave some to the old people.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kumekbe benehburrinj benedjalkudji. Beneburrinj korroko. Kaluk ngalkudji djakbekkang, wanjh rlobmeng kore kured, bimarneyimeng ngalbadjan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They fought there, just the two of them. They were fighting for a while. Then one of them got hurt, and ran home and told her mother.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          To deceive, trick, lie to someone, play a joke on someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Woybukkih yimarneyolyolme, yuwn mak yikowe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Be honest with him, don’t mislead him.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kayakki, djalohkoweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            It's nothing, I was only having you on.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          East.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Koyekbeh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            From the east, easterners.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In, on, to, at. Ku- is prefixed to nouns to indicate locations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kururrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Inside (literally, in the enclosed space).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kukun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On the right hand side.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kuwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Escarpment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kudjarnngal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Place near Manmoyi outstation, site of white clay delek in the bank of a creek. The placename literally means 'in the fork of the branch'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          'Bite the line!'; said after throwing in a fishing line to anticipate a fish taking the bait.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crowbar, metal digging stick, metal turtling stick. This could literally be a crowbar, or a digging stick fashioned from metal such as concrete reinforcing wire.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko birrikarungi kunbalkbu dja bolkkime kubba wirlmurrng nawu balanda marnbom kabirrikarung karrbarda nawu daluk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In the old days women used to dig with wooden digging sticks, but now they dig for long yams with metal digging sticks made from non-Indigenous materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wanjh daluhdaluk kabirrimang kubba bedberre wanjh kabbal kabirrire kabirriyawan ngalmangiyi kabirrimang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Then women take their turtling sticks and go out onto the floodplain to find turtles [by poking the mud with the sticks].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Etymologyfrom English ‘crowbar’

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakwalamurru

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bee species and related honey. The honey is found high up in trees, and has an orange or light brown colour. The hive has a long entrance tube (kebkuyeng).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bu mankung ngarriyime ngarringeybun nawern dja kangeyyo kunngeywern. Nabiwo kardderre kubbulak ngarringun yiwk dja mandabu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We have lots of different names for different types of honey. There's nabiwo, kardderre and kubbulak, and we eat the honey and pollen sacs from all of them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Daluk bokenh benewam beneyawani mankung, wanjh benengalkeng kubbulak kore kundulk. Benedulkngadji, wanjh benemonbuhmeng beneyiwkmey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Two women went looking for honey, and found some kubbulak honey in a tree. They cut open the tree and got the honey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dugout canoe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nawakadj dja Nabulanj benewam djenj benehdanjbuni kubbunj benehkani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Nawakadj and Nabulanj went spearing fish with a canoe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj Dja Nabulanj Benewam Djenj’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Outside.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kabirrikaberrkdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They are all outside

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Behind, on the back of, on the reverse side of.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wanjh nakudji yimeng njalekenh manbu mankole ngarrburriwe kamdurndeng kadjabdan kore kubodme ngarrku. Wanjh bu benebalwam djarrehwurd benenang ngalbu Ngalyod kahyo wanjh benedurndi kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              One of them said “Why does the spear end up landing behind us when we throw it?”. Then when they went a little further they saw that the Rainbow Serpent was there, and they went home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yika karrinan kabenkadjung mayh bulikki nganabbarru dja djarrang karrinan kabarndi kore kubodme bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sometimes we see them [egrets] following animals like bulls, buffalo or horses, or sitting on their backs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On the left hand side, to the left.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kumekke kunred manbelk karri kore kukun, dja kore kudjakku karri marrunj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In that place there is pandanus on the right, and on the left there are palm trees (Hydriastele ramsayi).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wet season.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Self, by oneself, alone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ngudda yikudji yimwam?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Did you come by yourself?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2A few, not many.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ngarrikudji ngarriwam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Only a few of us went.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3One, a.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kuni kunkare nakudji bininj wam kabbal, kani bokenh mankole dja borndok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                One day a long time ago a man went to the floodplain, he was carrying two spears and a spearthrower.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4Again, one more time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kunkudji ngurriborrkkemen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dance one more time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5Only, just.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mandjimdjim minj karri kore manberrk, mankudji karrinan karri manbelk manwern kore manberrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Water pandanus doesn’t grow in open forest areas, we just see lots of ordinary pandanus (Pandanus spiralis) in the open forest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              GrammarKudji is always prefixed with the appropriate prefix (man-, na-, yi- etc) for the noun being described.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Place and leave forever, be done with something (e.g. a painting), place forever as a 'Dreaming' as in creation times.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bonj wanjh benbom bonj benkudjihmeng, bonj, kamak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Then he killed them and left them there forever, the end.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Raw.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Birringuni dolek kuk yika birriwilkdengi kore kuwilk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                People would eat wood grubs raw, or cook them in the hot coals under ashes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Incorporated noun meaning ‘money, funding, cash’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kan-kukwo!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Give me some money!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Body, shape, human form (as incorporated noun).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3Fruit, tuber (as incorporated noun).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kukmarnbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Make a profit, make money.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kukbidbuyhwe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Raise the price of something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kukkoluyhwe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lower the price of something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kukwarrawarrhke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Knock down fruit from a tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kukdangen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grow fruit, fruiting of a tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Morning.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kabeldong

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Get up early.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the sand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (At) night, night time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        White person, or any white-bodied thing, e.g. animal with a white body, white substance etc. Literally ‘body-white’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngahli mayhmayh kangeyyo djuwe birrikukbele kabirringeybun ‘bowerbird’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This bird is called djuwe, white people call it a ‘bowerbird’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngalbu komorlo ngalkukbele mayhmayh kani kore kabbal manlabbarl mankabo manwanjdjad dja manberrk kore kubolkwern kunred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The egret is a white bird which lives on floodplains, billabongs, rivers, creeks and in open forest areas in many different clan countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Delek nakka kukbele nawu nguk yika duyh kabirrimang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Delek (white clay) is a white substance which we collect either wet or dry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Turn around, turn one’s body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Warrak kakukborledme kakukmardukme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Leichhardtian Bony Bream (Fluvialosa erebi) turns its body sideways and reflects a flash of light.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Change form by sorcery, be transfigured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wanjh yimankek bu benedjobkemeninj manbu mankoleh dja wanjh benekukborledmeng beneyimerranj mayhmayh bu benemuddanginj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They tried to chop down the bamboo but instead they grew feathers and turned into birds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, pp. 64-65)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Black skinned person, Aboriginal person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Recognise someone or something, know about something’s physical characteristics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Synonymskukbengkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Manmakkawarri nakudji kukburrknang, nawu wanjh ngabukkabukkang, ngaye ngabukkabukkang, kukburrbuni manmakkawarri, kakukburrbun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            One [of the kids] knows what a catfish looks like, because I taught him. I taught him myself. So he got to know what a catfish looks like, he recognises them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Throw to the ground, cause to fall to the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bikukburriweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            She pushed him down.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 Hit an animal successfully while hunting, causing it to fall down.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bu yameng kukburriweng ballobmeng djudbakkeng kuyinnang yaw karrmi yahwurd.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            When he scored a hit [on the kangaroo] and it fell to the ground, he ran up, broke its neck and spied a joey [in its pouch].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj Djangkang Kunj’, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3Construct with skill, used as a compliment to praise the skill usually of a craftsperson or artist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yikukburriweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            You've really made it well.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Nakka yibimbom kukmak, o darrkid yibimbom kunj… Yikukburriweng, darrkid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [When praising a picture we can say] “You’ve painted that figure really well” or “That kangaroo is really lifelike”. “You’ve really nailed it, it looks really lifelike”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Joey Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ahead, in front.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wanjh nungka ngokko dokmeng kukebrok dingihdi kumhkunidi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            And he had already gone ahead, and was waiting there to kill them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 36-39)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A: Ngurrikebroknang? B: Larrk, minj ngarrinayi, kebrokyak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A: Did you see him walk past before we got here? (Literally 'did you see him walking ahead'?) B: No we didn't see him, he wasn't ahead of you.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Carry an animal that has been hunted, carry a dead body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dja nawu bininj kukkang djenj, biwong Nabulanj, kinjeng benenguneng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            And the man took the fish, gave it to Nabulanj, cooked it and they ate it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 19’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dja bikukkang bikukkurrmeng kore kuwardderurrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            And he took his body and placed it in the tomb which he had hewn out of rock. [Matthew 27:60]

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Etherington, Steve, ‘Jesus doweng dja yawoyhdolkkang’, Bible Society Australia, 2011, p.28, from Matthew 27:60.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mandjimdjim kadjordmen kore kukku kaboyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Water pandanus [Pandanus aquaticus] grows where there is water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bu korroko duruk bokenh Adjumarlarl dja Omwarl benemwam karrikadbeh kukku benehboyawani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In the Dreamtime the two Ancestral Dogs Adjumarlarl and Omwarl came [to Gunbalanya] from the west, looking for water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation, Adjumarlarl and Omwarl Story)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kukku wurdyawken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Amniotic fluid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          On the right hand side, to the right.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kumekke kunred manbelk karri kore kukun, dja kore kudjakku karri marrunj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In that place there is pandanus on the right, and on the left there are palm trees (Hydriastele ramsayi).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ruin or destroy something, do something badly, make something ugly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bolkkime bu wanjh, nakka wurdwurd kabirridjalbimbun manu story… yiburrbun kahkuk won, kahyurrkkuhme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Now though, children will write a story… And you know, this child will muck it up, it will be all mixed up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Look like something, have a similar form to something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Barlarrk, yiman marrngunj kakukyime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A spotted eel-tailed catfish is similar to the ordinary Neosilurus spp. [except it has spots]

