Bininj Kunwok
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Phrasebook

Oh, oh no, the thing is, no way (conveys that the speaker is shocked or wants to contradict something that has been said).

  • "Aba, yaw kinga nganang. Marndi wurdyaw kayawbaye kadberre warreh," yimeng ngalbu Ngalwakadj bedberre.

    “Oh, I saw a young crocodile. It might bite our kids” Ngalwakadj told them.

  • "Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng." "Aba, minj won, ngaye mak ngamarrwedoweng."

    "Give me a [turtle] leg, because I'm hungry” “No way. I can't give you any. I'm hungry too."

    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

Word audio:

Sentence audio:

Beach, sand.

  • Kore manyunkurr, adjbud kayo.

    On the island, there is a beach.

    (Wildflower Band, ‘Galiwin’ku’)

  • Nabangardi yimeng "Ngare kore wadjbud kurrula kahyo, ba djenj ngayawan".

    Nabangardi said "I'm going to the beach, the saltwater, to look for fish".

    (Jeanette Burrunali)

Word audio:

Sentence audio:

1Is it?; maybe; I don't know!

  • Ngaye ngadjawayhme nuye bu ngayime "Adju baleh wam nawu Nabangardi?"

    I ask him, I say “I don’t know, where did Nabangardi go?”.

    (Jill Nganjmirra)

2Said after a joke which provides mild embarrassment to the hearer.

    EtymologyIwaidja aju 'it-lies', 'it is', 'it exists'.

    See alsokunubewu

    Name of a male ancestral dog being, who travelled with the female Ancestral dog Omwarl through the area around Gunbalanya. The name is from the Mengerr language but Kunwinjku speaking residents of Gunbalanya are familiar with the story of these two dogs. The name has been also spelt Adjumarllarl but there is no linguistic basis for a rl+l sequence in either pronunciation or syllable structure. However, the Adjumarllarl spelling is now largely an accepted convention.

    • Bu korroko duruk bokenh Adjumarlarl dja Omwarl benemwam karrikadbeh kukku benehboyawani.

      The two Ancestral Dogs Adjumarlarl and Omwarl came [to the Gunbalanya area] from the west, looking for water.

      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation, Adjumarllarl and Omwarl Story)

    Etymologyfrom the Mengerr language

    See alsoDuruk Benengadbom

    Word audio:

    Sentence audio:

    1Kind of shrub.

    Scientific nameGrewia xanthopetala, Grewia multiflora

      2Kind of hibiscus. As for the Grewia species, the bark of this hibiscus is used to make string and the young stems are good firesticks.

      Scientific nameHibiscus tiliaceaus

        The Amurdak language.

        SynonymsWurradjbak

        • Nawu korroko bininj birriyuhyungki birrimulewarreni bu bedda kunwok bedberre kore birriwokdi. Yika manbu kunwok mankang kuberrkbeh dja yika kore kurrulabeh. Wanjh bolkkime bininj birriwern kabirribebbehwokdi manbu kunwok bedberre. Yiman Amurdak dja Wardadjbak makka kuberrkbeh birriwokdi. Dja manbu Yibadjdja dja Marrkku makka wanjh kumekke ngalengman kore kabirrihni bolkkime bininj manbu kunwok kumekke kabirridjalwokdi.

          In the old days, our ancestors all spoke to each other in their own languages. Some languages came from inland areas, and others from saltwater areas. Still today, people each talk their own languages. Amurdak and Wardadjbak for example were spoken in inland areas. Iwaidja and Marrku are still spoken where the speakers of those languages live.

          (Jill Nganjmirra)

        LanguageKunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

        Short specimen of billy goat plum which are no more than a metre high. The tall version is called anmorlak in Kundedjnjenghmi, mandjiribidj in Kuninjku and manmorlak in Kunwinjku.

        Scientific nameTerminalia ferdinandiana

        • Anbuningkid, anmarlak kanjdji kayo.

          The an-buningkid is a low growing billy goat plum.

        LanguageKundedjnjenghmi

        Evergreen scrambling shrub or vigorous woody climber to 10 m high, with creamy coloured fruit in kunumeleng. The fruit can be peeled and leached and applied to sore eyes and other inflammations. Also used to treat skin infections such as scabies.

        Scientific nameOpelia amentacea

        • Anleklek anbang dorrengh.

          The Opelia amentacea tree has poison.

        LanguageKundedjnjenghmi

        The 'small billabong' in Gunbalanya, in the middle of town.

        • Arramunbu nakka kunbolkngey kore kunred kabolkngeyyo bu birribolkngeybuni nawu bininj bedberre kunred dja mak birriwokdi Erre.

          Arrmunbu is the name of a place, which was used by the traditional owners of the area who spoke the Erre language.

          (Jill Nganjmirra)

        Etymologyfrom Erre

        1Name of the hill on the southern side of Gunbalanya township in Mengerrdji language country.

        • Nawu manimunak wirlarrk djang kahdjangdi kore kaddum kuwardde Arrkuluk.

          There is a sacred site for Magpie Goose eggs on the top of Arrkuluk rock.

          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

        2Hill on the western side of the entrance to Birraduk [Birrirddak] Creek valley, directly south of the Gunbalanya-Nabarlek road. This site has the same name as the hill at Gunbalanya and is therefore sometimes called ‘Arrkuluk number two’.

          An interjection used to express emotional attachment, dearness.

          Synonymsworro

          • Awurd, mayh namekke ngan­kodjborledke Kawk Kabim Djang

            So dear to me is that bird, its call reminds me of the sacred night heron dreaming.

            (Nabarlek Band song (Terrah Guymala))

          • Yika mak ngarriyime "awurd" bu nangale nawu kare djarre wanjh ngarrikongibun, dja mak bininj nawu karrowen, wanjh ngarriyime "awurd warre mankang mandengeyi".

            We might say “Awurd” (“Oh that dear man/woman”) if someone goes far away and we feel sorry for them, or for example if someone dies we might say "Awurd (oh that poor man/woman) it’s a terrible thing, they had a car crash".

            (Jill Nganjmirra )

          LanguageKunwinjku

          1So that.

          • Yirrolkka ba karrire.

            Get up so we can go.

          2But.

          • Ba minj birrinayinj nganabbarru yoy, wanjh manwurrk biwayhkeng.

            But they didn't see a buffalo sleeping there until a bush fire woke him up.

          Sore, be in pain.

          • Baleh yihbabang?

            Where does it hurt?

          • Ngabardbabang.

            I have a sore knee.

          • Baleh yimi bu yimimbabangni?

            How long has your eye been sore?

          LanguageKuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

          Kunbalakngarrkme

          Grammara kind of adjective which can take predicate prefixes (pronominal and nominal)

          Carry a load attached to a stick over the shoulder, especially fish.

          • Yidjirribiwo ba ngababbulibun djenj.

            Tie the fish up (passing vine or string through the gills) so I can carry them on a stick.

          • Karrimadjbabbulibun.

            Let's carry our swag on a stick over our shoulder.

          1Catch an object which has been thrown, launched etc.

          • Bu ngurridirri ngaleng kaburriwe wanjh ngudda yibabma.

            If you're going to play, she'll throw it (the ball) and you've got to catch it.

          • Mongerrk-Mongerrk birriyameng nawu bininj birriyuhyungki, wanjh birrikukkinjeng kore kunak. Kunmurrwirn nuye bu dolkani wanjh birribabmangi, birriyawoyhkinjeyi kore kunak ba bu minj yawoyhmarnburrimeninj.

            The Ancestors speared Mongerrk-Mongerrk, and burned his body on a fire. As scraps of his charred skin floated up into the air from the fire, they caught them and burned them again, so he couldn't re-form himself.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          2Reel in, pull in (e.g. a fishing line or rope).

          • Yiyarlbabbabmang werrk!

            Quick, pull in the line!

          Kunbalakbabmimodme

          Verb prefix indicating that one action follows another, possibly as a consequence. So, then, afterwards, as a result, in that case, with good reason, etc.

          • Birribadbom nabuyika benuk.

            Then they speared another bush turkey.

            (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

          • Dja kunubewu bolkkime wanjh nganang bu yiman kayime kurrung darnkih wanjh kabindibadkan kabirriwarlbun.

            Well I notice at the moment, probably because it’s coming up for build-up season, they’re taking them hunting a lot.

            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

          See alsobadbu

          Short eared rock wallaby.

          Scientific namePetrogale brachyotis

          • Korroko bininj birrirey djalakkiradj dorrengh kore kuwardde birriyawani birrinani birridanjbuni nawu badbong.

            In the old days, people would take spears into the escarpment looking for short-eared rock wallabies, and when they saw them they would spear them.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          Kunbalakdolhwarr

          1Exactly right!, absolutely! That's what I mean!

          • Badbu djalkurrmerrinj ngayi ngabengkan... I know!

            Yes, that's right, I know it put itself there, I know that.

          2When, if.

          • Badbu djal ngaleng werrk ngunnang, wanjh ngunkukbawon.

            When she [an emu] spots you first [before you see her], well she'll run away from you.

          • Badbu kondabu ngarrinankah arribukkayi manekke.

            If we see some here, we should show it to him.

          Grammarsubordinate conjuction

          Mirror, glass.

          • Baddumang ngarrikebnarren.

            We are looking at our faces in the mirror.

          • Warlirr kundung karrirung, kunekke kadberre karrirung, dja baddumang kabirrikarrme, baddumang kabirrikarrme kune kayime kakolhdebebme, kakolhdebebme, soon kabirrikarrme, glass, mirror, soon kabirrikarrme kadberre yiman muddikang rerri. Bokenh kabenekarrme, glass baddumang kukak kabirribebme.

            When the sun is hot, when we get really hot, then they have pieces of glass and when plants start sending out new growth [just before rain comes] then they [spirit beings] have pieces of glass and they take us away in something like a motor vehicle. They are in pairs with their pieces of glass and they appear at night.

            (Jimmy Bungurru (first language was Ndjébbana).)

          EtymologyFrom Makassarese patomang ‘compass’. Note also Ndjébbana baddúmang ‘swimming goggles, glass, mirror’. Also Iwaidja badumang (or bathumang) and Mawng patumang ‘glass, mirror’

          1External entrance tube to a native bee hive.

          Synonymskunkeb

          • Nawu mankung kabebbengeyyo yiman nabiwo, manyalk, bobbidj, kubbulak, birringolo, kaluk nawu badj nakka kakebbuyika bu kabirrikebmarnbun. Yiman yika kakebkuyeng dja yika kakebdjumbung bu kakebyirriyo ngarrinan nawu nabiwo, manyalk, bobbidj dja birringolo nakka kakebyirriyo, dja kubbulak nakka ngarrikebnan kadjalkebrurrk, minj kabadjname bu kakebyirriyo.

            Different types of wild honey have different names, for example nabiwo, manyalk, bobbidj, kubbulak, and birringolo, and the hives all have different entrance tubes that the bees make. Some are long, and some are short, for example we see that the entrance tubes of nabiwo, manyalk, bobbidj and birringolo all extend out, whereas for kubbulak hives there is just an entrance hole, they don't make a tube that protrudes.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          2European style smoking pipe.

          Synonymsdjikka

          • Bu korroko wanjh larrwa dja badj birriwungmi dja bolkkime larrk.

            In the old days people used to smoke long Macassan pipes and European style pipes too, but not any more.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          LanguageKunwinjku

          EtymologyPossibly an English loan but note Makassarese patti 'chest, case' and kalling 'tin, can' and cf Iwaidja patjukaling 'large container, drum' and Burarra bajikala 'long smoking pipe'.

          Kunbalakkunmuluru.

          Sentence audio:

          Big one, large, main part. When two things are conceived of as existing in a greater-lesser, main-subordinate or parent-child relation, 'badjan' describes the greater or parent part. The lesser or child part is referred to with 'yaw'.

          • Kundulk mandubang birrilawkmangi birridjedmi birrimarnbuni manberlnginj, manbadjan dja manyaw wanjh birribekkani manmak wanjh bonj.

            They would peel the bark off ironwood branches and carve them into clapsticks, a large one and a small one, hear that they sounded good and that was it.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          • Manbu manbadjan makka rungkal. Manu manyaw makka rarrk.

            The large external lines are the outlines, the small lines are the hatching (within the painted figure).

            (Joey Nganjmirra)

          Bash, hit to injure.

          • Kunwardde ngakodjbadjdji.

            I bashed it on the head with a rock.

          • Yidjare kodjbadjdjeng kundulk?

            You want me to bash your head with a stick or what?

            (Jeanette Burrunali )

          Kunbalakbonghme

          Bicycle, bike.

          Synonymsmandengebokenh

          • Wurdyaw karlobme badjdjingkurl.

            The child is riding a bicycle.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          • Mani mandengebokenh kangeyyo badjdjingkurl.

            That two-wheeled vehicle is called a bicycle.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          Etymologyfrom English 'bicycle'.

          Small herbaceous plant which has an edible radish-like tuber.

          Scientific nameBrachystelma glabriflorum

          • Ngad bininj ngarringun manbu badjdjo ngarrire ngarrinan manrakel wanjh ngarrikarung ngarrimang kaluk mankuk ngarringun minj ngarrikinje mandjoleng ngarringun.

            We Aboriginal people eat bush radishes, we go and we see its leaves then we dig it up and eat it raw. We don't roast it and eat it cooked.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          LanguageKuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kune, Kunwinjku

          Etymologypossibly from Makassarese pacco 'Arum colocasia R., a plant with roots which are edible after cooking'. Cf Bajau pacco 'taro, Colocasia esculenta'. Also Mawng badjdjung 'yam type'.

          Buffalo, bull, cow. Literally 'foot-big'.

          • Ngarridokang wanjh ngarrikurdudmeng badjdjorrkorrongko kumhdjarrbelmi bu ngankurdudmi. Kaluk minj nganyorrwayi ngadberre dja warreka kulkulmeng.

            Ngarriwam wanjh ngarrinang nganabbarru kumhdi ngankuknani. Kaluk minj ngankadjuyi ngadberre dja warreka rlobmeng.

            We were walking along and saw a buffalo there looking at us. It didn't chase us, but ran off in another direction.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          Regular Bininj Kunwoknganabbarru

          Get a flat tyre, get a puncture, get a shredded tyre etc.

          • Manbu manbadjdjorryi wanjh makka badjdjorryambahminj dja med kabirribadjdjorrmarlangweybun.

            Manbu muddika wanjh makka dengewarreminj dja med kabirridengemarnbun.

            The car got a flat tyre, we have to fix it (before we drive on it).

            (Jill Nganjmirra )

          Regular Bininj Kunwokdengewarremen

          Drum (metal container).

          • Manbu mannjam makka mankuyeng birridjirridjbuni kore kurrula birridjobdjobkeyi birrikinjeyi kore banikkin nakimuk badjdjukkali.

            The intestines (of the sea turtle) are very long, people used to wash them in the salt water, then chop them up and cook them in a large drum.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

          Basket. This word usually refers to a non-traditional basket, such as coiled baskets. The coiling technique was introduced to Arnhem Land by missionary Greta Matthews in the 1920s, but was traditionally used by southern Aboriginal people along the Murray River.

          • Ngaye ngamarnbom badjkid mankimukken.

            I made a big basket.

            (Jeanette Burrunali)

          • Ngaye ngahni Mamardawerre kaluk ngarrurrkmirri kunngobarn bu ngamarnbun, dja mak ngarriwern nawu ngarrimarnbun manbu badjkid nawu ngaye ngarridanginj.

            I live at Mamardawerre and I work making things out of pandanus, there are lots of us here making baskets, me and my sisters.

            (Jill Nganjmirra, quoted in Hamby, Louise (ed.), Twined Together: Kunmadj Njalehnjaleken, Injalak Arts and Crafts, Gunbalanya, 2005, p. xiii)

          Etymologyfrom English ‘basket’

          Shirt.

          • Nawu kunmadj ngarringeybun badjubadju nawu kaddumkah kabirridjongburren.

            The piece of clothing that we call 'badjubadju' (a shirt) is something people wear on their upper body.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          LanguageKuninjku

          Etymologyfrom Makassarese bajubaju, 'men's short-sleeved shirt, jacket.'

          Name of a yirridjdja moiety patriclan.

          • Weyakweyak bakurlbakani kurlba barey. Bayimi 'yuy yuy' bakayhmi bayuyhmirey, that kurlba bakadjungi line up anekke kunwardde line kadjale bayibmeng konda, kalkberd, nakkan Nawarray-beh barrolkang dabborrabbolk nuye bu Nangukwirridj nakohbanj na-Badmardi, ya Bangardi nawu. Na-Badmardini, nangamed nuye Nayombolmi nuye kornkumo barroweng makka nungka beywurd Nayombolmi.

            Black-faced cuckoo shrike fi:(Coracina_novaehollandiae) followed the trail of blood. He groaned 'yuy yuy', and went along calling out 'yuy' and he followed the blood and these rocks are all lined up [indicating the route the kangaroo took] and he keeps going and sank here, that male euro who came from Nawarray. It belonged (the dreaming) to that old Badmardi clansman Nangukwirridj, yeah Bangardi. He was Bangardi, Nayombolmi's father, and his son was Nayombolmi.

            (LBN, Badmardi/Worrkorl site survey)

          1Break something.

          • Bu kunboy karribakke wanjh karrinan nawu djak kabebmerren kore kuboybeh.

            If we break a termite mound, we see the white ants coming out from inside the mound.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          2Break (a law), transgress.

          • Yimarnebakke mankarre ngundukkan, nawu Balanda.

            If you break their law they'll put you in handcuffs, the white people.

            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006. Kunkarre changed to mankarre. )

          3Compose a song about a person or incident, be able to perform (orally) or recite something.

          • Djimarr benbakkeng yawurrinj mandule bedberre.

            Djimarr created a song for/about the young men.

          Kunbalak-murridjke, (variant > murridjdje)

          GrammarThis construction is of the form SUBJ/OBJ-break.

          Tobacco.

          • Bu yibawon bakki kamak wanjh.

            It would be good if you gave up smoking.

          Kunbalakkundjule

          Break.

          • Yuwn yikilekme wardi kabakme.

            Don't touch it or it might break.

          Kunbalak-murridjme, redup.= -murrimurridjme

          1Trajectory in space away from a static speaker and/or hearer or, in third-person-based narrative, on the protagonist's current position.

          • Yibalderrehmen!

            Move over! [so there’s room for me to squeeze in].

          • Nungka balwam kore mankabo bu dungyibmiyibmi darnki.

            He went out to the river when it was almost sunset.

          2Recurring or continuing movement along.

          • Yibalre / Yibale!

            Keep going!

          • Kundulk makkah kabalhdulkdarlkan.

            That stick is floating along down the river.

          • Ngabirlidombom ngarohrokmeng dja baldjalwurlhmeng.

            I tried to put the fire out, but it kept starting up again.

          Sleeping platform, table, bed.

          • Balabbala kanjdji.

            Under the table.

          Etymologyfrom Makassarese balla?-balla? 'cottage, small house; couch'.

          See alsokukbalabbala

          Flat, smooth.

          Synonymskukbalabala

          • Wirndilk kaworrbalabala.

            The Haemodorum coccineum plant has flat leaves.

            (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal, Russel, Jeremy & Garde, Murray, ‘A Preliminary List of Kundedjnjenghmi Plant Names’, NLC, Kabulwarnamyo, 2003 )

          • Mandulkbalabala.

            A flat piece of wood.

            (Jeanette Burrunali)

          GrammarNormally appears in noun or verb constructs, e.g. 'mandulkbalabala', 'a flat piece of wood'.

          Leech.

          • Baladj ngakele, wardi ngankurlbayakwon.

            I'm frightened of leeches, they might finish up my blood.

            (Jeanette Burrunali)

          Bag, string bag or cloth bag.

          • Kunkare Ngalngarridj wam kunngobarn mangihmangi, kani baladjdji dja manmarli.

            One day Ngalngarridj went gathering pandanus, carrying a bag and a hooked stick.

            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

          Etymologyfrom Makassarese balase 'sack, bag'

          Give daughter in marriage.

          Synonymsberrebbun

          • Ngalkurrng nganbalakbun. 'Ngayi won daluk,' kayime.

            (My) cousin (MMBDD) will give me her daughter in marriage. She'll say, 'I'll give the girl to you.'

          Chequered rainbow fish; totem in the lorrkkon ceremony performed by Kuninjku people.

          Scientific nameMelanotaenia splendida inornata

          • Balakirrkirr nakka kare kore kubowinjku, korroko dabborrabbolk birrimangi walabi, wanjh birrikinjeyi bu birringuni, dja mak birribonguni djubdjub.

            Rainbow fish live in fresh water, in the old days our ancestors used to catch them in traditional nets, then roast them for eating or make them into soup.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          LanguageKunwinjku

          Person of non-Aboriginal descent.

          Synonymskukbele

          • Barrk ngarringeybun nawu ngad bininj ngarriwinjku ngarrikukburlerri dja birrikukbele balanda kabirringeybun 'black wallaroo'.

            Us Kunwinjku Aboriginal people say 'barrk', but non-indigenous people, white people, call it a 'black wallaroo'.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

          LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kune

          Etymologyfrom Macassarese, Hollander

          Male subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

          • Barrk djukerre. Nakka duwa Balang. Balang Belinj.

            The black wallaroos are of the duwa moiety and the male is Balang subsection and the female is Belinj.

          LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

          Far, a long way.

          Synonymsdjarre

          • Ngalburlanj wam kore kubolkbalay.

            Ngalburlanj went to a place very far away.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          • La name nawaran yingeybun wardi kangeybekkan bonj ngunbawon kare kelekele. Namekke. Kukkelekele namekke. Nawaran. Ngunbekkan. Kunwok kabekkan. Yiman bininj nakka, kunwok kakarrme. Kangeybekkan nawu balay kangimen nawu kururrk cave munguyhmunguyh marrek mak ngarrngalke.

            If you utter the name of the Oenpelli python [when hunting it] then it will be too late and it will leave you behind and go off in fear. That's it. It is a very timid animal the Oenpelli python. It can hear your speech. It is like a human and has its own language. It can hear its name and will take off a long way and go inside a cave and you'll never find it.

            (Jimmy Kalarriya, in file ‘Kalarriya Nawaran’ recorded by Murray Garde.)

          LanguageKune, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

          1Where.

          • Ngudda baleh yihdi?

            Where have you been?

          • Baleh yihbabang?

            Where does it hurt?

          2What.

          • Maladj, baleh ngundihmarneyimeng? Oh ngandihkaybom ngamarrewedowen ngarrowen .

            Maladj, what did they say to you? Oh, they refused to give me any [food]. Now I'm really starving.

          • Bale kayime?

            What's (s)he saying?

          • Minj baleh karriyime.

            There's nothing we can do. [or] What can we possibly do/say?

          3How.

          • Bale ngayimiwon?

            How do I do this?

          LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kune

          When.

          • Bu balekeno yimdurndeng?

            When are you coming back?

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          Close or block off.

          • Kunngol mimbalhmeng dird.

            The clouds have blocked the moon.

          Kunbalak-balhbonghme

          -dangbalhme

            Close door or block off an entrance.

          Keep going, continue moving, go (in a direction away from the speaker).

          • Yibalay djarreh.

            Keep on going for a long way.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          • Kare kaddum wanjh Duleburreni Ngaldaddubbe Djabidj Bakoluy kare konda kabalhdurndeng kaddum kabale mani anbolh kadumeyoken ngaleng bono.

            It goes upstream to the places Duleburreni Ngaldaddubbe and Djabidj Bakoluy and here it keeps going back up to where the river meanders into a wide outer bank.

            (Lofty Bardayal Nadjamerrek (Kundedjnjenghmi))

          • Yibaldjalay munguyh.

            Just go away for good.

            (Jill Nganjmirra )

          GrammarComposed of bal + re, but usually shortened to 'bale' in casual speech.

          Type of black termite mound, usually found on the side of trees and favoured for use in ground ovens.

          • Bambam ngalengman kore kundulk kabelebelbme, manboykerlk.

            'Bambam', black termite mounds, can be found stuck against the base of trees. They are a relatively soft type of termite mound.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          • Birriboymangi manbu kunboy manboyburlerri kangeyyo bambam wanjh birriwilkdengi.

            They would gather bits of black termite mound, called 'bambam', and use it to cook them (the olive pythons).

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

          See alsodjibdjib

          Dead end valley or narrow gully which are the sites chosen for fire drives to trap kangaroos which become trapped and injured by fire and can then be easily speared.

          • Makka ngarridi manekke kunj yiman ba kahre manbambarr kabidbun, yah ngarriyame.

            We stand there in them (the gullies) and if the kangaroos go up the narrow gully then we spear them.

          GrammarThe prefix fv:(m)an- is optional

          Shine, glisten, be bright or brilliant in colour (either in terms of lightness or in hue), be vivid.

          • Djadberlhberl nawu kakarlangbarme.

            That red-shouldered parrot, the one with the brightly coloured shoulder.

          • Ngudda yingurlme yire, ngayi ngabarme ngare, ngayi yiman mankalarr.

            You move as a dark form, I go with a bright shining body, I am like the ghost gum (a Kuninjku kunborrk genre song text).

          -mimbame

            Be dazzled.

          A duwa moiety Jawoyn clan (or in Bininj Kunwok spelling Djawonj) in the South Alligator River valley and surrounding parallel valleys, ridges and hills. A synonym for this clan is Marrkarala and the clan is sometimes referred to both both names 'Bamkiya-Marrkarala'.

          • Bamkiya duwa, kunred kuhri walem nawu bedberreni dabborrabbolk kunred wanjh birriyakminj dja nahni nawu birrikerrnge kabirrihdi.

            Bamkiya is a Duwa moiety clan. The country of their ancestors is down there in the south, but the old people have passed away and it is just the new generation now.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          Fishing net, kind of drag net.

          • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birrimarnbuni banambi, djenjken dja wakihkenh, bu birrimangi kore kukkubeh. Kaluk birrimangi kunyarl manbudbudbeh, dja mak manborndebeh. Wanjh birriborolhmi, birriyarlkimukwoni, yerre wanjh birrimarnbuni mankimukken bu birriwayebbuni nawu djenj dja wakih bu birrimangi.

            In the old days, our ancestors would make drag nets for fish and river prawns, to get them from the water. They would get string from the bark of the kurrajong tree, or the banyan tree. They would rub the bark on their thigh and make the string longer, then make a really big net. They would spread and then close the net in the water, catching fish and prawns.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          Etymologyfrom Makassarese panambe 'sort of fishing net’. Yolngu Matha= ‘banambi’ [Zorc]

          1Dangerous, wild, violent.

          • Birrihbang.

            Wild people (violent or quick to anger).

          • Kundjikurdubuk djang kundjak nabang.

            The sickness dreaming site at Kundjikurdubuk is dangerous.

          2Food that is either poisonous or 'cheeky', i.e. leaves a burning sensation in the mouth or is very strong in taste (salty, bitter, too sweet, too much chilli etc).

          • Manu kari yikurrmeng manbang ngandjenbom.

            This curry powder you put [in the food] is so powerful it has burnt my tongue.

          -kunbang

            Alcohol, alcoholic beverage, grog.

          -ngudjbang

            Powerful, fast (of animals etc).

          Male subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

          • Aa Bangardi bimbom bu ngabbard nganbimbukkang Bangardi ngayiken nadjorrorlam

            There are paintings by a man of Bangardi subsection which my father showed me, Bangardi, a man related to me of Djorrorlom clan.

            (JK)

          LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

          Female subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

          • Manbulu Karri ngalengarre Bangardidjan ngal-Marrirn.

            Manbulu Karri (a place) belongs to her, Bangardidjan of the Marrirn clan.

            (Kevin Buluwana)

          LanguageKuninjku

          Late wet season, the last rains of the wet season (April-May), 'knockemdowns' (late storms which 'knock down' the tall spear grass.

          • Daluhdaluk kabirrire kabirrimang mankodjbang bu bangkerreng kayimerran.

            Women go and get water peanuts in the late wet season.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          Person of mixed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal descent.

            EtymologyFrom: from Makassarese kayo bangko 'mangrove sp., whose bark is used to boil trepang to give a red colour'.

            Not yet.

            • Yuwn yibangmeyarlkilekme.

              Don't touch the (fishing) line yet.

            • Ngadjadj, bu ngarrbalre kore kakkak, yuwn kanbangmemulewan, yidjalbawo kaluk ngalengman kadjawayhme.

              Uncle, when we go to see grandma, don't introduce me to her straight away, leave it and let her ask.

              (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Nabulanj Namandjulngunj et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

            Grammaran aspectual prefix on verbs with the sense of 'before time in topic frame'

            Become wild, aggressive, violent.

            • Kunbang birribonguneng birribangminj wanjh.

              They drank alcohol and then they become violent.

            Kunbalak-marimen

            Enamel metal cup or mug, pannikin.

            • Djakku kakan banikin bele, kabiwon Nabulanj.

              Lefty [nickname] is carrying a white pannikin, he’s going to give it to Nabulanj.

              (‘Lesson 13: Djurra ‘L’’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

            Etymologyfrom English ‘pannikin’

            Smelly, smelling of something, odorous (pleasant or malodorous).

            • Kanudbanj.

              It smells rotten.

            Cross cousin who is considered an affine e.g. brother-in-law, sister-in-law, MBD, MBS, MMBDS, MMBDD. Borrowed from Kriol, which in turn is likely borrowed from another Top End language. Used as term of reference and address.

            Synonymskanjok

              Name of a duwa moiety Kune and Dangbon speaking patriclan from central Arnhem Land.

              • Konda bedman na-Barabba, Kurrkdjurle, kunred nuye Wamud na-Barabba, nawernwarre ngarduk Kurrkdjurle. Kunred nuye Mimburrng.