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngarringeybun ken njamed bakarlbakarl, yoh nani nawu kakukyime [draws in the sand]... nungan nadjinem nuye namekke kakarung kare yinan bu Dukaladjarranj kuwarddewardde kakarung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            We call this plant bakarlbakarl, yes, and it looks like this [draws in sand]... it is food for the black wallaroo, it digs it up and you can see it growing in the rock country there at Dukaladjarranj where the wallaroos in the rock country dig it up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Billabong, swamp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Benewam kore kulabbarl. Wanjh benemadjkurrmeng, wanjh benewurlebmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They went to the billabong. Then they put their things down and went into the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 68-71)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          See also-labbarl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Generic for all flying foxes but also specifically the black flying fox.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scientific namePteropus alecto

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kuluban kure njilhmi kayo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Flying foxes live near freshwater springs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalakdjingkorrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Kind of large paperbark tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Synonymsbirriyalang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scientific nameMelaleuca leucadendra

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Paperbark raft made from Melaleuca leucadendra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dja birribuyika binihbininj mak birrihdjowkeyi birrimarnbom kuluyambi, wanjh nawu nawalawalak yimeng “Ngarrngamka ngarrkukbuyikahmerrimen kinga dja durrbu ngarrbenkadjung.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The other people were crossing, they had made a paperbark raft, and the younger brother said “Let’s swim and turn ourselves into a crocodile and a water goanna and follow them”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Saratoga, Northern Spotted Barramundi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameScleropages jardinii

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngalbu kuluybirr ngalka kadi kare kore kukku manbowinjku kore mandem karri kunbak dja mandjimdjim kadulkdjuhmiyindi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The saratoga lives in fresh water, where there are water lilies and water weeds and where the water pandanus stands in the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakngalkalngunkabarn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Placename, former outstation and corrupted in English to give 'Goomadeer River'. Literally 'at the silver-leaved paperbark'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There, at that place previously referred to or jointly known.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Naddab ngarri. Kumekke ngarridjangkani ngaye nganedangerrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                I was at Naddab. We used to go hunting there, me and my brothers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fresh Water Crocodile.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameCrocodylus johnstoni

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKune synonym (Cadell River dialect) = nawulhmu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakngaldjakdjalarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Fire, firewood, fire at hearth. Symbol or totem of the matry (kunkoymud) yarriburrik.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kabenekurrme kore kunak kabenemudkinje ba kakurlahrayekmen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The two of them singe the feathers [of the emu] in the fire so that the skin becomes hard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Cigarette lighter, matches etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Dja bolkkime kunak manbu Balanda marnbom bu karriwurlhke karrikinje mayh dja manme. Dja korroko kundjakkorl birriburdebmi birrinami wurlhmi manbu kunak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  These days people use lighters made by non-Indigenous people to light fires and cook meat and other food. But in the old days people used to rub fire sticks to start fires.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunakkenh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lighter holder (literally ‘for a cigarette lighter’. Sometimes these are woven from pandanus for sale).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See alsoyarriburrik

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Water weed. Generic name for many kinds of submerged aquatic herbs and algae.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scientific namee.g. Eriocaulon setaceum

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Manbakwern.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lots of water weeds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Warradjan kangun kunbak dja mandjimdjim mandedjmad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The pig-nosed turtle eats water weeds and the roots of water pandanus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                'Mother-in-law language'. Lexical replacement affinal kin respect register which is used with one's actual ngalkurrng (spouse's mother and her sisters) and nakurrng (spouse's mother's brothers)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskunbinjbalak, kunmikme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Makka kundulk ngarringeybun kore kunbalak bu ngarriyime kunmuluru.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  If we want to say 'wood', in mother-in-law language we have to say 'kunmuluru'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                English language, non-Indigenous lifestyle or way of doing things.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunbalanda birriwokdi ngandibukkani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  They spoke English when they were teaching us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Etymologyfrom Macassarese, Hollander

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                GrammarThe prefix kun- is optional.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fat, oil, butter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Burarr namak mayh bu ngarringun yiman kalawan karohrok. Kunkanj dja kunbalem bu ngarringun ngadberre mayh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Water goannas are good to eat, just like other goannas. We eat both the meat and the fat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -balemkimuk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fat and good to eat (of animals).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Alcohol, grog.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nganedirri burldebol jukebox nganebekkang nganewam nganebayahmeng kunbang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We played pool and we both listened to the jukebox and then we went and bought some beer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Knee.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nadjurrk nakka bininjni rengehrey kore borledmikenh Demed mandulum bu korroko. Nungka yerrkang ngunjngehmeng wanjh yimerranj kunwardde. Bolkkime nungka karrinan djudkulmeng dja kunney nuye kore kunbard karrmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nadjurrk was once a man who would walk around on the other side of Demed hill, a long time ago. He sat down to rest and turned into a rock. We can still see him there, head down and elbows on knees.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Node (of grass).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkunkuyuk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -bardngorrowke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Break the legs of a kangaroo in order to tie them up for cooking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Slide track of crawling animals, mostly reptiles, especially crocodiles and goannas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nahni kunbarlah nuye kumuken. Kanmadbu dja ngadjuhme nganan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    These are the tracks of a freshwater crocodile. Wait for me while I swim out and have a look for it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, Biyuk biyuk story)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GrammarThe nominal barlah is incorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -barlahnan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See slide tracks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -barlahyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There are reptilian slide tracks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunwinjku name for Gunbalanya, formerly known as Oenpelli.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mengerrdji birrihni kunred Kunbarlanja.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mengerrdji people used to be at Oenpelli.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GrammarOenpelli itself is a corruption of the original Erre name for the area, ‘Uwunbarlany’, which the Kunwinjku word derives from. It has often been spelled 'Kunbarllanjnja' based on a different orthography, however there is no need for these extra continuant consonants as the single consonant has scope over both syllables.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Digging stick, an implement associated with women.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bu benewam benekang kundjabarrk dja kunbarlkbu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The two of them took string bags and digging sticks along.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Mangiru, Faith, ‘Kakkak dja Wurdyaw Benewam Mankinjdjek’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, 1976)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GrammarKunbarlkbu is more of a low country word (birriwinjku), while kunkaninj is more associated with escarpment country dialects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Day time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Thigh, femur, upper leg.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kabirribarndaddukkan ba kukalkid kadjalboyo kore kunjam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The emu legs are trussed up before roasting to ensure juices are retained within the stomach cavity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus : Indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 138)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lymph nodes, glands in groin and under arms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yiddok yibarndorrkbabang?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Are your glands tender?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngabarndorrklurlme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My lymph nodes are swollen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wrist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dja bu bolkkime bininj nawu karrowen wanjh karlba kabirrimang kabirribiddadjkerren karlba kore kunbende kare kore kunbid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Nowadays when someone dies, people take yellow (or red) ochre and paint from their wrists down to their hands with it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Faculty of understanding, cognition and sensibility; mind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Minj ngarrbenngeybun yabok wardi kunbeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      We don't say the names of our sisters as we find it offensive.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Tail

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Marla nakka nabang bu kanbaye dja kandong kunberd ngalengarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scorpions are dangerous if they bite us, they strike us with their tail.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Valve on a tyre tube.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Arm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kunberl nganmarnebom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He broke my arm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Branch

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -berlmang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lead someone by the arm, arrest someone

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymskunberre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngalbu bonbon ngarringeybun boken mayhmayh ngalkudji ngalmudburlerri dja ngalberrekalkbele ngalbuyika ngaldjalmudbulerri.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are two birds we call “bonbon” (cormorant), one has black feathers and a white chest, and the other is all black.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Hand, with one's hands, by hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kabirrimarnbun nawu marebu kunbid bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They make pandanus mats by hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Birribidkurrmerreni kore kunwardde wanjh birrikuykmi kunbid bedberre delek dorrengh wanjh birribidbokyoy kunbidbok bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They placed their hands on the rock, then sprayed white ochre from their mouths over their hands, so there was a print of their hands left behind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Finger.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3Paw, claw, etc. The 'hand' of any animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngalbu karndjawarra ngalkka ngalengman kore kurrula kadjalyo. Karringun ngalkanjmak karringun kunberl dja kunbid ngalengarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mud crabs live by the ocean. They're good eating, we eat their claws and legs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4Trigger of a gun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4Button, any button-like object, especially on electronic appliances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakkunkundam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -bidmak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skilled, dexterous.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -bidlarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Empty-handed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Hand stencil.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bu karrire kore kuwarde karribidbun karringimen kore kuwarderurrk karrinan kunbidbok bedberre dabborrabbolk nawu birridowerrinj birribidbokkurrmerrinj bu korroko.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                When we go up into the escarpment and go into caves, we see the hand stencils of the old people who have passed away, and placed their hand prints there a long time ago.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2A distinctive mark left by the hand of a person or animal such as claw marks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey birridulknani birrinani kunbidbok kore dulklirrhmi nuye kunbidngalanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the old days people would go and look at the trees and see the claw marks where his [the possum’s] claws had scratched the tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Two hands, with both hands.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Ten (literally 'two hands').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1One hand, with one hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Five (literally ‘one hand’).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kunkarrngbakmeng or kunbidkukudji mandjewk wanjh, ngarrimdurndi ngorengngalmeng, doweni wanjh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      So after four or five years we came back, and he got sick. In fact he was dying.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fingernail, claw.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey birridulknani birrinani kunbidbok kore dulklirrhmi djebuyh nuye kunbidngalanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In the old days people would go and look at the trees and see the claw marks where the possum’s claws had scratched the tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Fingers other than thumb.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Little finger, pinky finger.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ribs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngardukki kunbirrkbirrk, minj nangale kadjirdmang!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Leave the ribs for me (to eat), hands off!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ('The Greedy Emu', Skinnyfish TV, 2018)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Back.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wanjh ngalbu Ngarrbek njilngwarreminj dja yidduy duninjh bu beneburrinj kaluk lobmeng mey kunwardde dja bibodmengerrehmeng kore kubodme ngarre wanjh kunmekbe kunu Ngalmangeyi kakarrme kunbodmengalng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Echidna was very upset and threw a big rock at Long-necked Turtle and it hit her in the back. That's why the Long-necked Turtle has a shell now.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Jill, 'Ngalmangeyi dja Ngarrbek' in Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, pp. 32-33)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Roof of a car etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nakudji bininj mey mandengeyi wanjh kunmadj barnhbarnameng kore mandengeyi kubodme wanjh kunyarl mey dukkang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A man got a car and put his swag up on the roof, then took some string and tied it on.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkundolke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Footprints, tracks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nakudji balwam biboknang kahbokyo kore kunkih.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          One of them went a bit further and saw his footprints in the mud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Garnarradj, Elaine, ‘Nakudji Wurdyaw Bengwabom’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre [no date recorded])