                This [land] here belongs to the Barabba clan, this place Kurrkdjurle was for Wamud of the Barabba clan who was my eldest brother, Kurrkdjurle [was his place]. His country was Mimburrng [an estate name].

              Fail in an effort to achieve something, try until tired, give up after an unsuccessful attempt.

              • "Nawu bininj kabarabun manbu kundulk bu kahwayhke, dja ngurriray, ngurribidyikarrme ba ngurridjarrkdulkwayhke".

                "That man is trying to lift up a big log, but it's too heavy for him, go and help him and lift the log together".

                (Jill Nganjmirra)

              • Ngalbu daluk ngalburrkkimuk wanjh kabaraburren bu kahre, minj kadokodokme dja yeledj kahdjalre.

                The woman is very fat and it means she gets tired out when she walks, she can't go fast but instead just walks slowly.

                (Jill Nganjmirra)

              • Birriyerrkarrinj rowk wanjh dokmeng djadberlhberlh, korrkkeng, kayakki, korrkkeng, kayakki, barabom.

                They all sat themselves down and red-shouldered parrot got up and tried to lance it [the boil on black-faced cuckoo shrike's leg], but after a number of attempts he gave up.

              A duwa moiety Jawoyn speaking patriclan on the southern Arnhem Land plateau in the upper Mann River region.

                Egg white, albumen.

                • Bu darnkih bangkerreng kahyimerran, wanjh manimunak kawirlarrkkurrme. Nawu wirlarrk kakarrme bard dja koyhbe, bu kahkerlk wanjh ngarringun. Kaluk yerrikah bu bard karayekmen, wanjh kunukka minj ngarringun dja koyhbewi ngarridjalngun.

                  When the late wet season approaches, the magpie geese lay their eggs. The eggs have a white and a yolk, which we eat as long as they're still liquid. Later when the egg white hardens, we don't eat it, only the yolk.

                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                See alsokoyhbe

                ‘Almost’, ‘nearly happened but didn’t’, ‘be about to’. When prefixed to the verb to get barlanhmang the meaning is ‘let go of, lose control of, fail to take hold of’. In Kune it can appear as a free form.

                • Ngalkudji bikebbadjdji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

                  He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He hit the other woman, but he didn't manage to hit her hard, and she just fainted.

                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                • Ngad ngarrikarrme mankare mankarre kerrngekenh wanjh ngarribarlanhmang.

                  We have the old law from the very beginning but we are letting it go [losing it].

                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 260)

                • Nganbarlankebdoy.

                  He nearly punched me.

                -barlanhmang

                  Let go of something, lose something, not hold something properly.

                Crooked, twisted, skewed, bent, bandy (legged).

                • Kukbarli.

                  Crooked body/crippled/object out of shape.

                • Mimbarli.

                  Cross-eyed/having an off-centred iris.

                • Wanjh kumwam, ngandjawam ngadberre nawu ngarridanjbik ngarrihdi: Ngalngarridj June, ngaye, Ngaldengebarli Ngalkodjok.

                  Then he came and asked the three of us who were there, June, myself, and that Ngalkodjok with the bandy legs.

                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                -barlidan

                  Become crooked.

                Become crooked or twisted.

                • Yibiwkeng, bonj barlidanj.

                  You've bent it, it's crooked now.

                Kunbalakbarlibonghme

                Fill up a container to capacity.

                • Benebokenh kohbakohbanj benewam benehmangi mandem. Benemey benebarlkeng, ngalkudji yimeng, "yimray ngarrdokme ngabarlkeng ngayembu".

                  Two old women were gathering waterlily roots. They filled up their bags, and one of them said "Come here, let's go, mine is full already".

                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                Sacred boomerangs used in pairs as musical instruments in various ceremonial contexts.

                Synonymsbirrkala

                • Malalam yiman kayime yibengkan mandjoh yiman kayime manu, kabirrimarnbun njamed, barlkkan.

                  In dry hill country where you can find Acacia difficilis, they use that timber to make boomerangs.

                Be filled to capacity.

                • Karriborrahkendong rowk wanjh barlmeng karriyirrurndeng.

                  Let's fill up all the containers with water and then take them back full.

                Kunbalakbarlbonghme

                Do an action quickly or urgently.

                • Yibarlokwo werrk yimray!

                  Hurry up, come over here!

                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                • Yibarlokwo werrk yimarnbu!

                  Hurry up and finish it!

                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                Turn (a vehicle etc) and go in another direction.

                • Manbu manwelyi aeroplane bu karrolkan kore kungol wanjh kadjerrkname bu kakebbarlungke ba mandjad kare.

                  Once an aeroplane takes off into the air, it rolls to one side and turns [lit. 'points its nose'] in another direction, straight towards its destination.

                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                Change course, turn and travel in another direction, turn off a track.

                • Kabolhbarlungme.

                  The track curves around.

                • Kukbarlungmeng.

                  It has twisted around [e.g. a crocodile swerving to catch a fish].

                • Mahni karribarlungmen!

                  We turn off here!

                A tree hideout, from which people wait to spear animals such as emus.

                • Bu korroko dabborrabbolk birribarndi kore kurrulk birriyimi barnambalh bu birrikokkokkirri mayh nuye. Bu birrinani kumrey nawu mayh, wanjh birriyami.

                  In the old days, our ancestors would sit up in trees, which they called 'barnambalh', keeping a lookout for animals. When they saw one coming, they would spear it.

                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                • Dja ankurndalh barribidbuni, ankurndalh birribidbuni birribarurreni birrimadbuni, barnambalh birrimadbuni birridjalmadbuni marrek djarre birriyami yiman mani kaddum, karlangno, kumekke babarndi delek dorrengh malano malakarrmi bamalabakbakkeyi bonj.

                  People also used to climb up black plum trees and cover themselves in white clay and stay and wait. When the emu came in to eat the fruit, from not far away, they would spear them from above, from a fork in the tree they would stand up there covered in white clay holding a branch of camouflage they had broken off. That’s what they did.

                  (George Djandjomer, quoted in Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus: Indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 85 (Kundedjnjenghmi))

                In the daytime.

                • Barnangarra kakeyo kaluk kukak kayawan nawu djenj dja kordbolbok dja nawern nawu mayh kilekilelh.

                  It sleeps in the daytime, then in the nighttime it looks for fish and frogs and many other small animals.

                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation, Bokorn (spangled grunter) story.)

                Stone axe with wooden haft.

                Synonymskarramalk

                  Be high up, be situated in a high place.

                  • Ngurribarndin!

                    Stay up there!

                  • Ngadedjbarndi manih.

                    I'll sit up on this [chair].

                  Kunbalakkalawhmiken

                  GrammarNominal subjects can be incorporated.

                  1Take someone by the arm.

                    2Get someone, ‘pick someone up’ to take them somewhere.

                    • “Ngudda baleh yihdjarrbelme? Kanngulhbu, ngamdokan barndjamodme wanjh yiwarnduyhme kumelworn.”

                      “Ngudda baleh yihdi? Kanmadbu, ngamre berlmang wanjh durndiwe kured.”

                      “Where are you? Wait for me, I’ll come and get you and take you home.”

                      (Jill Nganjmirra )

                    3Arrest someone.

                      Regular Bininj Kunwokberlmang

                      Carpet python.

                      Scientific nameMorelia spilota variegata

                      • Barndol kukdahdadjmiken.

                        The carpet python has striped blocks of colour.

                      • Ngalbu barndol ngalkka kabirringun kore kubolkbubuyika.

                        In other places, the people eat carpet pythons.

                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                      LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                      In poor physical condition, worn out, decrepit, unwell, not functional.

                      Synonymskukwarrehwarre

                      • Nawu wurdyaw yimeng "Ah warre, ngurrinan nawu duruk barnehbarne, mudyakminj, minj kakarrme kunmud".

                        The child said "Oh dear, look at that poor scraggy dog, it's lost its hair, it doesn't have any hair left".

                        (Jill Nganjmirra )

                      • Ngalbu daluk yimeng bedberre nawu yawuhyawurrinj "Mahni manu muddikka ngurrimrey, makka nuk mankukbarnehbarne, minj mankukmak".

                        The woman told the young men "That car you came in is an old piece of junk, it's no good".

                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                      • Ngalkohbanj bimarneyimeng ngalbu ngalyawkyawk "Ah, ngudda nuk yidjalbidbarnehbarne bu yiwarrawarrhke manbu manme minj yiwernhkarrme".

                        The old woman told the young girl "Oh you're so clumsy, you're dropping all the food, you can't keep a hold of it".

                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                      Fall into poor physical condition in some way (e.g. wear out, become saggy, become sore and swollen), deteriorate.

                      Synonymskukwarrehwarremen

                      • Mimbarnehbarneminj.

                        His eyes became saggy and wrinkled.

                      Support, guide, help someone to walk.

                      • Nahni nakohbanj mimbunje minj kawernhbolknan dja kabirridjalbarnkan.

                        That old man is blind, he can’t see properly so people guide him around.

                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                      Place in a high position, hang up.

                      • Yibarnnamen wardi duruk kangun.

                        Put it up high otherwise the dogs might eat it.

                      Kunbalakkalawhke

                      Wet season wind, north-west monsoons.

                      • Bu Kurnumeleng kayimerran mandjewk kadjakdung, wanjh barra kankarrme kadberre. Kunmayorrk kaworlhme kakbibeh dja walembeh. Wanjh ngarriyime barra dedjdjingmey.

                        In the early wet season, the rains start falling and the monsoon winds start. The wind blows from the north and the south, and we say that the 'barra' winds have begun.

                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                      Etymologyfrom Makassarese ba:ra? 'west wind, rainwind'

                      Name of a yirridjdja moiety patriclan on the Arnhem Land plateau.

                      • Duwa, bedberre Worrkorl Warddjak. Kaddum wam wanjh bebmeng bu Barradj, kubuldjdjarn. Kadjale kaddum Kayerrngwe kaddum badjalwam duwa.

                        That's the duwa moiety area for the Worrkorl and Warddjak clans. It goes upstream and becomes Barradj in the middle [of the East Alligator river]. It goes all the way to Kayerrngwe and belongs to duwa moiety upstream [from there].

                      Long wooden-headed 'shovel-spear', with bamboo shaft and head having an exceptionally long (>320mm) broad, leaf-shaped blade of ironwood (Erythrophleum chlorostachys) although today the points are typically fashioned from hammered steel.

                        Kunbalakdjerrkudmiken

                        Name of a yirridjdja moiety patriclan in the lower Liverpool River region.

                        • Mani kunwardde Marrirn ... Barrbinj kure kakbi, Marrirn koyek.

                          This rock is Marrirn [clan country] ... and Barrbinj is to the north, Marrirn clan is east of that.

                        • Yirridjdja rowk nanu wanjh Kumarrirnbang-beh kare bolk kunengkunu bolk-Barrbinj kadjale kanjdji kabolkbuyika kure nabuyika Marrirn.

                          It's all yirridjdja moiety country from here at Kumarrirnbang to that Barrbinj country there and it goes right downstream to another [discontiguous] Marrirn estate.

                        The sprouting seeds of the waterlily, edible raw or cooked.

                        • Bu benebebmeng kured wanjh beneworrhmeng benewilkdi nawu kalawan dja mandem dja manu barrdjungka benekinjeng kore kuyirrke dja nawu mankung benedelengbarnnameng kore balabbala.

                          When they got back to camp they made a fire and cooked the goanna in the ashes and the water lily seeds on the coals and put the honey they had gathered up in the roof of the shelter.

                        Hit, clap, swat.

                        • Mandubang kunmalaworr kabirrimalaworrhkinje wanjh kabindikukbarrhbarrhmang nawu bininj kundolng dorrengh.

                          They burn ironwood branches and swat people with the smoking branches.

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        • Kabirribobarrhbarrhmang.

                          They hit the water (so it splashes up).

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        • Yibarrhbarrhma.

                          Hit it [ritually hit the sacred site with the branch].

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        -bidbarrhbarrhmarren

                          Clap one's hands together

                        -kurlahbarrhbarrhmarren

                          Make a clapping sound by hitting one part of the body against another.

                        1Sunrise, the appearance of the sun at dawn.

                        • Ngurridolkka barrhbom!

                          Get up you mob, the sun's up!

                        2Cover over, wrap up.

                        • 'Kanwo', bimarneyimeng ngalu ngalbadjan 'kanwo kunkod ba ngabarrhburren.' Barrhburrinj wanjh yonginj ngaleng.

                          'Give me some', said the mother, 'give me paperbark so I can cover myself [to use as a blanket]. She covered herself over and she slept.

                        Kunbalakkumbehmerren.

                        -barrhburren

                          Cover self, be a canopy of vegetation.

                        Crack or split open an OBJ, burst.

                        • Mibbarr nungkah kabun nawu dabuno kangun karrowkke, kabarrhke 'dek' kukebyih.

                          The white bellied sea eagle breaks the [emu] egg to eat it, 'crack' it smashes it open with its beak.

                        Shatter, crack or split, burst open.

                        • Milhbarrhmeng namekke murrika.

                          That car has a smashed windscreen.

                        • Ngardbakan nakka karohrok yiman karnubirr. Bu ngarridjare kuk ngarringun wanjh kunwardde ngarridong kabarrhme wanjh ngarringun

                          Saltwater mussels are similar to freshwater mussels. If we want to just eat them raw, we hit them with a rock, they split open and we can eat them like that.

                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                        Kunbalak-barrhyamidokan

                        Place name in the upper Tomkinson River district, yirridjdja moiety, also site of an outstation and a nearby yawkyawk 'mermaid' totemic centre. Literally means ‘they crossed over', which refers to the journey of totemic female water spirits who travelled through this site.

                        • Barrihdjowkkeng yirridjdja bedberre, nawu Darnkolo kunnguya.

                          Barrihdjowkkeng is a yirridjdja moiety place belonging to the Darnkolo clan.

                          (John Mawurndjul)

                        Male black rock wallaroo. In Kuninjku the default name for the male black rock wallaroo is nadjinem but in Kunwinjku nadjinem refers to a very large male whilst smaller individuals are called barrk.

                        Scientific nameOsphranter bernardus

                        • Anbongka barrk kangun mimno bu kabamobarrbarrhme.

                          The black wallaroo eats the seeds of Acacia latescens when the seed pods crack open.

                        • Nuye djabulhdjabulh barrk djukerre kamimburdme dja kangun.

                          That Solanum echinatum (wild tomato), is the food of the black wallaroo, which it eats with its eyes closed [because of the spikes].

                        • Nungan kakarrme barrk morrdjdjanjno. Korroko bu barrimorrodjdjanjkadjungi dabborrabbolk.

                          The male black wallaroo has special morrdjdjanjno hunting songs. A long time ago, the old people used to sing those songs.

                        LanguageKune, Kunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi

                        Smear, paint, cover a surface with a wet or viscous substance. This word can be contrasted with bimbun, which means to paint a picture, draw or write.

                        • Kunrodjbe kabirribarung wanjh delek kabirribimbun kore dolobbo nawu mayh njale nawu kunj djenj dja nawern.