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kundengebok

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Footprint.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kunbidbok

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hand print, hand stencil.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cicatrice, often cause by intentional scarification to leave a design or series of cuts on various parts of the body (upper arms, chest, breasts, buttocks).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bu kunbolidj birridjareni nawu bininj dja daluk wanjh lawk bindiyilkbuni bindibolidjmarnbuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          If men or women wanted scarification, they would cut each other with stone knives and make raised scars.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kunbidbolidj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lines on palm of hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Place, country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kunbolkkurulk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Place belonging to the Kurulk clan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkunmelworn.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -bolkbawon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Abandon a place, leave a place for a long time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -bolkdowen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Be boring (of a place), be destroyed (of a place).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -bolkngeyyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Be called (of a place).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Regional place name, estate name.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Placename that designates a small locality as opposed to kun-bolkngeykimuk 'large named region'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cold, cold weather.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kunbonjdjek ngarrowen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I'm feeling the cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See alsoKarrikukbonjdjekbidbidbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakkunkurrbele

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dance, dance style.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko bininj birrini kunred Kabbari / Nawu kunborrk birrikarmi birriborrkkeyi (Wildflower Band, Kabbari, 2009)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A long time ago people lived on this land Kabbari / They used to have special ceremonies, singing and dancing in that place (Wildflower Band, Kabbari, 2009)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Termite mound. Sections broken off can be used as cooking stones in ground ovens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dja nawu nabiwo nakka birrinani kore kunboy birriboybakkeyi birrimangi nawu mankung yika kuwardedume birrinani birrikarungi birrimangi nawu nabiwo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They would see the ‘nabiwo’ native bee variety on a termite mound, then break the mound and get the honey out. Or sometimes they would see them in a mound of earth and dig up the honey there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See alsokonjdja, kurlbbinj, djibdjib

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Navel, umbilical cord.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Two dots at end of the caudal area of catfish such as kurrkurrbi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ashes of a fire.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Karriwilkdeng kunbule karribarrhbun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (When) we cook something under the ground we cover it over with ashes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngalmangiyi kunbodmengalng ngalengarre kabirrikinje kore kunak bu kabirringun kunkanj kabirriyakwon wanjh kabirrikinje kore kunak kunbule kayimerran.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  People cook long-necked turtles in their shells, and when they've finished the flesh, the shell goes back on the fire and becomes ash.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Smell, scent, smell of people which can be ritually rubbed on other people and objects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Burddjimey mayh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  It picked up the scent of an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Shape or form.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Body

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Naburrkkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Big bodied person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkunwalnga, kundarrkid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leg.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Give me a (turtle) leg, I'm starving.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkunkarnkelh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kundadmurrng

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leg bone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Grass. A general term which can refer to different types of grass, rushes, sedge etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Korlobbarr kani kore mandalkwern kundalk dja kore kukku manbowern kaboyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Antilopine kangaroos live where there is lots of grass and plenty of water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bolkkime manbu kundalk manyilk kabirribimbun dja kabirrirarrkwe kore dolobbo dja kore djurra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nowadays people use sedge grass for painting and crosshatching on bark and paper.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 Marijuana, cannabis, ‘grass’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nakka nawu kundalk kawunghme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    That guy smokes grass.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkundjanud

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kurralk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the grass.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Mouth (human or animal), beak of bird.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Delek kurrmeng kore kundang nuye wanjh bidkuykmerrinj kore djurra wanjh kunbid nuye kahbimdi kore djurra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    He put white ochre in his mouth, then sprayed it out over his hand so he made a hand stencil on the paper.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Opening, door.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yirrangbalhmen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Close the door!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkundjangara

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lips.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dangwelburlurlhmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    His lip has swollen up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  System of interjections and terms which are associated with an individual clan and indicate membership in a particular clan or acknowledge that the speaker is on a site belonging to the clan with which the special clan interjection is associated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Duh karriraray.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Duh let's go [duh= Balngarra clan kundangwok].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yinjarrakinjemen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cook it "njarra"! [njarra= Djordi clan kundangwok]

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kidneys.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Synonymskundebad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wanjh njamduhkeng mey kundurddu kundiw kundayken dja mannjam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Then he pulled out its innards, taking its heart, its liver, its kidneys and its stomach.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Maralngurra, Dolly, 'Bininj Yameng Kunj', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kare odjbel kundayken nuye kabirrinan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    He is going to the hospital and they will look at his kidneys.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Special set of extensive tri-relational kinship terms. E.g. if person A is speaking to person B about person C, then A will use a term for C which also encodes B's kinship relationship to A. In turn B will likewise use a reciprocal referent in reference to C that also encodes the three way relationship.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kundebi ngabenbukkabukkang kabirriburrbun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I’ve been teaching them Kundebi, they know it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngabenbekken nahni wurdwurd nawu kabirrihre minj Kundebi kabirrikarrme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I hear these children going about – they don’t have Kundebi. No. They just use people's names. They don’t use Kundebi with each other, no.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -debikan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Use triangular or third person kinship references.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -debikarren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Use triangular or third person kinship references with each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Bum, buttocks, bottom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Base of an object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Badjkid kabirrimarnbun dedjdjurduhdjurduh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They make baskets with round bases.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -mandedj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Base of a tree or plant.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Anus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Merridjdjin kurredjmimken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Suppository.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Foot, feet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Birrinahnani Wirrihwirrihyak nawu dengelurlmeng manbik bimarneni kore kurrenge nuye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They looked after Wirrihwirrihyak, whose foot was swollen because he had a splinter in his foot.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 6)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Tyre (of vehicle).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dengekerlkdanj ngadberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Our tyre is flat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See alsomandengeyi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakkunbadjorr

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kurrenge

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      On foot, walking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Toes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Liver.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mudkinjeng wanjh njamduhkeng kunnjam, kundurddu, kundiw dja kunbalem.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He singed its [the kangaroo’s] fur, then took out the guts, heart, liver and fat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 44-47)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      String bag. In Kundedjwarre clan lect however kundjabarrk is a synonym for kunmadj 'basket, swag, clothes etc'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wurdwurd benekilekilelh benebokenh benewam benehkarungi mankuladj. Benehkarungi mankihkimuk, benedahkendoy kore kundjabarrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Two little children went digging up spike rush corms. They dug up some big ones and put them in a string bag.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sickness, disease.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lanka kure bolk-Kalarrdju kundjak djang kahyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        At the place Lanka in Kalarrdju clan estate there is a sickness dreaming site.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nahni manimunak kahdowen, kundjak kakarrme lead-beh, manmim shotgun nguneng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This magpie goose is sick, it has disease from consuming shotgun lead [pellets].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -djakbekkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Feel pain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -djakdowen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Stop hurting, ease (of pain).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Firesticks, made from the wood of Premna acuminata.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bu korroko nawu birriyungki dabborrabbolk bu manbu kunak birriworrhmi wanjh kundulk bokenh birribakkeyi birrimarnbuni kundjakkorl kunbid bedberre birriburdebmi birriwurlhkeyi manbu kunak rungi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the old days when our ancestors made fires, they would break off two sticks and make firesticks out of them. They would put one between their hands and rub and a fire would start (because of the friction against the other stick).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkunbembem

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Left hand side.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Left hand (of body).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -djakku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ‘Leftie’, a way of referring to a left-handed person without saying their name.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kudjakku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On the left hand side.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Whiskers, facial hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Nanih bininj djawurrkwernminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            That man has grown a beard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Facial tentacles on catfish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakkundjakudjkudj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Steam, fumes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bu karrikinje wanjh kadjawuywayhme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When we cook them, steam comes out.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, ‘Yawk yawk’ story.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            GrammarIncorporable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -djawuywayhme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Steam rises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Tongue.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bininj yameng nganabbarru wanjh mey mandjawak kukyilkbom mey kundjen dja kunbirrkbirrkbokenh wanjh babburlibom kore kukarlang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A man shot a buffalo, then got a knife and cut off some meat, took the tongue and two ribs and carried it all off over his shoulder.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Nabobbob, Rose, ‘Kunbidkudji Kunwok’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Language

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yiman kayime “base”, manbu kabirriyime Balanda bu kundjen kunwok Balanda bedberre, kabirriyime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Like a “base” as Balanda say, speaking in their Balanda tongue, their language.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3The flesh of freshwater mussels.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              See alsodjendjad / djenwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Breasts, nipple, teats.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -djikkadjuyme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Milk an animal, express milk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kundjikkakurrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Breast milk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -djikkawon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  breastfeed, suckle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Breast milk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskundjikkakodjkurrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunkanj, wirlarrk, kundjikkakurrk, djenj, dja nawern nawu namakmak kabendjordmiwe, yun ngurrbenwon kandidjdjawa dja tea makka manwarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Meat, eggs, breast milk, fish, all those good foods are what grows them [children] up strong. Don’t give them flour and tea, that’s bad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Nawirridj, Grace, untitled book, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nawu wurdyaw barrken duninjh wanjh nungka kundjikkakurrk kabongun bu ngalbadjan kabidjikkawon kadjikkangun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Very young children drink breast milk, when their mothers breastfeed them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See alsokundjikka

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nipple.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Paperbark dish, the ends of which are tied up with string. Used to hold liquids, ochre, or slices of yam soaking in water in order to detoxify them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hole.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngamokdjorlok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I've got an ulcer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trunk, waist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Synonymskunngorrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bikarrmeng bidjorrhdukkang kondah.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      He grabbed him and held him around the trunk, here.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grammarincorporable as -djorrh-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nape (back of neck).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Dust.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngarrbendjulngmang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        We're getting their dust (travelling behind them on a dirt road).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kadjulngdjabdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The dust is rising up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Mud at the bottom of water, which can rise up into the water when disturbed in a similar way to dust rising into the air.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Shade, or any large tree or structure that produces shade, also tall dense forest which provides shade.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wanjh benebidbom benewam benenang mandjurlemak. Ngalkudji yimeng, "Kondah yimray ngarrni ngarrngun kore mandjurlemak."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Then the two of them walked up and saw a nice bit of shade. One of them said “Come here, let’s sit here and eat in this good shade”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Birridjaldjurlebom kundjurle kondah…

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They just put up a shelter here…

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkunkurnu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -djurlebun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Make a shade shelter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -djurleni

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sit or be in the shade.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Smoke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bu kabirridowen daluk bininj wurdwurd wanjh mandubang kunworr kabirrimang kabirrirurrkwolngwon kundolng dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          If people die, women, men or children, then people get ironwood leaves and use them to ritually cleanse their house with smoke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1A man's father-in-law, a man's son-in-law.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Promised or arranged marriage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Tree (generic), stick, log, wood.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Djebuyh ngarrinan kore kundulk kabarndi dja karedmarnbun kaddum kurrulk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We see possums sitting up in trees, and making their nests high up in trees.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Any non-traditional wooden object, eg. coffin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              See alsokurrulkwern

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakkunmuluru

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kundulkdad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Root.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Power.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Namarrkon dulkarrekimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The lightning spirit is powerful.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -dulkarreyakmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lose one's strength.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -dulkarreyakwon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Defeat, overcome.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Lower back. In the case of kangaroos, this merges with the upper part of the tail and is often included with the tail in a cut of meat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Karridjobdjobke ngalengman kundad bokenh dja ngalengman kundume kunberd dorrengh dja ngalengman kundjorrh kunkodj dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                We cut it up [the kangaroo] with the two legs being one cut, the lower back with the tail another cut, and the torso with the head another.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.Sun. Symbol or totem of the matry yarriyarninj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bu barnnangarra wanjh kundung kanwolkan kabolkwolkan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                During the daytime the sun gives us light, it lights up the earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nahni nawu kabenehbimdi mayh bokenh, korroko benebininjni, kaluk bedda benedanginj naburlaburlanjni, kundung benedi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The two animals in this painting were originally human beings, two Nabulanj skin brothers of the Kundung matry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 Time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Werrk dungwam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hurry up, time is gone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3Clock/watch.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakngaldjarala

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                GrammarBelongs to the 'ngal-' noun class.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dungre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sun is moving, time is passing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dungbidbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sun rises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dungbebme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sun appears (above the horizon etc).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dungborledme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Afternoon (sun has started sinking).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dungdi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Be a certain time, o'clock.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dungnelk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Early part of the day.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dungwakwan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sleep in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dungyibme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Setting of the sun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dungwarremen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Get too late, become too late.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Heart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskunngurl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  That one, in that manner, at that time, for that reason.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Synonymskunuka

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wularla kakayhmire kayime kaaaay, kunekke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Spectacled hare wallaby goes along calling out, it says, 'kaaaay' like that.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunmekbe ngamulewan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    That’s what I’m going to talk about.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wanjh kunmekbeh ngalbu kurdukadji minj kadolkan dja ngalweldjumbung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    So that is why the emu has short wings and cannot fly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 24)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kunekkekenh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    For that reason.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Waist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kungorrk ngandadjkeng kunronj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The water came up to my waist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Middle, half way.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yiborrahkendo kungorrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fill the container up half way.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  That one, (middle distance).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    With violent intent, e.g. with intention to hunt something or kill someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wanjh nungka ngokko dokmeng kukebrok dingihdi kumhkunidi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      And so he had gone ahead in that direction, and was waiting there to kill them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 36-39)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Djalakkiradj dorrengh birrikunibarndi kore kurrulk birrimadbuni karlerrh kumrey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They would stand on a log over the river, waiting for the Long Tom fish to come past to spear them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kuniwabme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Stalk an animal when hunting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kunidi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lie in wait to hunt something, ambush.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ambush, wait somewhere with the intention of killing someone or hunting something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See alsokuni-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Generic term for all macropods/kangaroos.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Night (the period of darkness between sunset and sunrise).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nganekakbirlikan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We're going (hunting) at night with torches.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2One 24-hour period, a day.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymskundungkudji

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kakre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Go by night.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Marrow.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Korroko dabborrabbolk ngarrbennani nawu mayh kunkal birrikalbakkeyi wanjh birrikaldjorrhmi dja birrikalnurrngmi birrirawoni kunkal dja kunkanj dorrengh. Nawu yiman kayime kunkal kunj nganabbarru, bulikki dja mayhmayh nawu manimunak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In the old days we would see people breaking open bones to get the marrow, banging the bones [on rocks, wood etc] to get the marrow out, sucking the marrow from the bones, or mixing the marrow with meat - for instance the marrow from kangaroo, buffalo, cow or magpie goose bones.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ears.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yikanem!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hey, you got ears? (listen to me!)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalakkun-mardorrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Horn.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dja yika mayh nawu nabang yiman nayin kinga nawu kanbaye karridowen, dja nganabbarru nawu kanbun kunkanemdulk nuye karridowen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            But some animals are dangerous, like snakes or crocodiles which bite us or buffalo which hit us with their horns and we die.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Psychological seat of emotions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Heart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Meat, flesh, muscle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yiman bu nayahwurd, yika mobik, minj kawernhkanjdi nungka kadjalwohdjobke mandjawak kunwardde kunyahwurd kunkanj dja kamunkewe ba kare kakimukmen kabalemdangen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                If the [kangaroos] are young or skinny, without much flesh on them, he [Nakidjkidj] will just cut a little bit of meat off them with his stone knife and let them go again, so they can get big and fat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 208)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In the distant past. In the past, a long time ago, in the old days.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bu kunkare daborrabbolk birrirey manberrk birriwarlbuni wanjh birrinani budjiked nawu kurralkwaken birribuni birringuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the old days, when people used to go into forest hunting, they would see wild cats and kill them and eat them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Shoulder.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Forked branch of a tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Korrokko dabborrabbolk bu birriyoy kore manberrk wanjh kundulk birridulkdadjkeyi birridulkdjabnami manbu karlang wanjh borlorl birriwarnamkurrmi yerre wanjh kunkod yika dolobbo birribarrkbuni bu birrimarnbuni kunkodbarre kore birriyoykenh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In old days, when people camped out in the bush, they would cut forked branches and erect them in the ground, then put cross beams between them and cover the structure with paperbark or eucalyptus bark to make a shelter for sleeping.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkunmundjum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Nectar from flowers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mankung ngarrikarlkidbongun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We drink the nectar from the honey (of flowers).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Fluid from plants such as sap or the resin in orchids.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3Also used by some older people to refer to diesel or petrol.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yiman kabirriyime nawu kabirrire kabirribomang, mannekke manu kabirrihbonome manihmanu kunkalkkid, petrol manbu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    It’s like the ones who go and steal petrol, that stuff they sniff, that juice, petrol, that stuff.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4Juices from cooking meat

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Birrikani kured birrikinjeyi mannjam dja ngalbu burrk. Wanjh bindiwoni nawu kured birrihni. Manbu kunkalkkid makka kabirringeybun wulud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They would take it [the sea turtle] home and cook it, the guts and the whole body, and share it with family in the camp. We call the juices from cooking the sea turtle “wulud”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5Can refer to various bodily fluids such as amniotic fluid, synovial fluid or serous fluid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Synonymskukku wurdyawken

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leg below knee.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Membrane, such as the membrane in bat wings and lambalk glider possums.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngalyod kawehme kuluban. Bu karrinan nawern karridulubun, karringun kunkarrk. Bu karridjalburriwe, kunukka kunwarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ngalyod the Rainbow Snake vomits up flying foxes. When we see a lot of them and shoot them, we have to cook and eat the lot, including the wing membranes. If we just chuck the membranes away, that is very bad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 46)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Four.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kunkarrngbakmeng o kunbidkukudji mandjewk wanjh, ngarrimdurndi ngorengngalmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        So after four or five years we came back, and he started to get sick.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kunkarrngbakmeng kebbalhdjurri kabirrihni kore kabbal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Four spoonbills standing on the floodplain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Gabriel, 'The Kunwinjki Counting Book', Injalak Arts, Gunbalanya, 2016)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonymskunkarnalanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kaddumbeh kumboyakarrburreni dja bu kanjdji kururrk kunkayalanj yoy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There was water flowing down from above, and the cave floor was sandy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly W, ‘Kunkare Wurdyaw Djorlkmeng’, C.M.S, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kumekke karrikukyibme kore kukayalanj. Djanay djang kahyo kanjdji kukurlk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        We sink down into the sand in that place. There is a yellow-spotted monitor Dreaming there under the earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kukayalanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the sand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Nose.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kebbinjbinj nungkah.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He has a long/narrow nose.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Face.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kabenekebrohrok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Those two have the same face, those two look similar.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3Beak (of a bird).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kawk karrinan kani kore kukadjid kore kukku kaboyo kamodme djenj kamadbun kanan djenj kamre darnkih wanjh karranjbun kundang kunkeb nuye wanjh kawukme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        We see the Rufous Night Heron on the banks of the water, waiting quietly for fish. When a fish comes near, it spears it with its beak and swallows it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4Bow of boat or front grill of a car.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Maneh muddika yibimbu! 'Side way' yikukbimbu! … yikebkuyengka!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Draw a picture of that car! Draw it side on ... make the front of it longer!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5Fishing hook.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonymsnginjno

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Yikebkarrme?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Have you got a hook?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6Peg on the distal end of a spearthrower which is inserted into the end of a spear.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7External entrance tunnel or tube to a native bee hive.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymsbadjno, ngalkno

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8End of a burning log, stick or other fuel.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yikebmarnbu ngarduk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fix up the fire for me (i.e. rearrange the logs to stoke it).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9Valve.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kebwarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This tyre valve is no good.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalakkunngandjak, kunmodjarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Antbed, ground oven.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kerringun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Eat antbed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kerribun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cook in a ground oven using pieces of antbed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mud or mud-like viscous substances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Manbu kunkih karrinan kubolkwern kore kabbal kayo. Bu kudjewk mandjewk kangurdme kaburnbun kunkihwi kayo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We see mud in lots of areas where there are floodplains. When the rainy season stops, there is nothing but mud [in those areas].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wanjh nakudji balwam biboknang kahbokyo kore kunkih.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Then one of them went a bit further and saw his footprints in the mud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Garnarradj, Elaine, ‘Nakudji Wurdyaw Bengwabom’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre [no date recorded])

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Paperbark.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kunkod birrikodmangi bu kunbodbarre birrimarnbuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They would collect paperbark and make bark shelters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Playing cards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yika nawu, wurdwurd nawu kabindikan kore kunkod kabirridirri ngalbabadjan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Some of them, some of those kids, they [the parents] take them to card games where the mothers play.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakkunburlburl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kodbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              peel off tea-tree bark

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bark shelter, literally ‘paperbark shelter’ but also used to refer to shelters made from other types of bark.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kunkodbarre kunrurrk birrikodbarrebuni birrimarnbuni kore birriyoy bu Kudjewk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They would make bark shelters to sleep in during the Wet Season.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dja bolkkime minj karrinan manbu kunkodbarre dolobbo kunrurrk larrk dja kurrambalk manwern birrimarnbom nawu birrikukbele kore ngarriyo bu bolkkime yika kore tents kabirriyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              But these days we don’t see shelters made from bark, there’s just lots of houses made by non-Indigenous people, or some people sleep in tents.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kodbarrebun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Make a shelter, make a bark shelter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Head.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Top of an elongate object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkunbambara

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kodjbabang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Headache.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kukodj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Overhead, on one's head.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kodjkeyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sleep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Days (lit: sleeps), effectively this word means a 24 hour period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunkodjke bokenh ngarriyoy kumekke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We stayed/slept there for three days.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                GrammarUnderlyingly -kodjke which through assimilation becomes -kodjdje and then deletion sometimes to -kodje

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kodjkekurrme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lay flat, put to sleep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Brain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Mind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kabirrikodjkuluborledke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They are changing their minds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kodjkuludjad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Smart, intelligent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kodjkuluwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Stupid, not intelligent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kodjkuluwern

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Full of ideas, capricious ('too many ideas').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Neck.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngalmangiyi ngalka ngalkomkuyeng dja ngarderrhwo ngalkomdjumbung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The long-necked turtle [Chelodina rugosa] has a long neck, while the northern snapping turtle [Elseya dentata] has a short neck.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Throat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngakombabang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I have a sore throat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkunkumadj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Phlegm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bedda benedjangwarrewong namekke komnud djang wanjh warlahminj balwam kore Mangarrangki bininj nawu kumekke birrihyoy birridowerrinj rowk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The two men had desecrated the Phlegm Dreaming site [by cutting the trees there to get wild honey], and so the Dreaming spread to Mangarrangki and the people living there all died.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bark of Eucalyptus tetrodonta.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Anburluddak kabun kongno kunkong kabun wanjh kakurrmehkrrme kawelengwirlarrkkabun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    She [the emu] hits the stringbark tree to knock off the bark which she places to make a nest so the eggs can be incubated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Testicles.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Groin (of male or female).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      System of matrilineal social categories or ‘matries’ consisting of yarriburrik (fire totem), yarriyarninj (sun totem), yarriwurrkkarr (green ant totem) and yarrikarnkurrk (rock totem). Other categories are sometimes also used which differ amongst the various dialects e.g. mandjarrakbuma (water totem, Kunwinjku dialect).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonymskundjungunj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dja wanjh birribuni mayh birriyimi, “Oh, nanih kakoymud Yarriburrik.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        As they hunted animals, they would say (for example) "Oh, this one belongs to the Yarriburrik matry”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Body, shape, form. Most frequently used as an incorporated noun as part of other words.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bu mak manbuyika manu mak, nawu wurdyaw bininj kadjordmen kamyawurrinjmen, yikahyika kabirrire kure fs:doctor yikahyikah mak kabirrire kure kunkuk bininj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Another thing is, when a young boy grows up and becomes a teenager sometimes they are circumcised by a doctor but sometimes they are circumcised in the traditional way by an Aboriginal man.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Yidjare bun kukkurrme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Did you want me to hit you and knock you down to the ground?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nganabbarru ngarridulubom kakukyo kumekke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        We shot a buffalo and its body is lying there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Grammarmost frequently attested as an incorporated noun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kukbele

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        White-skinned person

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kukkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Carry a body (e.g. of an animal after hunting it)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kukkurrme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Place a body, kill or knock to the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kukmak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Attractive, having a good form.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kuknan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Stare at someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kukyahwurd

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Small, having a small body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kukyime

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Look like, resemble (in body or shape).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Right hand side.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Right hand (of body).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kunkun yibidwayhmen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lift up your right hand!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kukun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          On the right hand side, to the right.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Skin, outer layer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kurlahno karriwe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We throw the skin away.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kunkurlah nganabbarru birridurrkmirri morlehmorlenj dja binihbininj kunkurlah nganabbarru djirla birrikurlahbuni wanjh birrikurlahdaweyi kurrungbang birrikurlahkurrmi kurlahdayoy kurlahbukmeni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Men and women used to work with buffalo hides, they would salt them and put them out in the hot sun. The hides would lie there in the sun until they dried.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2kinship subsection

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Njale yikarrme kunkurlah?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          What is your kinship subsection (skin)?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kurlahbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skin an animal, salt the hide of an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Blood.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Red. There is no abstract term for ‘red’, so terms which mean red are based on concrete things.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakkunkurradj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kurlbare

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bleed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Dirt, soil, earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ngayi Mehme kondanj, konda ngahni kukurlk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                I am the stubble quail, and I live on the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi, Kuninjku, Kune, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakkunkabuy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukurlk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                On the ground, in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Wind (generic).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymskunmayorrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkunmawul

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Speech style used with those called nakurrng or ngalkurrng which includes both a special register of language used in avoidance relationships (also sometimes referred to as 'mother-in-law'language) and the style of speech used by those in joking relationships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sweat, perspiration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Injury, wound.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Birriburreni manbu kunyid mankimuk birrikurlbarey bu kunlon kore kunkodj yika kundad bindiyami birringorengrey yika djal bulkkidj birridoweni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They fought each other in a big feud, they bled from wounds to the head and speared each other in the legs and went around injured, or even actually died.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nahni bininj mankang mandengeyi wanjh kunlon bibom bu kahngorengyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      That man was involved in a car crash and now he's lying there injured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -lonbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Injure, wound.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ankle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Generic term for bags and containers of all kinds, also bedding and other personal possessions. Often used also to refer to large pandanus fibre baskets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kunmadj kadjongburren.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He's putting on clothes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Benewam kore kulabbarl. Wanjh benemadjkurrmeng, wanjh benewurlebmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        They went to the billabong. Then they put their things down and went into the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 68-71)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Leafy branch.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ankurndilinj kunkurra kabun kaworlhme kunmalaworr. (Djnj)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Leptospermum tree branches sway in the breeze.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal, Russel, Jeremy & Garde, Murray, ‘A Preliminary List of Kundedjnjenghmi Plant Names’, NLC, Kabulwarnamyo, 2003 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkunworred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -malakan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Carry a leafy branch as camouflage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Clan spirit which returns to a deceased's country after death. In a Christian context this word refers to the soul.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Yerre bimurrngmoyhmey bimurrngkurrmeng kore kahwodjruhrurrk ba kunmalng nuye karrurndeng kore kunred nuye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        After that she took his bones and placed them inside a hollow log coffin, so that his spirit could return to his homeland.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Warramurrungunjdji wam kore manberrk benmalngkurrmeng wurdwurd kore Cooper Creek, Mount Borradaile.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Warramurrungunjdji went through the land and placed ‘Spirit Children’ at Cooper’s Creek and Mount Borradaile.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Minj nangale kabidbun kondah, wardi kabirrimalngwakwarren.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Nobody is allowed to climb up here. They might lose their life [spirit].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Taste.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -manjbekkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Taste something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -manjmak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Delicious

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -manjngun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Enjoy the taste of something, like something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mawng language.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Idea, knowledge, thought.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yika ngarrire kunwarddebim ngarrinan kunmayali wanjh ngarrimang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sometimes we go and look at rock art and then we get ideas [inspirations for our own paintings] from that.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Intention, mind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Birrimayaliborledkeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They changed their minds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -mayaliborledke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Change one's mind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wind. Generic name for wind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymskunkurra

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Manbu kunrorre kahkarrkini Uranium, kabirridjuhke ba bu minj kundjulng kamarnburren wardi kunmayorrk kamre wanjh kadjulngdolkayhwe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When there is ground that contains uranium [from the mining process], they will sprinkle the ground with water to stop [contaminated] dust being taken up by the wind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -mayorrkbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Blow (of wind).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Minj ngarrimendjorrmayi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We haven't gained that knowledge yet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -menburrbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Be able to see what someone is thinking, tell their feelings.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Outer 'belly'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Forehead.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -milhbayeng

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An expression of affection, 'my dear friend' etc. Literally 'I bite your forehead'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Eyes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kodjbalabalaminj dja kunmim nuye mimkimukminj wanjh yimerranj mayhmayh ngokngok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  His head became flat and his eyes grew wide and he turned into a bird, the owl.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkunkalngun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -mimbayhme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Open one's eyes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -mimburdme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Close one's eyes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sore, scab, infection.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngakanemmok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I've got an infected ear.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Njale ngunbayeng? Ngadjalmok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  What happened to you? I've just got a sore.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -mokdowen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heal (of sores).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -mokdukkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bandage a wound.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Patri-clan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Body hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Feathers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3Animal fur.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -mudbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pluck feathers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -muddjuyh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Having brown fur or feathers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -mudkinje

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Singe the fur or feathers off an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Thin piece of skin tissue (as in eardrum).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Scar, scar tissue.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Synonymskunmokkare

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3Flaky skin, dandruff, scab.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymskarrikodjwerrkburren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              See alsokunkanemmulun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nawu djenj karlarlbba nakka namak bu ngarringun dja murrngwern. Kunmurrng manwern dja kunkanj manyahwurd.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bony Bream is a good fish for eating, but it has a lot of bones. A lot of bones and not much flesh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kaluk ngamurrngname.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                After I'll put the bones on (a painting).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -murrngrayek

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Strong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Elbow.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nadjurrk nakka bininjni rengehrey kore borledmikenh Demed mandulum bu korroko. Nungka yerrkang ngunjngehmeng wanjh yimerranj kunwardde. Bolkkime nungka karrinan djudkulmeng dja kunney nuye kore kunbard karrmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nadjurrk was once a man who would walk around on the other side of Demed hill, a long time ago. He sat down to rest and turned into a rock. We can still see him there, head down and elbows on knees.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymskunmarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -ngabekburren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Comb one's hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -ngabekdordidordi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Curly hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Water well.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Korroko dabborrabbolk birringadkarungi kore kukku birribonguni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In the old days, people used to dig wells to drink water from.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -ngadbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dig a well, dig a hole to find underground water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cheek (of face).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cliff face.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kukkurr yibolkbengkan kure kunngarlk karri.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Do you know that place Kukkurr where there's a cliff.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -ngarlkwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Impassable (cliff or rock face).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngarringeykurrmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    We gave him/her/it a name.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngalngeykuyengkuyeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    She has a long name.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -ngeynamerren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Write one's name, sign something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kunngeybininj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    One's Aboriginal name, as opposed to their Balanda name or nickname.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -ngeybun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Say the name of something or someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -ngeykimuk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Famous.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pandanus leaves, used as a weaving material. Specifically the central sheath of new pandanus leaves. The pandanus palm itself is called manbelk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific namePandanus spp. (spiralis)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See alsomanbelk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -ngobarndurrkmang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pull off pandanus leaves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -ngobarnyirrme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Split pandanus leaves in preparation for weaving them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cloud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kunngol kumwam manngolburlerri, wanjh djakduy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Black clouds came in, and it started raining.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, Yawk Yawk story.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngalkordow karrbennan birriwern kabirrire kore kabbal dja yika karrbennan kaddum kungol.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      We see lots of brolgas walking on the floodplains or flying in the sky (literally: up in the clouds).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kunkodjngol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Storm cloud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kungol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Up in the sky, in the clouds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Breath.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Synonymskunngeh, kunngerh (Kune)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngangolekwarreminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I was puffed out.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Life.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nungka yimeng - bu kandikadjung wanjh kunngolek won kunkuyeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      He said if you follow me, I will give you a long life.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -ngolekdadjme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Stop breathing, die.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -ngolekwerren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Breathe out.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -ngolekkimukworren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Breathe in deeply.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -ngolekkarrmerren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hold one's breath.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Funeral ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nakudji nawu bininj doweng yakminj wanjh malahmalaywi birrikang birrikukdudji wanjh birrimdurndi kore kured birrihyoy. Birribolkkaruy wanjh bindikukdjuhkeng nawu namud nuye bu kunngoninj dja kunmalng nuye wanjh birriyerrkkeng kore kubuhbuburrrk bedberre. Wanjh yerre bindikukdolngbom mandubang kunmalaworr. Bu birriyakwong wanjh birribolkdudji.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A man passed away, and the next day they took him and buried him, then returned to their home. They made a shallow hole and performed the funeral ceremony by hosing his family down (when they got into the hole). This freed his spirit from their bodies. Afterwards they smoked the people with ironwood leaves. When they were done, they closed the hole over again.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Power, stamina, physical energy, bodily strength.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -ngudjbang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Powerful, strong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -ngudjmak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Energetic.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -ngudjwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tired, out of energy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -ngudjwarremen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tire out.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -ngudjngehme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Guts, offal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakmannjam

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -ngukmang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Remove the guts of an animal before cooking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Heart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymskunrdurddu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -ngurldolbdolbme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Beating of the heart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -ngurlmang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Seduce, cause to be taken with something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Intestines.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Stomach, belly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymskunngukbarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 Digestive system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4Section of a honey hive where the bees lay eggs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  See alsonjamkimuk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -njambabang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Have a stomach ache.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -njammang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Take innards of an animal, gut.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Feelings.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nganjilngwarreminj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I feel sad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -njilngmak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Happy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -njilngmarnbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cheer someone up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -njilngwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sad, upset.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Saliva, spittle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -nunjbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      To spit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -nunjwe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Spit a long distance (this is how the archerfish knocks insects into the water).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Home, place, country, 'hearth', living area.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Firewood.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kukkurrmeng manu karrbarda, dja wam kunrerrng, kumdurndi wanjh worrhmeng, wilkdi manu karrbarda.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        She put down the long yams, then went for firewood, came back and started a fire and cooked the yams under the hot ashes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Nakudji Namarladj Ngiwkmihngiwkmirey’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkunmimal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -rerrngmang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collect firewood.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Red ochre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nahni daluk boken benemdolkang kakbi, benemrey kunronj beneboyawani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Those two women came from the north, they came looking for water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku,Kune

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkundjulkin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kuronj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Soil, dirt, ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kurorre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On the ground, in the ground

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Enclosed space, hole, cave, room of a dwelling, house, shelter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dolobbo birrimangi bu birrimarnbuni kunrurrk kore birriyoy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They would get bark and make shelters to live in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Birribolkngalkeng, birribolknameng, kondah birrirurrknameng. Minj mankimuk kunrurrk, kunyahwurd laik ngad bu kodbarre birribarrkbom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They [white people] found this place, they set it up, then they built houses. Not really big houses, they were only small, like our little bark shelters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          See alsokururrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In that way, like that. Maybe a shortened version of kunukka.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yo kayudyudme. Bu ngunkodjnan, wanjh kayudyudme. Bu yimolknan wanjh kunu yibun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes, she [emu] walks around. If she sees you coming she takes off. If you can spy on her without her seeing you, then in that way you'll be able to kill her.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kondanjkunu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In this place

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          That which might be, maybe, that which.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bukka wanjh kunubewu ngamed Badmarddi bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Maybe that [place] belongs to Badmardi clan people.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yerre birriwern bininj birrimwam birridjawam-'Baleh nawu wurdyaw Wurrakak?' Bengdubberranj 'Kaluk ngayawan namekke wurdyaw.' Dja burrbuni namekke wurdyaw yakminj. Namekke wurdyaw wanjh kunwardde. Kunubewu kahmurrngyo kumekke. Nungka nabangni, namekke Wurrakak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            After, a lot of people came and asked, 'Where’s that baby, Wurrakak?' 'He’s gone scrub I'll look around after for that baby.' But he knew that baby was finished. That baby is now a rock. There might be bones somewhere nearby. He was a cheeky fellow, that Wurrakak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1In that way, like that. Sometimes shortened to kunu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Synonymskunekke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yiman kayime komorlo kamdolkan kamre kore kured kayerrkan yika mak kadjalwakbun, wanjh kunuka yiman kanbengdayhke bu kabirridowen kore kubolkbuyika nawu namud kadberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            For example when an egret comes flying over, landing in the camp or just circling overhead, in that way it tells us that someone in our family is going to die in another area.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 58)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2In relation to this, that (just mentioned).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kunukka wanjh ngambom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            That’s why I have rung (you on the phone), about this matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Season name for the very first rain of the wet season, before the wet season properly sets in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Uterus, womb

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kore wurdyaw kadahkendi bu kunnjam kahni kunwalirrng ngarriyime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We call the place where a baby is, inside the belly, the womb.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Daluk ngalbu kayawkan wurdyaw kore kunjam ngalengarre kunwalirrng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A woman who is carrying a baby in her womb.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Placenta.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -walirrngwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Infertile.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Armpit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See also-wanjkawurrbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kunwanjmud