                          They prepare the surface of the bark with red ochre, then they paint an animal (silhouette) in white ochre, for example a kangaroo or fish or lots of different things.

                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                        Kunbalakbanjinhme

                        -barurren

                          Smear oneself with ochre or other substance.

                        Paint or smear oneself with ochre, paint each other with ochre, 'paint up' for ceremony or performance.

                        • Karribarurren delek wanjh karrimelme.

                          Let's paint ourselves with pipe clay and dance.

                        • Bu kunborrk kabirriborrkke manbu manyardi wanjh kabirribarurren delek, yiman mak bu kabirrikodyiyo kore kudjurle nawu nangale kayakmen, wanjh nawu namud nuye kabirribarurren delek ba bu kabindiburrbun nungka nuye namud.

                          When people do dances, they paint themselves with white ochre. Or when people are gathered in a traditional shade for someone who has passed away, that person's family will paint themselves with white ochre so people know who they are.

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        Be quiet!, shush!

                        • Yoh yoh bonj bonj karrikaybun, karrikaybun baw!

                          Yes, yes, that's it, that's what we shall do, let's not give any to her, we'll refuse to give any, quiet now [she's coming]!

                        • Wurdurd bawh, wokyak!

                          Hey kids, shush, be quiet!

                        • Bawh, ngurringurdmen! Bulanj kabiwokmang Balang!

                          Shush, be quiet all of you! Bulanj is making a voice recording of Balang!

                        1Leave alone, leave untouched.

                        • Yuwn ngurrikilekme, ngurribawo!

                          Don't touch it, leave it alone!

                        2Abandon.

                        • Ngandibawong.

                          They left me.

                        3Part contact with OBJ.

                        • Nakimuk nganbawon.

                          They [the trousers] are too big, they're falling down off me.

                        4Give up a previous habitual activity, stop.

                        • Bakki ngabawong.

                          I've given up smoking.

                        Kunbalak-warnmorrhme

                        -baworren

                          Divorce each other.

                        --yibawon

                          Leave something to someone, pass something on to someone.

                        Chicken, fowl.

                        • Nanikud ngarrikarrmi and bawurl ngarrikarrmi nawern.

                          We had goats, and lots of chickens too.

                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                        Etymologyfrom English ‘fowl’

                        Purchase, buy.

                        • Manme nganebayahme karrewoneng.

                          We'll buy some food for ourselves.

                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                        Etymologyfrom English 'buy'

                        Inside, within, deep down.

                        • Wanjh bikodjbayeng biyibkeng kanjdji wanjh bikani kanjdji bidjalngani [bidjalkani] kurorre baybay.

                          Then it [the rainbow serpent] swallowed her head first and took her deep down into the earth.

                          (The example phrase comes from some texts Peter Carroll has deposited with AIATSIS. )

                        • Daluk baybayken.

                          Women’s internal reproductive organs.

                        • Ngalengman baybaywi djahdjalburrbuni.

                          She knew within herself, was convinced of it.

                          (Nawirridj, Grace & Rowe, Meryl (eds), 'Karriburlume God: Kunwinjku Song Book', Gunbalanya, 1985, p. 7.)

                        -baybaywi

                          Inside, internally, within oneself.

                        1Bite.

                        • Nganbidbaye.

                          It's biting my finger.

                        • Birribayerrinj duruk.

                          The dogs were fighting (biting each other).

                        2Cause an illness, cause pain, cause fright etc.

                        • Njale ngunbayeng?

                          What's the matter? What’s happened? [lit. “What’s bitten you?”]

                        Kunbalak-lawme

                        Each, individually, separately.

                        • Birribebbehwam.

                          They each went on their own.

                        • Ngarrbenbebbewon.

                          Let's give to each of them.

                        • Mankung nawu yiman kayime kabebbengeybuyika nawu mankung kardderre lorlbban nabiwo njalenjale.

                          The varieties of honey for example each have a different name, such as kardderre, lorlbban, nabiwo and so on.

                        GrammarThis verbal prefix has a distributive function which can include spatial separation. The 'distributive share' (see Evans 2003:497) can be focused on an intransitive or transitive subject but in some cases for the latter, also on the object and verb.

                        1Take out, bring out, reveal, cause to appear.

                        • Yibebkemen bakki nguddangke ngawungme!

                          Take out your tobacco and I'll have a smoke!

                        2Produce children.

                        • Wamuddjan nganemarren ngarridj la ngarridjdjan ngabebke.

                          I'll get married to a woman of wamuddjan subsection and I'll have (produce) children of ngarridj and ngarridjdjan subsection.

                        Kunbalak-worrbayhke

                        1Appear, arrive.

                        • Birrbebmeng.

                          They're here (they have arrived).

                        • Dungbebmeng.

                          The sun is up.

                        2Go/come out of an enclosure or dwelling.

                        • Yibebmen!

                          Go outside!

                        Kunbalakworrbayhme

                        1Theirs, of theirs.

                        • Dabborrabbolk kunwok bedberre.

                          The language of the ancestors.

                        2For them, to them.

                        • Ngadmanwali karrikan bedberre.

                          It's our turn to take it for them.

                        • Wardi yiyolyolme bedberre Balanda.

                          Explain it for those non-Aboriginal people.

                        Grammarcan express a benefactive function when there is no benefactive applicative [i.e.-marne-] in the verb complex. The first sense expresses basic possession of a noun

                        They, them

                        • Bedda Nakorrkko benekabokurrmeng.

                          The Nakorrkko [ancestral father and son heroes] placed the creek there.

                        • Kunekke kabirriyime bedda.

                          That's the kind of thing they [those people] do.

                        Apply paint to a surface, flick a liquid or viscous substance. Also used for the process of applying paint during screen printing (e.g. at Injalak Arts and Crafts in Gunbalanya).

                        • Karribedjekmerren delek karriborrkke.

                          Let's flick ourselves with white ochre and dance.

                        Themselves, by themselves.

                        • Nawu Mimih nakka yiman ngad bininj djaying, dja bedman djal kuwarde kuwarderurrk kabirriyo.

                          It's said that Mimih spirits are similar to us people, but they live by themselves in rocky country in caves.

                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                        • Nakka bukka bedberre bedman na-Buyhmi.

                          That [land] there belongs exclusively to the Buyhmi clan themselves.

                        GrammarThis is a pronoun of the emphatic series (there being three kinds of free-standing pronouns: direct, oblique and emphatic). Evans

                        1From.

                        • Birrimwam Manawukan beh.

                          They came from Maningrida.

                        2Away a bit further.

                        • Beh karrire.

                          Let's just go over there.

                        3Demonstrative with gender prefix indicating both referential and locational immediacy 'that one who has just been mentioned, just over there'.

                        • Nabeh kahdi.

                          Him (the person just mentioned), he's just over there.

                        • A: Kamarrang kahdi? B: Nabeh.

                          A: Is Kamarrang here? B: He's just over there.

                        LanguageKune, Kuninjku

                        See alsoSee also -bewh (W)

                        GrammarIn the sense of "him/her just over there", prefixed with na-, ngal-, man- etc.

                        1Ritually cleanse a place or person by swatting with smoking ironwood leaves, for example after witnessing a sacred ceremony.

                        • Minj kangun djenj, la birriberhkeng wanjh bonj nguneng.

                          He wasn't allowed to eat fish and then they lifted the restriction (by smoking him) and it was OK for him to eat it then.

                        2Perform increase ritual which involves swatting a particular site with a branch of ironwood leaves, and asking for plentiful game, fish etc.

                        • Kunmalaworr mandubang kabirrimang wanjh kabirridjangberhke kabirribolkngeyhngeybun. Wanjh kadjangyalarrme.

                          People get an ironwood branch and swat the sacred site with it, calling out the names of places (where they want to find plentiful game). Then the djang spreads out from there (and goes to those places, increasing the animals/fish etc).

                        • Delek birriburriwemeninj dja kunmalaworr birriberhberhkemeninj kuwukku, o kure djenj kabimdi djenjken.

                          They would throw white clay (into the water) and thrash the place with leaves in the water or similarly at the fish increase site they would strike the paintings of fish with leaves.

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        3Lift ceremonial restrictions on food.

                        • Minj kangun djenj, la birriberhkeng wanjh bonj nguneng.

                          He wasn't allowed to eat fish and then they lifted the restriction and it was okay for him to eat it then.

                        Death adder.

                        Scientific nameAcanthiphis praelongus

                          LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                          Kunbalakngalwirnyi

                          Arafura file snake.

                          Scientific nameAcrochordus arafurae

                            LanguageKuninjku

                            Kunbalak1. ngaldjangarabunebune 2. ngaldjangarakerlkkerlk

                            1Listen, hear.

                            • Bukbuk karribekkan kawokdi kayime bukbuk bukbuk bukbuk.

                              We hear the pheasant coucal calling out “book-book, book-book, book-book”.

                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                            • Yibekka wanjh.

                              Listen to him/her.

                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                            2Feel, touch

                            • Bekkarrinj nungan kunkurlah nuye kahbuyikahmen wanjh yimerranj madj.

                              He felt his skin becoming different and he became an octopus.

                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                            See alsomanjbekkan

                            Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                            Consider, think about before making a decision.

                              Kunbalakmarrngalahmerren.

                              Stick together (as in one surface to another).

                              • Nganbelbme.

                                It's sticking to me.

                              • Belbminj.

                                Stuck together.

                              1White.

                              • Kukbele.

                                White skinned person.

                              • Kunngolbele.

                                White clouds.

                              2 Clean, clear.

                              • Manbobele.

                                Clear water.

                              -belemen

                                Become white or brighter in colour.

                              Numbness, pins and needles, cramp.

                              • Bele ngandengekarrme.

                                I've got a cramp in my leg.

                              1Lick.

                              • Duruk kumwam benmenebelenghmeng, dja yakminj.

                                A dog came and licked them, then disappeared.

                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                              2Drink leaking or dripping fluid, lick up.

                                Generic name for most geckos.

                                Scientific nameDiplodactylus spp.

                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                                  1Make something white, whiten.

                                    2Make something clean or clear, remove dirt from something.

                                    • Mak bu kadjalbuleyo munguyh, wanjh kunmayorrk kamre mankimuk, kabuleworlhme rowk bu kabolkbelewon.

                                      When there's ash lying on the ground for a while, a big wind will come and blow it away and clean up the area.

                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                    Become numb, become stiff.

                                    • Kabirriwunghme, everywhere kare manekke kundolng. Kabenkinjekinje wanjh rerrih kabirribekkan kabirribeleyerrkan yiman. Bele kabenmang.

                                      Yes, when they inhale [marijuana], that smoke goes everywhere inside. It makes them hot and then they feel like they are getting numb all over. It makes them numb.

                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                    Female subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

                                    • Barrk djukerre. Nakka duwa Balang. Balang Belinj.

                                      The black wallaroos are of the duwa moiety and the male is Balang subsection and the female is Belinj.

                                    LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                    1Subsiding of a swelling, go down.

                                    • Ngamokbelngdanj.

                                      The swelling on my sore has gone down.

                                    • Kandiddjawa yiwilkdeng karung kalurlme. Kaluk karriwilkmang kabuhme kabelngdan wanjh.

                                      You put a damper in the coals and it cooks and swells up. We get it out and it when it's cooled the swelling subsides.

                                    2Deflate, go flat (tyre).

                                      Moon.

                                      Synonymsberrebabi

                                      • Bendarr nawu nungan kadjarrbelme muna bu kawayalhbonghme.

                                        Dird nawu nungan kadi kukak bu kawolkan.

                                        The moon is there at night and gives light.

                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                      Regular Bininj Kunwokdird

                                      1Make distracting noise, annoy, disturb.

                                      • Marrek bekkan, wurdurd kandibengbun.

                                        I can't hear you, those kids are making too much noise.

                                      2Offend or say something improper to somebody, particularly to talk with a man about his sister or to a woman about her brother.

                                      • Ey, kanbengbun!

                                        Hey, you're offending me (i.e. Don't talk to me about my sister).

                                      Notify, let someone know, remind.

                                      • Yimray kanbengdayhke.

                                        Come and let me know.

                                      Remember something, be reminded of, realise.

                                      • Ngudda ‘young people’ wanjh ngudda bu ngurribengdayhmen wanjh ngurribolknahnan. Ba bu ngarridowerren, ngarriyakmen, wanjh ngudda ngurribolknahnan.

                                        You young people, you should realise you can look after the place. So then when we die, when we’ve gone, you’ll be able to look after the place.”

                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                      1Know, understand.

                                      • Yibengkan konda Kurrurldul yibengkan kahyo Balang, la kaddum djang kahdi.

                                        You know here at Kurrurldul where Balang lives, well upstream from there is that sacred site.

                                      • Nakohbanj Tommy yimeng kabibengkan namekke skipper kore kabbala, kangeyyo Burray.

                                        Old Tommy said he remembers the skipper of the boat, his name is Burray.

                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                      2Know how to, be able to.

                                      • Bolkkime minj nangale kabengkan bu kamarnbun manbu bokko larrk.

                                        These days nobody knows how to make barbed spears.

                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                      3Think.

                                      • Med kabengkan.

                                        Wait, she'll think about it.

                                      See alsowernhbengkan

                                      Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                                      Be confused, lose one's way, lose one's mind, be drunk.

                                      • Nawamud benmarneyimeng nawu daluhdaluk "Yuwn wurdurd kabirrire kunih bu wardi kabirribengkokan dja kungarrewern".

                                        Nawamud told the women "The children shouldn't go there, they'll get lost, there's lots of thick jungle".

                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                      • Ngalbulanj bimarneyimeng Ngalkodjok "Nawu nakudji duruk bengkokang, wam nuk baleh".

                                        Ngalbulanj told Ngalkodjok "One of the dogs must have gotten lost, I don't know where it went".

                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                      • Yibengkokan bu kanhmarneyime!

                                        You must be out of your mind, talking to me like that!

                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                      See alsomayahme

                                      Confuse someone.

                                      • Dulkelorrkkelorrken benbengmayahkeng birribengwabom birrimayahmeng.

                                        Dulkelorrkkelorrken (the Tree Spirit) has made them confused and disoriented and they’ve gotten lost.

                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                      Be confused, unable to think clearly.

                                      • Dja nawu yika ngad ngarriyime birrimayalidjad dja mak birrikodjkuludjad, dja yika mak nawu yiman birrimayaliwarre minj kabirriwernhburrbun, yiman kabirrihdjalbengmayahme.

                                        With some people we can say they think well, they are clever, and with others, its like they can’t think well, they don’t know much, it’s as if they get confused.

                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                      See alsomayahme

                                      Forget something.

                                      Synonymskodjmukmeng

                                      • Dja ngabengmidjdanj, ngaye ngayahwurdni.

                                        But I've forgotten, I was very young at the time.

                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                      1Deaf, hearing impaired.

                                        2Heedless person, one who doesn’t pay attention or take sensible advice, stupid person, unable to learn.

                                        • A: Nangale? B. Nawu nanih bengwarr.

                                          A: Who? B. This one here, the stupid one.