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Underarm hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Reflection or shadow.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kabirriwaralnarren kore baddumang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  They look at themselves in the mirror.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bu dirdko wanjh kabirriwaralnarren, yiman kayime mak kundung bu koyek dja karrikad bu kadungdi wanjh kabirriwaralnarren.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  By moonlight people can see the shadow they cast, just like when the sun is in the west or the east.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Engraving, a drawing of a figure.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kabirriwaralkurrme nawu mayh dja njalehnjaleh kore djurra, dolobbo, dja kuwardderurrk bu wanjh kabirrinan nawu waral kore kabirribimbun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  They put images of animals and different things on paper, bark and rock shelters, and then they can look at the pictures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kawaraldi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A drawing is there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3Spirit, dead person's spirit (the one that wanders around after death), although not all speakers in all dialects agree with this sense.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -waralkurrme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Paint an image.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -waralkurrmerren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Place itself (of a picture). Said of rock paintings that were not painted by people, but are transfigurations of spirits.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Stone, rock. Symbol or totem of the matry (kunkoymud) yarrikarnkurrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wurrakkak djareni diwirrinj kumekke kukbuyikameng kukyimerranj kunwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wurrakkak decided to stay in that place and turned into a rock.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kinship karrbenmirndemornname bu wurdwurd, or dabborrabbolk kunekke karriyimowon. Yika mak karribebbebme kunwardde, kundung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    We put people in different kinship different groups, children and adults alike. Some of us are divided into Kunwardde or Kundung totems, etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Money.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunwardde ngandiwon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They give me money.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  See alsokunwarddewardde

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkunbangam

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kunwarddebim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rock art.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -wardderri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    To be (of rocks), there are rocks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cut of meat, piece of a butchered animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Synonymswarlay

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nawu mayh ngarrikinje yiman kayime manimunak dja ngalmangiyi wanjh ngarriwarlaybun dja ngarrbenwon kunwarlaykudji dja ngadman.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    When we cook an animal, for example a magpie goose or a long-necked turtle, we cut it up, give other people a piece and keep a piece for ourselves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -warlaybun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cut up an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Something bad, bad language or a speech of harsh words.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kandibekka, ngayi kunwarre ngawokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Listen to me, I've got something unpleasant to say.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kardabaybay karrinan kore kundulk kahbarndi kahkukdayo kunwel ngalengarre kawelwarlahmen kahbarndi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    We see the darters up in trees, sitting there in the sun with their wings outstretched.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Red hot coals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -wilkmang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Take something out of the coals/ashes where it has been cooking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kuwilk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lungs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Language, word, message, story.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkundarok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -wokbekkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Listen to what someone says.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -wokburriwe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Disobey what one is told.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -wokkire

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Go around talking or calling out.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -wokmadbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Wait for word, wait for someone to call.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -wokmang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Make a voice recording.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -wokmarnburren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Make a verbal agreement or arrangement, agree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -wokmarrkmang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Obey, pay attention to what someone says.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -woknan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Say parting words, say goodbye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Leaves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Yina kaworrbaye duruk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Look that dog biting the leaves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        See alsokunmalaworr

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkunworred

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GrammarEither kunworr or manworr are acceptable in some dialects (e.g. Kundedjnjenghmi) although when incorporated into an adjectival construction the prefix is usually fv:(m)an- e.g. manworrbuyika 'a different kind of leaf'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Truth. In usage this word often implies the correctness of traditional law or other established wisdom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Minj kabirridjare kabirrikarrme kunwoybuk. Bedman bebbehbeh kabirridjare kabirridjalle munguyh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They don’t want to keep hold of the truth. They just want to do their own thing all the time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kayime, “Yinahnarren. Wardi yiwarreworren… Wanjh ngarrbalanhmang bu kunmakmak kore kundjamunkenh kunwok kahyo, ba ngarrkarrme kunwoybuk.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          She’ll say, “Be careful lest you become a bad person… We would lose the goodness which is in that sacred teaching, which allows us to possess the truth.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        String, fishing line.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Trouble, argument, fight.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngawong. Wardi kunyid marnbuyinj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I gave it to him. Otherwise it would have caused an argument.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 Anger.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -yiddung

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Get angry at someone, speak harshly to someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -yidngalke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Start a fight, look for trouble.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Teeth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkunkudjirri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -yidebabang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Have a toothache.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kunyidmekanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gums.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -yidmenudmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Have caries, rot (teeth).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Vein, artery, blood vessel.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Yiberlyilkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  You've got big veins in your arm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunyil karrikurlbalobme, kakurlbadurndeng kore kunrdurddu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vein (circumlocution).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunyil karrikurlbalobme kunrdurddubeh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Artery (circumlocution).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Sinew, tendon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3Nerve.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4In general any thin vessel within the body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kunyil kunrdukken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Vas deferens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See alsokunmimyil

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Charcoal, black paint made from charcoal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Faeces, shit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Emu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameDromaius novaehollandiae

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngalkudji ngalkohbanj kuni ngalkangila wanjh ngaleng kangeyyo kurdukadji kaluk ngaleng wanjh bininjni korrokko wanjh yerre mayh yimerranj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There was an old lady whose skin name was Ngalkangila and now we call her emu, a long time ago she was really an old lady. [Wildflower Band song text].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKune= wurrbbarn, Kuninjku=ngurrurdu, Kundjeyhmi= alwandjuk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkurduyulu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Carry out an activity, do something in a particular way.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngarrbenkurdunani, wanjh kandibukkani, ngandimarneyimi “Kuhni ngikurduyime.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We watched what they did, and they taught us, they would say to us, “Do it like this.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Yirrbardbard bawong nuye kunwardde dja nuye duruk dja wam warlbom kalawan dja munguyh biburrbuni ngalmekke daluk bu baleh kakurduyime kabibun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yirrbardbard left his dogs and his stones [two grinding stones essential to his “clever” business] and went hunting goannas as he thought continually about how he would carry out his revenge on the women.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Home, house, at home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kured benedurndi kore benehyoy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They returned home to where they were living.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Mangiru, Faith, ‘Kakkak dja Ngalwakadj’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dja benemey nawu wurdyaw benekang kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Then they picked up the child and took him home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Nakudji wurdyaw bibayeng duruk’, in Manakgu, Andrew et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        See alsokunred

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Over there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Benebalwam wanjh ngalkudji nang nganabbarru yimeng, "Warddaw, nanih kahdi nabang, dja kurih ngarre ngarrdjowkke kore mankabo."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They walked a bit further and one of them saw a buffalo. “Oh no!” she said, “There’s a dangerous animal, let’s go over there and cross the river”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Maralangurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 36’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kunubewu wam kuhri, minj ngaburrbun kore wam, kunubewu kuni nungka yimeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Maybe he went over there, I don’t know where he went, he might have said he was going to that place.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pied heron.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameEgretta picata

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Bleed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Birrikodjbadjdjerrinj wanjh birrihkurlbawam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They punched each other in the head and then they bled.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Steel axe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Frill-necked lizard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameChlamydosaurus kingii

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kurndamen karrinan kore kubolkwern kunred. Bu karriwarlbun manberrk karrinan kabarndi kore kundulk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We see frill-necked lizards in many different places. If we go hunting in the forest, we see them sitting up in trees.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Open area, clearing. An ecological zone characterised by a clearing, no trees and mostly grass or minimal or no vegetation at all. An open area in the bush or on an alluvial plain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymsbolkbele

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bu korroko nawu ngad dabborrabbolk birriyoy kore kuwardderurrk. Dja yika birriyoy kore kurobbe birrikodbarrebuni dolobbo yika kundjurle birridjurlebuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In the past, the old people used to sleep in caves, or sometimes they made bark shelters or shade structures out in open areas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko dabborrabbolk bu birrimarnbuni meeting wanjh kurobbe kore birrirey birriwokdi ba bu bindiwokbekkayi nawu birribuyika bininj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2In public, in the open.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Birrirobbewoni manbu kunwok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They announced it publicly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            House, building.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymskodbarre, kunrurrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngayi kuberrk ngayo, minj ngadjare mikurrambalk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I'm going to sleep outside, I don't like being inside houses.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Lie.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bolkki nganmarneyimeng, "Ngamre kure ngudda." Kare kurrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Today he said,"I'll come over to your place." Maybe he was lying.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Pretend.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yun yinalkbun minj yirrowen yirrolkka yikurren.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Stop crying, you're not sick, get up, you're pretending.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Northern blue-tongued skink.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymsmolerl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameTiliqua scincoides intermedia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kurrih Birrangdoy bewubeh kurrih djang kumekke yirdebmeng birrangdoy mankang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              At Kurrih Birrangdoy there on the far side there, is a totemic site where the blue-tongued skink slipped and struck his tongue when he fell.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakmilhdarl(h)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Put or place.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakdjarrberlke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kurrmerren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Place oneself (used to describe an Ancestor 'placing itself' after its travels to become djang)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Orange-footed scrub fowl, black hen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameMegapodius reinwardt

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Salt water, the ocean

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngadjare ngabonan kurrula kaboyo / Dja mak kunmayorrk nganwolhme bu ngani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I want to see the ocean / And feel the wind blowing on me.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Wildflower Band, ‘Galiwin’ku’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 Tide.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngalbu karndjawarra ngalkka ngalengman kore kurrula kadjalyo. Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra. Dja bu kurrula karrurndeng kabukmen wanjh karrire kore kudjekudje nganjkarrkarr karriyawan karrimang wanjh karrikan karrikinje.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Karndjawarra (Mud Crabs, Scylla serrata) live near the sea. When the tide comes up, we don't see them. But when the tide goes out, we go to the mangroves and get them and cook them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The 'build-up' season, very hot and humid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kurrung karridengerung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In the build-up our feet burn.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkarrimorrangamen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tie up fish in order to carry them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Yika kunyarl kayarlkan djenjkenh kakukkurrurrubun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sometimes he [Djidjnguk] takes string along so he can tie the fish together.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Bush thick-knee or bush stone-curlew.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scientific nameBurhinus grallarius

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kurrwirluk minj karringun ngalwarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We don't eat curlews, the meat is no good.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Imitation of the sound made by curlews.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kurrwirluk ngalka mayhmayh ngalbu karribekkan bu kukak kawokdi kayime kurrwirluk kurrwirluk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The curlew is a bird which we hear at night, calling out “kurrwirluk kurrwirluk”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKune= kurruburlah

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Inside an enclosed space.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  See alsokunrurrk, rurrkno, 'an enclosed space'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Toilet, literally “little house”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bu yire kururrkyahwurd, yibekkan kamak o kawarre?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Have your bowel motions been normal? [Lit. When you go to the toilet, does it feel okay or bad?]