                                          (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. 252)

                                        Kunbalakkunmardorrhyambah

                                        Send mad, distract, annoy (due to disturbance, noise, irritation etc).

                                        • Kanhbengwarrewong, arribengwarreminj arridjalni arriburrbun Balandakenh.

                                          It has destroyed our well-being, we have gone crazy just sitting in one place only knowing non-Aboriginal culture.

                                        Become annoyed or seriously irritated, develop dementia, become mad or insane, start to do stupid things.

                                        • Kanhbengwarrewong, arribengwarreminj arridjalni arriburrbun Balandakenh.

                                          It has destroyed our well-being, we have gone crazy just sitting in one place only knowing non-Aboriginal culture.

                                        Australian bustard or plains turkey, often referred to as a ‘bush turkey’.

                                        Scientific nameArdeotis australis

                                        • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk minj ngandiwoyinj ngalbu benuk bu ngarringuyinj. Ngandimarneyimi ngahli mayh benuk minj ngurringun ngaldjamun. Benuk kakarrekan ceremony manbu Mardayin.

                                          In the past, the Old People didn't give us any bush turkey to eat though. They used to tell us we don't eat this bird, it's taboo because it's part of the Mardayin ceremony.

                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                        Name of a patriclan with territory on the Arnhem Land plateau.

                                        • Nayuhyungki nawu nungan bangehngeybuni bu bahdjangweyi. Ngabbard barridjangweyi, na-Mok na-Berdberd. Ngayi mak bolkki ngamidjbun. Bad marrek kandimidjbun ngandiburrknan nawu kunred ngare.

                                          The first ancestors called their names and performed increase rituals for them [nectar-bearing flowering trees]. My father [and his brothers] performed increase rituals, they were of Mok and Berdberd clans. Today I don't recognise some [of the places]. But they [the ancestors] still recognise me as I go about the country.

                                        Circumcise. This is a less polite word than the synonym lakkayenwon.

                                        Synonymsberddadjke, lakkayenwon

                                        • Kabindihberddjobke bukka, dja konda larrk.

                                          They practice circumcision over there [in the east], but not here.

                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 123)

                                        Perform increase ritual. This involves swatting a particular site with a branch of ironwood leaves, and asking for plentiful game, fish etc.

                                        • Nawu nakahbonj kabenyirrokan wurrngahwurrngalk. Kabenbuyukme bu kabirriberdedjbonghke nawu djang molarrinj nadjinem ba bu nawiribbu mandjil wanjh kakorrongkomen.

                                          Nawu nakohbanj kabenkan yawuhyawurrinj. Kabenbukkan bu kabirribehke djang nawu kunj nadjinem ba bu nabuyika mandjewk wanjh kawernmerren.

                                          The old man is taking the young men out. He's showing them how to do an increase ritual at the Black Wallaroo sacred site, so that next year there will be lots of wallaroos.

                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                        Regular Bininj Kunwokbehke

                                        Flat.

                                        • Nakka madjberelh yikan!

                                          You're not taking many clothes! [literally 'That bag of yours is flat!']

                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                        See alsokebberelh

                                        Generic name for river stingrays.

                                          LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Rembarrnga, Dalabon

                                          1Take by the arm, lead someone along.

                                          • Ngudda ngurriray ngayi kondanj ngayo ngurrinan kambarrhbubarrhbun ngurrimre kandiberlmang kandiberlkakan karrire.

                                            You all go away, I will sleep here. When you see the sun rise, come and get me take me by the arm. Take me by the arm and we’ll go off. [Wurrurrumi song text by Kevin Djimarr]

                                          2Get someone, go and bring someone for the purpose of doing something, lead someone.

                                          • Nabangardi bimarneyimeng Nakodjok, "Kab yiray yiberlmang nawu Naburlanj ba yimyirrurndeng kondah kunred". Nakodjok yimeng "Yoh, kaluk ngamyirrurndeng".

                                            Nabangardi told Nakodjok "Go and get Naburlanj and bring him back here to this country". Nakodjok said "Yes, I'll bring him back".

                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                          • None alenge anberlmangi kanmarrkinjmangi wanjh ankung babengkani.

                                            That None wasp would come with a message for us because she knew about the honey [the

                                          3Arrest.

                                          • Wardi djamun kamre ngunberlmang.

                                            Otherwise the police will come and arrest you.

                                          Aunty, FZ.

                                            Carry by handle over the shoulder.

                                            • Ngalkudji ngalkohbanj bernelkani baladjdji kore kukarlang.

                                              An old woman was carrying a bag over her shoulder.

                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                            • Kunyirrk kabernalkan.

                                              She's carrying a dilly bag on her shoulder.

                                            See alsoNakodjok Kayirrkberneldjerrkdi

                                            Pick up a bag and put it over one's shoulder, sling the handle or string of a bag etc. over one's shoulder.

                                            • Yirrkbernelmey dolkkang wam.

                                              He slung his string bag over his shoulder, got up and set off.

                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                            See alsoNakodjok Kayirrkberneldjerrkdi

                                            GrammarThe root 'bernel' refers to the handle of a bag, traditionally made from string, though normally this is incorporated into other words such as bernelkan, bernelmang, kunyarlbernel, etc.

                                            Towards, to, from, in the direction of. Optional prefix added to direction nouns, especially cardinal directions.

                                            • Benemalaydolkkang benewam berrekakbi.

                                              They got up in the morning and headed north.

                                              (Wildflower Band, 'Yawurrinj benedanginj "Two Brothers"', from the Album 'Manginburru Bininj', Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                            • Nahni bininj nungan nangarelwalem kore bornayindanj, dja kore ngalbadjanbeh wanjh berrekakbi.

                                              That man is a southerner on his father's side, but on his mother's side he's from the north.

                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                            • Dukkang wayhkeng nawu wurlebmeng wayhkeng na dukkang wayhkeng na berrekaddum. Kure kuronjhkah kuberrk.

                                              The brother who was in the water tied it up [the crocodile] and lifted it up out of the water towards the bank.

                                            • Manu kadjalburnbun Barrmobeh Kawelerreyme manu berrewalem kadjalyirriyo, manu Kudjaborrng wanjh kumekke bibayeng ngalyuhyungki doydoy ngaldurlmangkarr.

                                              The estate finishes over at Barrmo and Kewelerreyme and towards the south it keeps going along side [of other estates], but Kudjaborrng is the place where the ancestral woman my great grandmother, a Durlmangkarr woman was bitten [by a snake].

                                            Masked lapwing, also known as the masked plover or spur-winged plover.

                                            Scientific nameVanellus miles

                                            • Name kanmulewan berrebberreb bu ngarriwarlbun.

                                              That masked plover sings out and lets animals know that we are approaching when we go hunting.

                                            • Berrebberreb ngad duwa.

                                              The masked lapwing is for us duwa moiety people.

                                            1Claim ownership over.

                                            • Nakka duruk yaw ngardduk. Ngayi werrk ngaberrebburrinj.

                                              That puppy is mine. I was first to claim it.

                                            • Kanyingkihberrebbom.

                                              He claimed us from the start.

                                            2Promise (object to indirect object).

                                            • Nganberrebbom manme.

                                              He promised to give me food.

                                            3Promise to give a woman or girl in marriage.

                                            • Kumekke nganemarrinj ngalbu ngandiberrebbom Mary Lilinjdji.

                                              That's where we got married, me and Mary Lilinjdji, who had been promised to me.

                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                            Often, always.

                                            • Nawu artist bimbom korlobbarr nawu berreboyen karrire karriwarlbun kore manberrk karrinan kahni.

                                              The artist has painted an antilopine kangaroo, which we often hunt in the open forest where we see it.

                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                            • Yiman ngaldumanj, narrumanj, nawu school kabirrire nuk ngabenmarneyolyolme berreboyen. Nikka nawu, dja ngalka ngalbuyika Hanna? Nakka ngabenmarneyolyolme berreboyen.

                                              My grandchildren (your nieces and nephews) who I think are going to school a bit, I’m often explaining things to them. Nikka - her, and her sister Hannah, I’m always explaining things to them.

                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                            Rainbow bee-eater.

                                            Scientific nameMerops ornatus

                                            • Berrerdberrerd karrinan kabarndi kore kundulk manyende yika karrolkan kare kubuyika mayh kayawan.

                                              We see Rainbow Bee Eaters sitting on tree branches, or flying off somewhere else to look for insects.

                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentaton)

                                            Them (2), theirs (2).

                                              1Come out into the open, come out of the water, reach or cross an area of open forest.

                                              • Nawu bininj ngamkani kore manbokimuk, djowkkeng kore bewbeh wanjh berrkmangi kore kukadjid.

                                                The man was swimming across a wide stretch of water, crossed to the other side and was climbing up the opposite bank.

                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                              2

                                              • Korroko berrkmey nawu wurdyaw wanjh kahyo kurobbe.

                                                The child has already been born and is lying on the ground.

                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                              Further, further along.

                                              • Kondah kore karrihni dja borledmikenh kore Nimbabbirr dja bewh kurredjdubbe kabbal kabolkngeyyo Wurrmarninj.

                                                On the other side of Nimbabbirr from where we are here, and further down to the very end of the floodplain, that place is called Wurrmarninj.

                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                              Ancestral being, said to be the progenitor of mako 'didjeridu'.

                                                Baby

                                                • Ngalbu ngalyawkyawk kayawkan wanjh ngarrimarneyime bibbidj minj ngarringeybun, warddi kabikebkadjung bu kabenekebrohrok. Dja bibbidj ngarrimarneyime ba kornkumo kabikebkadjung bu kabenekebrohrok.

                                                  When a girl has a child, we call it 'bibbidj', we don't use it's name, otherwise it will end up looking like its mother. We call it 'bibbidj' so it will look like its father. (In Kunwinjku culture it is considered preferable that a child takes after its father in terms of looks).

                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                LanguageKunwinjku= bibun

                                                1Climb, climb up.

                                                • Nani yina bobbidj, la ngabidbun wanjh ngarradje.

                                                  Look at that wild honey, alright I'll climb up and cut it out.

                                                • Birribidbuni kundulk kore kurrula darnkih.

                                                  They used to climb a tree close to the river.

                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                2 Get into or onto a raised object, e.g. a vehicle.

                                                • Korroko muddikayakni… Dja bolkkime muddika kabirribidbun.

                                                  There were no cars in the old days… Nowadays they can all get in vehicles.

                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                3Rise, rise up. Can refer to the action of many things that rise, such as blistering.

                                                • Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                                  When the tide comes up, we don't see any mud crabs.

                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                • Nganbidbom, ngakurlahlurlmeng.

                                                  It caused a blister on my hand, my skin was swollen.

                                                  (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                4Leave camp to enter a ceremonial place.

                                                • Bu kunwok Kunwinjku ngarriyime mayh ngarriwarlbun. Dja bu ngarriyime mayh ngarrire ngarribidbun karrkad wanjh nakka kore ceremony yiman Kunabibi mandjamun manbu bininj ngadberre.

                                                  In the Kunwinjku language, we say that we hunt mayh (animals). But when we say we’re going up to a mayh, in that case it means we’re going up to a ceremony, like Kunabibi or another sacred event of ours.

                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                1Lift something up.

                                                Synonyms-wayhke

                                                • Bu kinga birridulubom doweng wanjh birrikukbidbuyhweng kore kurlabbarlbeh.

                                                  When they had shot the crocodiles, they lifted the dead animals out of the billabong.

                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                2Give someone a lift (in a car etc).

                                                • Muddika kabindibidbuyhwe kabirridjarrkre.

                                                  They give them a lift in the car, and they all go together.

                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                2Send someone to ceremony.

                                                • Ngarrbenbidbuyhwe kore mayh.

                                                  We send them to ceremony.

                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                Push with finger, poke, press.

                                                Synonymsdjuyme

                                                • Bininj nawu biddjuyimeng wanjh wurlhmeng manbu kabolkwolkan.

                                                  The man pressed the button and turned on the torch.

                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                Generic term for two dolphin species; 1. Australian snubfin dolphin, 2. Australian humpback dolphin.

                                                Scientific nameOrcaella heinsohni (Australian snubfin dolphin), Sousa chinensis (Australian humpback dolphin).

                                                • Biddurangkan kabobuhme.

                                                  Dolphins blow water [from their blow-holes].

                                                Turn, spin, rotate etc. Manipulate with the hands in a circular motion eg. stir, mix (with an implement), fasten a bolt, screw on a lid. etc.

                                                • Bidjurdu kabidjibbidjibme karrinan.

                                                  We can see a whirlwind spinning around

                                                Manually skilled, dexterous or clever.

                                                  Help, assist.

                                                  • Kanbidyikarrme ngarrwayhke nanih.

                                                    Help me lift this up.

                                                  • Karribidyikarrmerrimen.

                                                    Let's help one another.

                                                  • Kabindibidyikarrme daluhdaluk bu kabirriyawmang.

                                                    They are midwives.

                                                  Feral pig.

                                                  • Bik kabolkarung kabolkwarrehwarrewon.

                                                    Pigs dig up the ground and damage the country.

                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                  Etymologyfrom English 'pig'

                                                  Thin, skinny (of things).

                                                  • Manmalaworrbik.

                                                    Long thin leaves [as opposed to round shaped leaves].

                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                  • Manbu mandudjmi bu kawarrawarrhme, kaluk karung kundung, wanjh manbik kayimerran.

                                                    When green plums fall to the ground, they cook in the sun and they become [dried and] skinny.

                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                  See alsomobik

                                                  Spotted tree monitor.

                                                  Scientific nameVaranus scalaris

                                                    LanguageKuninjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                    Eel-tailed Catfishes (black ones only).

                                                    Scientific nameNeosilurus spp., egs. Neosilurus ater, Neosilurus argenteus, Neosilurus hyrtlii, but also Cinetodus froggatti, Anodontiglanis dahli.

                                                    • Kondah djenj karrurndeng, kamre konda konda kamre kondah karrurndeng, minj kabidbun kurih, only dunbuhmanj kabidbun en ngardderrhwo modjarrkki kabidbun kaddum bad konda djenj karrurndeng namarnkol barrhmanj, njarlkan, karlerrh, bikkurr karrurndeng konda kumekke djal bonj karrurndeng.

                                                      This is where the fish go back - they come up to here and then go back. They can't climb up [the bar of boulders at the waterfall], only sooty grunter can, short neck turtles, fresh water crocodiles can climb up to the higher area but here the fish go back: barramundi, saratoga, archer fish, long toms, black eel-tailed catfishes, there's nothing they can do, they just go back.

                                                    LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku

                                                    Kunbalaknakeryi

                                                    Take a splinter out.

                                                    • Ngabidbikmarren.

                                                      I’m taking the splinter out of my hand.

                                                    • Djirndih dja Korlobok benemarnebikmangi kore kurrenge nuye Wirrihwirriyak.

                                                      The Quail and the Dove were trying to get the splinter out of Wirrihwirriyak's foot.

                                                      (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 10)

                                                    To dry out and shrivel, esp. fruit, to become thin (of things).

                                                    • Manbu mandudjmi bu kawarrawarrhme, kadjalbikmen.

                                                      When the green plums fall to the ground, they [dry out and] become skinny and shrivelled.

                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                    • Makkan bonj yibawo korroko bikminj.

                                                      Leave that one [Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit], it's already shrivelled.

                                                    LanguageKunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                    Pillow, cushion.

                                                    • Kodjbila ngarrikodjdahkendi bu ngarrikeyo.

                                                      We put our heads on a pillow when we sleep.

                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                    Etymologyfrom English ‘pillow’.

                                                    Bark canoe made from stitching together a folded piece of Eucalyptus tetrodonta bark.

                                                    • Djabayéna Kawarréya mankuken mani manbolh. Bilem ngarribidbuni.

                                                      Here at Djabayéna Kawarréya it is an important place. We used to pull our bark canoes up [out of the river here].

                                                    LanguageKuninjku

                                                    1Painting, drawing, image, picture.

                                                    • Birribimbuni bim kurdukadji kore kunburrk bedberre.

                                                      They painted pictures of emus on their bodies.

                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    2Written letter, word or character.

                                                      3Cat's cradle string game.

                                                        LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                        See alsobimbun

                                                        -bimdi

                                                          There is an image, word etc, to be (of images, words etc).

                                                        1Draw, paint or otherwise use markings to create a picture.

                                                        • Kabirribimbun mayh mimih djenj dja nawern.

                                                          They paint animals, Mimih spirits, fish and lots of different things.

                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        • Yibengkan Kodjok nawu bimbohbimbom?

                                                          Do you know that man of Kodjok skin who used to be an artist ('used to paint')?

                                                        2Write.

                                                        Synonymswokbimbun

                                                        • Yingeybimburren!

                                                          Write your name!

                                                        Kunbalakbimbonghme

                                                        Take photo with camera (still or moving film).

                                                        • Ngandihbimmangi munguyh, ngangudjwarreminj.

                                                          They were always taking pictures of me, I got tired of it.

                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                        1Look at a picture, see an image.

                                                        • Nahni nabarlek karribimnan kabimdi kore kuwardderurrk.

                                                          We see paintings of rock wallabies in rock shelters.

                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        2Read, see written material.

                                                        • Ngarrbenbukkani Kunwinjku ngarrbimbuni djurra. Ngarrimarnbuni, ngarrbihbimbuni wurdwurd birribimnani.

                                                          The two of us used to teach them Kunwinjku, we would write it. We used make books, we used to write them for the kids to read.

                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                        • Minj djurra ngabimnayinj.

                                                          I'd never seen writing on paper before.

                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                        Read aloud, read out (a word, sentence etc).

                                                        • Yibimngeybu.

                                                          Read the sentence out for me.

                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                        • Minj birriwernhbimngeybuyinj. Birribimwakwani.

                                                          They couldn't read out the words properly. They didn't know the letters.

                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                        1Man.

                                                        • Bininj yameng kunj.

                                                          The man speared a kangaroo.

                                                          (Maralngurra, Dolly, 'Bininj Yameng Kunj', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                        2Person/human being.

                                                        • Ngalkudji ngalkohbanj kuni ngalkangila wanjh ngaleng kangeyyo kurdukadji kaluk ngaleng wanjh bininjni korroko wanjh yerre mayh yimerranj.

                                                          There was an old lady whose skin name was Ngalkangila and now we call her emu, a long time ago she was really an old lady. [Wildfire Band song text].

                                                        3Aboriginal person/people.

                                                        • Nawu bininj dja balanda kabirrimang nawu mayh wanjh kabirrikelebukwon kakelebukmen kabirrimarnbun kelebuk mayh bedberre.

                                                          Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people get animals and tame them, and make them into pets.

                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        4Male.

                                                          See alsobinihbininj

                                                          Kunbalakyol

                                                          Narrow, thin, skinny.

                                                          • Kebbinjbinj nungkah.

                                                            He has a long/narrow nose.

                                                          • Benbukkang bininj bu kabirrikurrme mandulkbinjbinj kore kukeb.

                                                            He showed people how to put thin sticks into the centre of the fire [in order to make it easier to light the fire].

                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                          • Bu binjbinj ngarriyime, yiman nawu bininj kukbinjbinj. Mak mayh dja mayhmayh birrikukbinjbinj. Yiman kundalk dja kundulk manbinjbinj, kunmalaworr dja manrakel. Mak manme ngarriyime mankukbinjbinj.

                                                          • We can use the word 'binjbinj' for example to describe skinny people, or also animals and birds. Grass and trees can also be called skinny, or leaves or shoots. We can also say 'a skinny yam'.

                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                          See alsokukbinjbinj

                                                          Quartz, stone tool or point made from quartz.

                                                          • Manbu birddurrk makka wurd manwarddeyahwurd dja manwarddebele.

                                                            Quartz stones are small and white.

                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                          Beeswax.

                                                          • Birdikelk.

                                                            Soft beeswax.

                                                          • Birdirayek.

                                                            Hard beeswax.

                                                          LanguageKuninjku

                                                          1Flame, fire, torch. This term is always incorporated into verbs, e.g. birlikan, 'to carry a fire stick'.

                                                          • Birriwurlhkeyi kunak wanjh nawu djebuyh birlikengemi manbu kunak kumkolungi birribuni birrikani birrikinjeyi birringuni.

                                                            They would light a fire, and the possum would be scared of the flames, so it would come down and they would hit it, then take it to cook and eat.

                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                          • Ngandibukkani how bu ngarriburdebmi - kunak ngarribirlimarnbuni, ngarrimarnbuni kunrurrk kore ngarriyoy.

                                                            They taught us how to rub sticks to make a flame and how to make shelters to camp in.

                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                          2Light of a fire, an electric light or of lightning.

                                                          • Wolbu kabirlikadjung.

                                                            The bugs are attracted to the light.

                                                          • Mandjewk nganbom ngadberre, ngurdulmeng la birlibirliwern ngarrinang.

                                                            The rain fell on us and there was thunder and we saw lots of lightning.

                                                          LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                          Grammarincorporable

                                                          -birlikan

                                                            Carry a fire stick, torch, light etc.

                                                          Carry fire or light, take a torch.

                                                          • Karribirlikan.

                                                            Let's take torches.

                                                          • Yukkuyukku kabirlihbirlikan.

                                                            The firefly carries light.

                                                          Generic term for Silver Barramundi, adult.

                                                          Scientific nameLates calcarifer

                                                          • Andy bimbom komrdaw, narin la birlmu.

                                                            Andy drew a long-necked turtle, a snake and a barramundi.

                                                            ('Nakimuk Djurra: a Big Book', Marrkolidjban School, 1993)

                                                          LanguageKuninjku

                                                          Grammarsee also mankumirli and wardurrkku

                                                          Word audio:

                                                          Sentence audio:

                                                          1Mosquito. There is a djang totemic site for the mosquito near Marrkolidjban.

                                                          • Bu Kudjewk wanjh birringimi kuwarderurrk birriyoy dja mandjewk dja birndu.

                                                            In the wet season they moved into caves to stay, because of the rain and mosquitos.

                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                          2March fly.

                                                            3Glossy ibis (which is black and has a beak like a mosquito proboscis thus the polysemy).

                                                            Scientific namePlegadis falcinellis

                                                            • Ngalbu birndu ngalkka mayhmayh karrinan kore kabbal bu kudjewk dja kurrung karrolkarren karrinan mirndewern.

                                                              We see glossy ibis on the floodplain in the wet season, and we see lots of them flying in the build-up season.

                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                            Kunbalakmernengel

                                                            Word audio:

                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                            Splash water, strike water with hands to frighten fish so that they move in a certain direction eg. towards a fish trap or net or to frighten crocodiles before getting into the water to swim.

                                                            • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birriyolyolmi nahni Nawunjawunja nawu namumuyak. Bu kudjewk dja bangkerreng wanjh nawu dabborrabbolk birriyimi "Kaluk karribekkan nawu Nawunjawunja kabirndulhme bu kaborrong kore kurrurla. Wanjh nawu djenj kayalarrme, kare kore kubowinjku dja yika kore kurrula."

                                                              In the old days our ancestors used to tell the story of Nawunjawunja, one of the first people. In the monsoon and late wet seasons, they used to say "We can hear Nawunjawunja making spashing sounds, striking the ocean with his hands. Then the fish scatter in all directions, swimming up into the fresh water and throughout the ocean.

                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                            Word audio:

                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                            Rice.

                                                            • Birradjdja ngarringuni… ngarrikurrmi, ngarribuni wanjh yoy. Manwerrk manu rey warreka.

                                                              We used to eat rice… we used to put it there and thresh it. The husks would fly off all over the place but the rice would stay where it was.

                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                            Etymologyfrom Makassarese = berasa 'milled rice'

                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                            Machete.

                                                            • Nawu birrang nakka yiman mandjawak, kaluk nungan djurrkimuk dja djurrkuyeng bu kabirridjobke yiman kayime kundulk, dja njalehnjaleh nawu nakihkimuk.

                                                              A machete is like a knife, but with a large and long blade, which people use to cut branches and other big things.

                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                            • Nawu bininj koyekbeh nakka kabirriyiborrkke nawu birrang, bu kabirriwayini yiman bungkurl mandule.

                                                              Nakka yingalkeng, ma birrang yilurlurlhmen.

                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                            • You've found some, OK dig it out with the machete.

                                                            Etymologyfrom Makassarese berang 'machete', cf Malay parang 'machete'.

                                                            1Clear the ground of vegetation, make a clear space to sit down or camp, sweep.

                                                              2(Of weather, clouds) clearing of clouds after rain or a storm.

                                                              • Konda kadjakdung, la kuni korroko birrhmeng.

                                                                It's raining here but over there the clouds have already cleared.

                                                              LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi, Kunwinjku

                                                              Word audio:

                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                              Riverine savanna area to the east of where the Nabarlek road crosses Birraduk [Birrirddak] Creek and leading southeast to the valley entrance. A creek flows through the area, surrounded by sandstone outliers. It has significance as an Aboriginal walking route (Bininj manbolh) as well as being a camping and fishing area. The topographic map place name of ‘Birraduk Creek’ is derived from Birrirddak.

                                                              • …en Kabo Kaworrkdjubmirri, kahre ngamed kore Djimerre ya. Kuredkuken arriyongoyoy. Ngalengman kanjdji kadjale. Koreh bukka manberrk manekke kaberrkyirriyo makka Birrirddak, konda kakarri, kawukkarri nanu Birrirddak.

                                                                …and Kabo Kaworrkdjubmirri which goes on to Djimerre, yeah. We camped in these important camping places. Downstream the sites continue. But in the open savanna area, where all the savanna forest is located, that’s Birrirddak, to the west (of the previously mentioned sites). Birrirddak is to the west (of Kabo Kaworrkdjubmirri and Djimerre).

                                                                (Kundedjnjenghmi)

                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                              Birriwilk, an Ancestral woman who became a landform in Manilakarr clan country near the East Alligator River.

                                                              • Birriwilk nakka kunngey ngeyyoy ngalbu daluk kurrmerrinj kore kunred Manilakarr bedberre bu djang yimerranj.

                                                                Birriwilk is the name of a woman who placed herself in Manilakarr clan country and became a sacred site.

                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                              A place in the East Alligator region with several occupation shelters

                                                              • Korrokoni ngalmumuyak kabirriyime, birryimi bu ngalmumuyak ngalkohbanj ngalkare. Yika birriyika nawu birribuyika nawu kore birrirey kakbi, birrirey koyek. Ngalkudji ngalu kumdjowkkeng kurebeh kumdjowkkeng ... kumwam kurrmerrinj kore ngaye kunred ... ngarduk. Wanjh ngalkka Birriwilk ngalekke kumdjowkkeng.

                                                                Long ago, there was a spirit woman, they call her 'Ngalmumuyak'. She was an old lady, 'Ngalmumuyak' from long ago. There were others like her also, different beings who travelled in the north, or they travelled to the east. One of those old women, she came and crossed over (the East Alligator River), over to the other side. She crossed over the river and came this way... and she placed herself in my country. Then she crossed over to the site Birriwilk.

                                                                (Alfred Nayinggul)

                                                              Sacred boomerangs used in pairs as musical instruments in various ceremonial contexts. Not used for hunting in West Arnhem Land.

                                                              Synonymsbarlkkan

                                                              • Birrkala kabirrimarnbun kore kundulk mandubang.

                                                                Ceremonial boomerangs are made from ironwood.

                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                              Word audio:

                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                              Place finger or hand into something.

                                                              • Kakebbirrkarren.

                                                                He's sticking his finger up his nose.

                                                              • Bu korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey birridjuhmi kore kuronj birribobirrkani birriyawani kedjebe.

                                                                In the old days, people would go into the water, then poke around in the water with their hands looking for file snakes.

                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                              Throw something at someone, an animal etc. This word refers specifically to throwing blunt projectiles such as sticks, rocks or boomerangs.

                                                              • Kumekke kaddum benehdjalbarndi, benmenebirrkukuhmeng benmenedjalbirrkukuhmeng. Ngalkudji bikebbaddji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanhbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

                                                                The two of them were up in the tree, and he threw sticks at them. He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He almost hit the other one, but she fainted with fright and fell down.

                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                              • Ngalkohbanj bimarneyimeng ngalbu wurdyaw "Yimka ngardduk manbu kundjabarrk wardi kundulk ngamang birrkukuhme."

                                                                The old woman said to the child "Bring my bag here, or I'll get a stick and chuck it at you".

                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                              • Nawu Nakorrkko benebokenh benedjalbirrkukuhmeng manbu barlkkan bu benemarnbom manbolh kuri kore walem.

                                                                The two Nakorrkko ancestors threw boomerangs to make a path, down there in the south.

                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                              1Green pygmy-goose.

                                                              Scientific nameNettapus pulchellus

                                                              • Biwudj namak bu ngarringun bu ngarrire ngarriwarlbun manimunak djilikuybi ngarriyawan.

                                                                The green pygmy goose is good eating, when we go hunting magpie geese or whistle ducks we look for pygmy geese as well.

                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                              2Some speakers also refer to the pink-eared duck as biwudj.

                                                              Scientific nameMelacorhynchus membranaceus

                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                Word audio:

                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                Water or other liquids. Incorporated form of the word water, which appears when it forms part of other words.

                                                                • Kaboyo.

                                                                  Water lies there / there is water.

                                                                • Manbomak.

                                                                  good drinking water.

                                                                • Minj kabirrire kabirribongun kunbang.

                                                                  They don't go and drink alcohol.

                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                Grammarincorporable

                                                                Kind of wild honey or 'sugar bag' which is found in tree hollows and has a crumbling cerumen or brown resinous wax which is not favoured for tool and artifact production. The honey of this bee is much relished. The base of the hive, called ngeyhno is made from a harder cerumen which can be used for material culture production although other honey type hives are preferred.

                                                                Synonymskarderre

                                                                Scientific nameAustroplebeia magna

                                                                  LanguageKune, Rembarrnga= yurduh

                                                                  Kunbalaknamawul

                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                  Cook, burn.