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bony bream.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameNematalosa erebi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKundjeyhmi= karlalbba

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Warm oneself by the fire.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngarrengekuwan kore kunak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I'll warm my feet by the fire.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cave, in a cave.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bu korroko nawu ngad dabborrabbolk birriyoy kore kuwarderurrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In the past our ancestors slept in caves.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ceremonial grouping of the following subsections: bulanj/bulanjdjan, kodjok/kodjdjan kela/kalidjan, wamud/wamuddjan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See alsoburddal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Banksia, banksia cone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameBanksia dentata

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A: Kuybuk namekke ba ngarrbanbanibukkan woh. B: Woh karribirlikan wanjh. (Kundjeyhmi)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A: Let's show those two the banksia cones. B: Yes, they can carry fire with it then.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Long (of shape, form, time), tall (of things).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • kunkuyeng ngarrimadbom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        We waited for a long time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngalngeykuyengkuyeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A long name (of a female referent).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kundulk mandulkkuyeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A tall tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See alsokonemkuyeng

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kuyengmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Become longer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Nearly, almost.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Birrikuyinbom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        They nearly killed him.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wanjh dingihdi di::, kuyinbekkang 'mehme' yimeng, 'mehme konda mehme ah mehme, mehme, mehme', biyawam

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Then he stood there for ages, and he could just hear the quail calling out. 'Oh quail is here, quail, quail, quail (where are you?)',....and he

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kuyinnan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Spy, just be able to see.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Spray.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kondah karurrkdi ngankuykmeng mandjewk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There's a hole here where the rain is spraying in on me.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dabborrabbolk kunkare birribidkuykmerrinj konda kure kunwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A long time ago, the old people sprayed (ochre) over their fingers here on this rock.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkuykbonghme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      And.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Narangem la ngaldahdaluk namekke wanjh birriwam wanjh birriwam kure birriwurlebmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        That boy and all the girls went to where they swam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nangahnang dedjbom rowk malkno, nguneng, rdurdduno, derebadno, derebadno, nguneng bonj la wanjh kurrmeng la wam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He watched, cut all the guts up, he ate the liver, the heart, the kidneys, he ate the kidneys and then he put it there and off he went.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Become hot from exertion or exposure to the sun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bonj, karridokmen ngaladminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        That's enough let's go home, I'm hot.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakmorrangamen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Circumcise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngayi nawu wurdyaw ngardduk, dja karrangh kayime konda kunred. Nakka wam kunkukbulerriken, bu birrilakkayenwong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        But my son, this is his mother's country here and so he went to be circumcised in the traditional way in his father's country. He went to be circumcised by an Aboriginal man.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Margaret from Manmoyi)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lambalk glider. The adoption of the Bininj Gunwok name for this species which is usually known as the sugar glider is tentative but the glider in the Kakadu and Western Arnhem Land region is genetically and physiologically different to sugar gliders in other parts of Australia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific namePetaurus breviceps

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An uncle who in fact is a father-in-law, ie. his daughter could become a second choice marriage partner.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymskundoy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Etymologyfrom Kriol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No, nothing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See alsodedjlahlarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Straight pipe for smoking tobacco. Often made from the wood of Canarium australianum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymsbadj, djikka

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              EtymologyMacassan or Bajau loan word.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Stone knife, quarried usually from quartz or other hard igneous rock and used for general cutting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                One of two creation ancestor yawkyawk sisters. The other sister is Marraykka.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lumaluma, ngardduk mawah, bimarneyimeng Likkanaya, 'Ngarryo kondah dja dungyibmeng, dja minj ngarrbale yungkih, dja ngarryo kondah kaluk malaywi.'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lumaluma, my ancestor, said to Likkanaya ‘We’ll camp here, because it’s getting dark - we won’t go any further but instead stay here until tomorrow.’

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.Run, move quickly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngamlobme murrikang mang ngudberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I'll come in the truck and pick you all up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Function, operate.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunburrkken karolbme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The functioning of the body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkurlkurlme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A generic term for smaller skinks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymsburndjingh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scientific nameCarlia amax, Cryptoblepharus plagiocephalus, Ctenotus inornatus, Sphenomorphus douglasi, Morethia storri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hollow.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yirrbardbard kukborledkerrinj nayin yimerranj wanjh ngimeng kore manwodj mandulklorrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yirrbardbard turned himself into a snake, and went into a hollow log.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dulklorrkkelorrkken nakka yiman nayuhyungkih kabirriyo kore kundulk manlohlorrk kore kurrangmaye kundulk kore Ankung Djang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dulklorrkkelorrkken spirits are like creation Ancestors, they live in hollow trees, where the trees have an opening, in Honey Dreaming country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Bone pole coffin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Bone pole mortuary ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Peel off bark or a strip of wood from a tree, especially Eucalyptus tetrodonta.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Birridulklowkmangi mandubang kundulk birridjedmi bokko manmirrh birrimarnbuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        They would strip the bark from the ironwood and carve the wood into spear tips.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mythological being associated with mardayin ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Swell up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1'time to act', 'let it happen'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wardi ngurrina, kaborrkke, ma, ma!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hey you all have a look, he's going to dance, here he goes, here he goes!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2OK, alright, a confirmation of or agreement with a proposition.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A: La ngunemre? B: Yo wolewoleh nganemre. A: Ma!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A: Are you two coming? B: Yes, we'll come in the afternoon. A: OK then.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Wait.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Black-headed python.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameAspidites melanocephalus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakngaldjangarakurlngunj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Octopus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Kind of grass used for making spear shafts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scientific namePhragmites karka

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Spear made from cane-grass used for hunting fish or geese.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Madjawarr yidadjdjemen yimarnbu mankole.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cut that cane grass and make a spear.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3Name of a clan whose land is in the area of Nimbuwa rock.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Agree to go somewhere, give assent to a travel proposal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Good.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ngalkebmak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        attractive woman

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • manmanjmak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        good tasting food

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngurrimak? Yo, ngarrimak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Is everyone OK? Yes, we're fine.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kamak?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Is everything OK?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Namak nakkan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He's a good man.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkamarlang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Northern mud cod, also known as spangled gudgeon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonymskabbungurr

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameOphiocara porocephala

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GrammarThe k here is pronounced ‘g’, as it normally is in the middle of words.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Grandmother (father's mother), father's mother's brother. FM, FMB.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          That, it (vegetable class objects).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngaye ngawarnyak makka yaldanj, minj ngadjare.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            I don't want that waterlily root, I don't like it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Nakudji Namarladj Ngiwkmihngiwkmirey’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pelican.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scientific namePelecanus conspicillatus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Great, fantastic, beautiful, handsome, delicious etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Birrimanjbekkang manmanjmakkayken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They tasted it and it tasted great.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Daluk ngalmakkayken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A beautiful woman.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nakka bininj namakkayken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              He’s a handsome man.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nahni rarrk namakkayken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              That’s beautiful cross-hatching.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Recover, get better.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Didjeridu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymsmorle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ma mako yibuhmen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                OK, play the didjeridu!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Gun, rifle, shotgun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yinin, dja ngakan mako ngayawan kunj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                You stay here, and I'll take a gun and go and look for kangaroos.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 19’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • "Nganere djilikuybi nganedulubun, dja manimunak." ... Wanjh benemey mako, benewam benedulubuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                "We're going to shoot Whistle Duck and Magpie Goose." ... So they took a rifle, and went and did some shooting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 40-43)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakdjalubu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Young barramundi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameLates calcarifer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nawu malalalk nakka nayahwurd djenj kaluk kore kadjordmen wanjh kayimerran nakimuk namarnkol.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ‘Malalalk’ is a small fish, but when it grows up it becomes a big barramundi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nayahwurd ngarriyime malalalk, dja nakimuk ngarriyime namarnkol.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                We call the small ones malalalk, and the large ones namarnkol.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Birrikukbele minj kabirringun nawu malalalk dja nayahwurd djenj ngad ngarridjalngun nawu malalalk dja namarnkol dja mak nawern nawu djenj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Non-Indigenous people don't eat baby barramundi or other small fish [because of size restrictions on catching fish etc]. But we Aboriginal people, we just eat small barramundi, fully grown barramundi and lots of different fish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              See alsonamarnkorl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Small insect-eating bats of various species such as the diadem horseshoe bat and the orange horseshoe bat. Other species may be included but more research is needed to determine this.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameHipposideros diadema, Rhinonicteris aurantius

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bumabuma kabenekukrohrok malambibbi benekukyahwurd minj yiman kuluban nakka nakimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ghost bats and small horseshoe bats look similar, they’re both small, not like fruit bats which are large.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Term the Kuninjku use to describe those from the east, the Yolngu or those who use the term 'mala' to describe clan groupings. "Sunrise mob".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nungka Malarrk kawokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                He speaks Yolngu language.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Early morning, used as a prefix on verbs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -malaybarrhbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rising of the sun at dawn, sunrise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Tomorrow.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Malayibuyika.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The day after tomorrow, in a number of days.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bolkki kakkawarr kabebme malayi kakodjrung wanjh bonj karriyalarrme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Today the ceremonial messenger arrives, tomorrow the ceremonial feast will cook and then we all go our seperate ways.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Morning.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngudda yimalayibonguneng?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Did you drink it this morning?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3The next day, the following day.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakmilbabba

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grammarincorporable or free standing, but can also be reduced to mala as an incorporable adverb

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -malahmalayi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Morning, the next day.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -malayibebme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Arrive the following day, arrive in the morning.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -malaywibuyika

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The day after tomorrow

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Make fun of, tease, not take seri