                                                                  • Morlarrinj kabobekke.

                                                                    Kunj kakinje.

                                                                    She's cooking the kangaroo.

                                                                  • Nangomi dakalhmeng, "Kab ngarrokan ngabobekke ngarrku".

                                                                    Nakudji yimeng, "Kab ngare ngakinje ngarrku."

                                                                    One of them said "How about I go and cook this for us?".

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 64-67)

                                                                  Regular Bininj Kunwokkinje

                                                                  1Tide come in.

                                                                  • Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                                                    At high tide, we don't see any mud crabs.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  2Water rise up (e.g. flood, start of wet season).

                                                                  • Kabobidbun wanjh kankebngun.

                                                                    The water rises up and drowns us.

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                                                                  Good-bye.

                                                                  • Ma bonj bobo.

                                                                    OK, that’s all, bye.

                                                                  • Yikah mak kabbal ngarrirey bu ngarribuni kalawan, ngarrimarmeyimi, "Bobo!". Kalawan, kunekke ngurriyimen "Bobo" wanjh kakurrmerren kalawan. Ngurrire ngurribun.

                                                                    Or, sometimes, we would be go out on the floodplains getting goanna, and we would say to the goannas “Goodbye!”. If you say goodbye, the goanna will just stay still for you, then you can go and kill it.

                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                  1Fly (insect).

                                                                  • Mandudjmi karung wanjh bod kawernmen.

                                                                    When the green plums are ripe, it is the time when there are many flies.

                                                                  2Native honey bees of the Tetragonula (previously Trigona) and Austroplebeia genera.

                                                                  Scientific nameTetragonula mellipes, Austroplebeia magna, Austroplebeia essingtoni

                                                                  • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey manberrk birriyawani birridulknani kaddum birrinani mankung bod kahboddolkan wanjh birridulkrderdmi birriwodjburriweyi birrimonbuhmi, wanjh birrimangi nawu yiwk dja mandabu birrirawoni birridahkendongi kore billycan.

                                                                    In the old days, people would go into the forest searching [for honey], looking up at the trees. When they saw honey bees flying around they would chop down the tree and open it up, then they would get the liquid honey and pollen sacs and put them all together in a billy can.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  Kunbalakmuk

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                                                                  Crouch down, hunch over, bend down.

                                                                  • Munguyh benehdjalkarungi kaluk wanjh kukku kumbobebmeng benebiddjuhmeng kunbid berrewoneng kore benekaruy wanjh beneboddanj benebonguyinj.

                                                                    They just kept on digging, and when they reached water they washed their hands from all the digging, then they crouched down and drank the water.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

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                                                                  Recede (of water in a water body), dry out.

                                                                  • Karrinan bu kabukmen kabodowen kore kabbal bu Kurrung duninjh kayimerran.

                                                                    When the real build-up season starts, we see the floodplain drying up and the water receding.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                  • Kabodowerren rowk manbu kukku kukudji kukku karribongun kore manlabbarlkimuk dja kore njilhmi kaboyo kore ngarribobengkan korroko dabborrabbolk ngandibolkbukkang.

                                                                    All the water dries up [in the dry season], we can only drink water from large billabongs and springs, places we know to find water that the old people showed us in the past.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

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                                                                  Belonging to one’s mother, for example her country, sacred sites and totems. (Literally 'water-mother').

                                                                  • Naburlanj wam kuhri kore kunred kayime kabokarrang kunred ngalengarre ngalbadjan.

                                                                    Naburlanj went to his mother’s country, the country belonging to his mother.

                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                  • Nungka kabokarrang Namarden.

                                                                    His mother’s dreaming is Lightning.

                                                                    (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. 198)

                                                                  Erase tracks, wash away tracks.

                                                                  • Mandjewk djakduy nakimuk wanjh bokbularrbom manbu muddikka.

                                                                    A big rain fell and washed away the tracks of the car.

                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

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                                                                  Spin or plait string. This often involves rubbing fibres from the inner bark of trees on the upper thigh, then rolling two strands of string together to make two-ply twine.

                                                                  Synonymsborolhme

                                                                  • Manbu mandjabu korroko dabborrabbolk birrimangi kunyarl kore manbornde mandedjmad kunyarl dja kore kundulk manbudbud kunyarl. Wanjh birribokdengi kunyarl birrimarnbuni wanjh mandjabu birrimarnbuni.

                                                                    In the old days, our ancestors would make fish traps by getting fibre from banyan roots or kurrajong bark. They would roll the fibre into string, then make fish traps from it.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                  Two.

                                                                  • Daluk bokenh wakkidj benehweyi.

                                                                    Two women were fishing.

                                                                    (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                  • Ngunebokenh.

                                                                    You two.

                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                  Kunbalakburlalh

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                                                                  Boil water, heat up water.

                                                                    Kunbalakdjurlkkinj-bobekke

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                                                                    Follow tracks.

                                                                    Synonymsbokkadjung

                                                                    • Yika mak bu nganabarru karribokkan wanjh karribokkadjung karribekkan ngarradj kawokdi kabimulewan namekke nganabarru.

                                                                      Sometimes when we're tracking a buffalo, we follow its tracks and we hear a cockatoo calling out, which gives away the buffalo's position.

                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

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                                                                    Spear type with many barbs running along the shaft.

                                                                    • Bokko birrimarnbuni manbu kunyidkenh bu birridurreni.

                                                                      People used to make barbed spears for fighting.

                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                    LanguageKuninjku= bardangarr

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                                                                    Dancing belt which has feathered tassles and traditionally made from human hair.

                                                                    • Bokngarru kabirridjongburren kunborrkkenh.

                                                                      They dress in dancing belts for dances.

                                                                    • Bokngarru birringardmodukarreni wanjh birriyiborrkkeyi bu mamurrng bindimarnekurrmi.

                                                                      They would tie dancing belts around their hips, and dance with them during the mamurrng ceremony.

                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

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                                                                    Spangled grunter. These fish form schools and migrate to breed in the early wet season or after the first storms of kunumeleng.

                                                                    Scientific nameLeiopotherapon unicolor

                                                                      LanguageKuninjku= boddowk

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                                                                      Black bittern.

                                                                      Scientific nameIxobrychus flavicollis

                                                                      • Kurlabakku kawk bokung nawu kabirrirohrok kabirriyawan djenj kabirrini kore kukadjid yika kabirribarndi kore kundulk kabirrimadbun djenj.

                                                                        The pied heron, the rufous night heron and the black bittern are all similar, in that they all hunt fish by standing on the bank or up in a tree, waiting for the fish to go past.

                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                      LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

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                                                                      Follow a path or road.

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                                                                        Follow after something, come after something.

                                                                        • Bu njale karringun karribawon kore kunrurrk wanjh karrinan nawern djak bu kanome dja kabolkan.

                                                                          If we're eating something and we leave it in the house, then ants will smell it and lots of them will come after it.

                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

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                                                                        Leave a place, with the connotation of staying away for a long time or for good. Abandon a place.

                                                                        • Ngabolkbawong kunred ngardduk / Dja ngabenbawong bininj ngardduk / Ahwurd ngaye, ahwurd / Ngabolkbawong kunred Ngardayun

                                                                          I have been away from my homeland for so long / And away from my people for so long / I am feeling sad, so sad / I miss my home Ngardayun

                                                                          (Wildflower Band, ‘Galiwin’ku’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                                        Sentence audio:

                                                                        1Conduct earthworks, dig tunnels or mine, create environmental damage, destroy a place, create the landscape of a place.

                                                                        • Nabangardi dja Nawamud beneyimeng konda kunred wanjh bolkdoweng ngad ngadberre, bu balanda birrimwam birribolkbom dja birribolkwarrewong.

                                                                          Nabangardi and Nawamud said “This place of ours has been destroyed, when white people came they dug the place up and ruined it”.

                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                        2Make a racket, make a noisy disturbance.

                                                                        • Wurdwurd kabirribolkbun.

                                                                          The children are making a lot of noise.

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                                                                        Sacred place, restricted place.

                                                                          1Place become boring with nothing of interest happening.

                                                                          • Bolkdoweng konda.

                                                                            This place is boring.

                                                                          2Destruction of a place (and people).

                                                                          • Nabangardi dja Nawamud beneyimeng konda kunred wanjh bolkdoweng ngad ngadberre, bu balanda birrimwam birribolkbom dja birribolkwarrewong.

                                                                            Nabangardi and Nawamud said “This place of ours has been destroyed, when white people came they dug the place up and ruined it”.

                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                          • Bu kabirribolkbun kunred karrowen, kunred bu karribolkdowen namekke story nuye ngadberre ngad, nawu kumekke tribe namekke tribe nawu Mirarr namekke.

                                                                            If they damage the place, the country there will die, the country and us with it and the story will die, that is the tribe called the Mirarr people.

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                                                                          1Now.

                                                                          • Yoh bolkkime kamkan.

                                                                            Yes, he's bringing it now.

                                                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                                          2Nowadays, these days, now.

                                                                          • Dja bolkkime larrk minj nangale kadjuhme kinga nawern kahyo kore manlabbarlkimuk kahboyo wardi kanbaye kanbun.

                                                                            But nowadays no-one gets into the water at the big billabong, there are lots of crocodiles and they would bite and kill us.

                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                          3Today.

                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                            Kunbalakkolhkol

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                                                                            Stay at home, stay at a place, refuse to come when called.

                                                                            • A: Baleh kabirrini? B: Ngabenkayhmeng korroko, bonj birribolkmaddi.

                                                                              A: Where are they? B: I've already called them but they're staying where they are.

                                                                            • Ngalkudji wurdyaw Ngaldjawonj / bolkbawong kunred ngalengarre / Bolkmaddi kore Manginburru bedberre

                                                                              There is a little girl from a Jawoyn clan / who left her country / And who has stayed for a long time on Manginburru land

                                                                              (Wildflower Band, ‘Ngaldjawonj ‘The Jawoyn Girl’’, from the Album ‘Maningburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

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                                                                            Reach a place, get to a place.

                                                                            • Bu ngabolkmang kured ngambun ke.

                                                                              When I get home, I'll call you.

                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                            • Bu benebolkmey kumekke kunred Nitmiluk beneyibmeng kanjdji kurorre dja benebawong manbu manlabbarl kahlabbarlyo kore kanjdji kabenehyo kumekke wanjh ngalbu Ngalyod bokenh kabenehyo munguyh kore manlabbarl.

                                                                              When they reached Nitmiluk, they sank down into the earth and left behind a waterhole there. They're still there underneath the water, those two Rainbow Serpents are still there in the waterhole.

                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

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                                                                            1Be on the watch for, look out for.

                                                                              2Care for country, look after a place, caretake a place.

                                                                              • Kaluk wurdurd ngadberre / kabirribolknahnan kondah kunred ngadberre.

                                                                                When we pass away our children / will carry on looking after this land for us.

                                                                                (Wildflower Band, ‘Manginburru’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

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                                                                              Look at a place, survey surroundings.

                                                                              • Minj kawernhbolknan djarre.

                                                                                He’s short-sighted (he can't see very far).

                                                                                (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                              • Ngaye ngawam ngabidbom kuwardde / Ngabolknang bu dungyibmeng / Wanjh ngabolkkongibom kunred ngadberre.

                                                                                I went to the top of the rock and looked around / When I saw the sun go down I felt sad / Because this is where the people lived a long time ago.

                                                                                (Wildflower Band, ‘Manginburru’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 (Loose English translation from album cover). )

                                                                              • Kondanjh kandimarnekorrkke warde ngurrikorrkke ngurrinan ba ngabolknan ba kamak ngare wanjh ngare ngayame.

                                                                                Look here and try and lance my sore so I can get up and go look at that place and spear it (a kangaroo).

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                                                                              Be called (of a place), name of a place is.

                                                                              • Kunred kabolkngeyyo Bobongki, manbowern dja mandjimdjimwern.

                                                                                The place called Bobongki has a lot of water and water pandanus.

                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                              • Ngaye ngabolkngeyyo kunred Maburrinj / Ngadolkkang ngadanginj dja ngabolknang

                                                                                I am the country Maburrinj / I stood up and looked around at my many places

                                                                                (Wildflower Band, ’Maburrinj (The lonely place called Maburrinj)’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                              See alsongeyyo

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                                                                              Having close family or geographical ties, be joined in a kind of unit through traditional or historical connections.

                                                                              Synonymsbolkdjindjinduluburren

                                                                              • Yika ngarriyime kabolkyirrkarrmerren kore kunred kadarnhbolkrohrok. Yiman darnkih kunmokurrkurr dja kunred bedberre.

                                                                                We say that countries have close ties when they are next to each other, when their clans and lands are close.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Danek birribuyika bedberre kunred kore Kukalak. Kaddumkah kore Djalama kabolkrohrok. Mak darnkih kore Djok kunred bedberre nawu duwa, kabolkyirrkarrmerren.

                                                                                The other Danek group's estate is Kukalak, further up close to Djalama country. It's also close to Djok country, with whom they have close ties [a yaw-badjan relationship].

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

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                                                                              Name of (at least) three duwa moiety patriclans- one on the central Arnhem Land plateau, one a Jawoyn speaking clan to the south and another on the upper East Alligator River.

                                                                              • Kondanj wanjh Kayerrngwe wanjh Bolmo.

                                                                                Here the place is called Kayerrngwe and then it is Bolmo clan land [neighbouring].

                                                                              • Mamamh nganmarnemurrngkang ngalyikbolmo nani Rarrkal nganeyaw weleng yakminj kumekke kuwardde ngarri-murrngkurrmeng. Namekke kukurlk.

                                                                                My mother's father's sister of the Bolmo clan put those [kangaroo] bones there, Rarrkal and I were her grandchildren but she died and so we put all these bones in the rock there. Those there on the ground.

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                                                                              Little black cormorant.

                                                                              Scientific namePhalacrocorax sulcirostris

                                                                              • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh.

                                                                                Cormorants eat small fish.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

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                                                                              Kill, hit.

                                                                              • Wurrngahwurrngalk birridokang morlarrinj. Birribonghmeng bulalh, wanjh birriwarnduyhmeng kumelworn.

                                                                                Yawuhyawurrinj birriwam kunj. Birribom bokenh, wanjh birriyirrurndi kured.

                                                                                The young men went hunting kangaroos. They shot two, and brought them back home.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Regular Bininj Kunwok-bun

                                                                              Fight one another.

                                                                              • Ngaye ngakurdudmeng yul yirrohyirrodokani kunmuluru kunubewu dokang kabirribonghmerren.

                                                                                Ngaye nganang bininj kanihkani kundulk kunubewu wam kabirriburren.

                                                                                I saw a man walking along carrying a stick, maybe he's gone to fight with some people.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Regular Bininj Kunwokburren.

                                                                              Long-tailed rock monitor, also known as the black-palmed monitor.

                                                                              Scientific nameVaranus glebopalma

                                                                              • Nawu bongka ngarringeybun nawu yiman djanay kakukyime nungan kuwarde kaddum kukorlh kayo.

                                                                                Rock monitors look similar to yellow-spotted monitors, but they live up in rocky country.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                              LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku, Kunwinjku

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                                                                              Drink.

                                                                              • Ngarre kab kukku ngarrbongun.

                                                                                Let's go and drink some water.

                                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                              • Birrimey kunbang bedberre wanjh birridjalbonguneng.

                                                                                They got their grog and just kept drinking.

                                                                              Kunbalak-djurlkkinjyakwan

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                                                                              1Finish, finished.

                                                                              • Bonj yakminj.

                                                                                Finished, all gone!

                                                                              2The end (used at the end of a story or narrative).

                                                                              • Wanjh birridokmeng kured. Bonj.

                                                                                Then they went home. The End.

                                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                              3 That's all, just, just like that, it's OK just like that. Marker used to delineate or limit.

                                                                              • A: Yidjare marnekan? B: Bonj, kamak, ngakan.

                                                                                A: Do you want me to take it for you? B: No, it's OK, I'll take it.

                                                                              • Kabenengeyboken, bonj kangeyboken.

                                                                                They've got two names, just two names.

                                                                              • "Yuwn yikan mankukyahwurd makka" "Bonj warribo ngadjalkan ngakinje ngangun. Bonj bu mankukyahwurd"

                                                                                "Don't take that yam, it's too small". "Whatever, I'll take it anyway and cook it up and eat it. Doesn't matter if it's small".

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              4Finally, in the end. Marker used to indicate the end of a process.

                                                                              • Wanjh duhkeng, duhkeng. Bonj bohborrolkang.

                                                                                He lanced it and lanced it (an infected wound) and then the fluid burst out.

                                                                              5Marker used to describe the size, shape, extent etc. of something.

                                                                              • Djalmey kundulk yiman bonj kunekke kayime.

                                                                                He just went and got a stick which was about 'there' (demonstrates size), this big !

                                                                              Old, former, previous.

                                                                              • Ngabenyolyolme, ngayolyolme bedberre djal ngabenbengyolyolmi, nakka mandjalkare manbonjbonj yerrih, manekbe manu ngandiwong dabborrabbolk.

                                                                                I explain to them, I’ve told them about it, the old things (law, customs) that the old people told us.

                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                              • Bu ngarriyime kubonjbonj, wanjh karohrok bu ngarriyime kukare. Yiman ngarriyime kubolkbonjbonj kumekke kore kubolkkare. Mak nawu bininj ngarriyolyolme ngarriyime nabonjbonj namekke nakare.

                                                                                When we say ‘kubonjbonj’, that means the same as ‘kukare’ (in the past, previously). For example we could say ‘kubolkbonjbonj’ for ‘kubolkkare’ (the old or former place), or if we’re talking about a person, ‘nabonjbonj’ or ‘nakare’.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Cold.

                                                                              • Ngabidbonjdjek.

                                                                                My fingers are cold.

                                                                              Kunbalakkurrbele

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                                                                              Sniff (a liquid, especially petrol).

                                                                              • Nanih nawu wurdwurd might be kabirridjordmen minj kabirrire kabirribongun kunbang, or petrol kabirribonome or kundalk kabirriwunghme, larrk.

                                                                                So when those kids grow up they probably won't drink, or sniff petrol or smoke grass, no way.

                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Slime, slimy or viscous substance.

                                                                              • Nawu ngalyod dja djenj, nakka kabirrikarrme yiman kunbordengke, kaluk munguyh kabirriyo kore kukku kunekke kunu kabirrimang manbu kunbordengke.

                                                                                The Rainbow Serpent and fish both have slippery slime on their bodies, they're underwater for a long time so that's why they get that slime.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                              Flow.

                                                                              • Bu kudjewk mandjewk nawern kadjakdung wanjh kabore kore mankabo.

                                                                                When it rains a lot in the wet season, the water flows in the rivers.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

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                                                                              1Learn, become familiar with something eg. language, a skill.

                                                                              • Kandibukkan ba ngaborlbme.

                                                                                You show me so I will learn it.

                                                                              2Get used to something or someone.

                                                                              • Ngarriborlbmeng di.

                                                                                We've got used to drinking tea.

                                                                              • Ngudda yiborlbmeng ngarduk.

                                                                                You've got used to me.

                                                                              GrammarTakes possessive pronoun if the object is human.

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                                                                              Termite.

                                                                              • Borlborl karrulkngun, kurrambalk kawarrewon.

                                                                                Termites eat wood and destroy houses.

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                                                                              Turn over to other side, change.

                                                                              • Ngaborledkeng nawu djenj, wanjh ngayawoyhyerrkang ngamadbom korroko wanjh nganang ruy, wanjh ngawayhkeng.

                                                                                I turned over the fish and sat down again, waited a while, then when I saw that it was cooked I pulled it out (of the hot coals).

                                                                                (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                              • Birrikodjkurluborledkeng.

                                                                                They changed their minds.

                                                                              See alsosee kodjborledke

                                                                              Kunbalakdordedjke

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                                                                              1Turn around, rotate, turn over.

                                                                              • Yimborledmen kanmirrkma!

                                                                                Turn facing me!

                                                                                (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                              2Change.

                                                                              • Bolkkime wurdwurd nahni yiman birribuyikaminj, borledmeng kadberre.

                                                                                Nowadays the kids are different, they’ve changed on us.

                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                              See alsokukborledke

                                                                              Kunbalakdordedjme

                                                                              Word audio:

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              On the other side, behind.

                                                                              • Warde borledmiken yiyawan.

                                                                                Try searching on the other side.

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Australian Magpie-lark. The word also describes the call of the Magpie-lark, which is said to ‘call its own name’.

                                                                              Scientific nameGrallina cyanoleuca

                                                                              • Borliblib karrinan Kudjewk Kurrung Bangkerreng Wurrkeng Kurnumeleng bu baleh karrire karribekkan kawokdi kangeyburren kayime borliblib borliblib borliblib.

                                                                                We see the Magpie Lark in the wet season, dry season, late wet season, late dry season and build-up season - wherever we go we hear its call, calling out its name “borliblib borliblib borliblib”.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Water python and possibly also the freshwater keelback.

                                                                              Scientific nameBothrochilus fuscus (previously known as Liasis fuscus), Amphiesma mairii

                                                                              • Bininj dja daluhdaluk kabirrire kabirriyawan kore kukku kabirribobirrkan kabirrimang borlokko kedjebe ngalmangiyi kore kuronj.

                                                                                Men and women go looking for water pythons in the water, they poke their hands into the water and pull out the pythons, file snakes and long-necked turtles.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                              Word audio:

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Post or beam used in house or shade shelter construction. In shelter construction this is typically the horizontal crossbeam, in contrast to the forked sticks it rests between (karlang).

                                                                              • Bu kabirrikodbarrename, wanjh mandulkdjarrkkarlang kabirridadjke, kabirridulkdjabname. Wanjh yerre borlorl kabirriwarnamkurrme. Wanjh kunkod dja dolobbo kabirribarrkbun.

                                                                                When people make a paperbark shelter, they cut forked trees and stick them upright into the ground. Then they place crossbeams across them, and then put bark over the structure.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Name of a duwa moiety patriclan in the lower Liverpool River region.

                                                                              • Nani Born wanjh yoh na-Born, mani kubolkngamed...Mirwi.

                                                                                This [place] belongs to the Born clan, and this here is for whatsit, the Mirwi clan.

                                                                              • Nabangardi nangalayngu nakka kahdi Namokardabu na-Born.

                                                                                Nabangardi the one who is our mother's brother [you being my brother] and who lives at Namokardabu, the man of the Born clan.

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Father a child.

                                                                              • Nangale ngunbornang?

                                                                                Who is your father?

                                                                              • Beywurd bornarrinj.

                                                                                He fathered a child (for himself).

                                                                              Kunbalakwalebonghme.

                                                                              Word audio:

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Spear thrower, woomera.

                                                                              • Bolkmelmeng mankole mey kolhmibom borndok kamak rowk.

                                                                                He placed his foot down, got his spear and tested it with his spear thrower; everything was fine.

                                                                              Kunbalakkarndubbu

                                                                              Word audio:

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Be the place where a man/boy was born, literally 'spear-thrower stands' which is based on the custom of placing into the ground a spear thrower to mark the birth place for a boy and a digging stick for a girl.

                                                                              • Ngaye Kukkurlumurr bolk-Wurrbbarnbulu ngakodjngalmeng, kumekke ngaborndokdi.

                                                                                I was born at Kukkulumurr in the Wurrbbarnbulu clan estate, that's where my birth place is.

                                                                                (Bardayal Nadjamerrek)

                                                                              • Nawamud kumekke kunred danginj wanjh kunuka kaborndokdi.

                                                                                Nawamud was born in that place, that’s his birthplace.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                              Wipe, rub.

                                                                              • Balmey kunworr kurlba borndungi.

                                                                                Then he got some leaves and was wiping off the blood with them.

                                                                                (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                                              • Kano manburrba ngaborndurren.

                                                                                Give me the cloth, I'll wipe myself.

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Spin or plait string (hair or string/rope). This involves rolling two strands of inner bark fibres in one direction over the thighs then rolling back in the opposite direction to twist the two strands together into two-ply string.

                                                                              Synonymsbokdeng

                                                                              • Nawu daluhdaluk manbu kunyarl kabirrimang kore kundulkbeh manbu manbudbud marrabbi manbornde dja mankarralarlhmanj wanjh kabirriborolhme bu kabirrimarnbun djerrh dja walabi.

                                                                                Women get fibre from trees, kurrajong, sand palm, banyan and bush peanut trees, then they rub the fibres on their thigh and roll them together into string to make bags and fish nets.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Kunbalakbordordbokme.

                                                                              Word audio:

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Shake off, shake out, shake clean.

                                                                              • Ngalkohbanj mey nawu baladjdji, wanjh melkborrhborrdji.

                                                                                The old woman took the bag, and shook out everything from inside it.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Kuhri koyek duninjh kumekke wanjh kunu Yingarna yakarrbom bininj dedjborrhborrhdji nawu yibarlirr ngalengarre wanjh kumekke kurrmerrinj.

                                                                                Far in the east is where Yingarna shook the last people out of her string bag, then placed herself forever.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Word audio:

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Roll down, roll out, tumble.

                                                                              • Kore kungalkwarre manbu muddikka dingihdi, wanjh borrhborrmeng bu mankang kore kurorre.

                                                                                The car was up on top of a steep slope, and tumbled down and crashed to the ground.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Nawu bininj nawernhkimuk duninjh karlobme wanjh yiman kakukborrhborrme bu kangudjkadjung nawu mayh yiman kunj, nganabbarru dja manimunak.

                                                                                When a very fat man is running, his body rolls [up and] down around as he chases animals like kangaroos, buffalo and magpie geese.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Play with, pat or stroke.

                                                                              • Wurdurd yuwn ngurriborrkbun wardi ngunbaye.

                                                                                Kids, don't play with it, it might bite you.

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Dance.

                                                                              • Korroko birriwayini birriborrkkeyi kore mamurrng dja kore mulil.

                                                                                In the old days, people would sing and dance at Mamurrng ceremonies and public feasts.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                              • Yawkyawk dja yawurrinj kabirrire kabirriborrkke kore disco.

                                                                                Girls and boys go dancing at the disco.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                              Kunbalakborrkidjbonghme

                                                                              Word audio:

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Dance.

                                                                              Synonymsdirridjarrbelme

                                                                              • Ngad ngarrbenkurdudmi yul dja kardukardu birriborrkkidjbonghmi, nawu birrimdokang kakbibeh.

                                                                                Ngad ngarrbennani bininj dja daluk birriborrkeyi, nawu birrimwam kakbibeh.

                                                                                We saw the men and women dancing, those who had come down from the north.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Regular Bininj Kunwokborrkke

                                                                              Jump around playfully.

                                                                              • Duruk yaw kabirriborrkkirri.

                                                                                The puppies are jumping around playfully.

                                                                              • Nawu nakudji wurdyaw borrkkirri kore kudjurle.

                                                                                The child was playing in the shade.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Mak mayh mayh kabirriborrkkirri bu kunkawoleh kayimerran. Kabirringudjkadjurren, kabirriwohbayerren.

                                                                                Animals also play around, in the late afternoon when the day cools off. They chase each other around and bite each other playfully.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              See alsodirri

                                                                              Word audio:

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Ignore, disregard, not do what someone asks.

                                                                              • Bu baleh kabirriyime, yibendjalwokborrkwa. Yuwn yibalborledme yibenmarneyime wanjh kunekke ngurridurren, o ngurridangwerren.

                                                                                If they say anything, just ignore them. Don’t turn around and speak to them or you'll end up fighting or arguing.

                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                              • Nakudji wurdyaw yimeng "Ngaye borrkwan bu kandjurrkkan yimankek ngaye ngamang njalehnjale ke".

                                                                                The child said "If you ask me to go and get something for you, I won't do it".

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Ngalbu daluk bimarneyimeng ngalbuyika daluk "Ngudda kanborrkwam ngaye, minj ngarrrawinj bu djawam".

                                                                                One woman said to another "You ignored me, we didn't go when I asked you".

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                              Snore.

                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                1Lift and drop somebody onto the ground, throw to the ground.

                                                                                • Kabibowkme.

                                                                                  He drops him down (onto the ground, 'bump').

                                                                                • Nganabbarru kabowkmerren.

                                                                                  The buffalo plops itself down [in the mud and makes itself a little hollow].

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                • Kabenebowkmerren.

                                                                                  The kids are tumbling with each other (throwing each other to the ground).

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                2Bump, bump up and down (as in truck travel).

                                                                                • Kanbowkbowkme.

                                                                                  I'm really getting knocked around by the vehicle [on this bumpy road etc].

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                • Nganbowkme manwelyi wanjh ngarringudjwarreminj.

                                                                                  The aeroplane is bumping us all around, it's wearing us out.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Lie flat, to lie on one’s stomach.

                                                                                • Kawardeboyboyyo.

                                                                                  There is a rock lying flat.

                                                                                  (Evans, Nick, Mayali vocabulary gathered 1986-1988 from native speakers for Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Gagudju Association)

                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                In recent times, over the last few months/years with the sense of a recent length of time extended over a continuous period.

                                                                                • Airstrip minj diwirrinj. Makka boyehboyen birrimarnbom makka manu kore club. Bu ngarribaldjordmerrinj. Kerrngehkenh larrk.

                                                                                  There was no airstrip back then. They made the airstrip in recent times, near the club. That was as we were growing up. But earlier on, no.

                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                • Nganabbarru nawu nuk boyehboyen birrimudwong, nawu kubolkbuyikabeh.

                                                                                  I guess people assigned a skin name to buffalo in recent times, it's from a different place.

                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                See alsoboyen

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Recently, before, in the recent past, some time ago but with the sense of a more specific point in time and not a time in the very distant past.

                                                                                • Nabulanj wam mankung kore nang boyen.

                                                                                  Nabulanj went looking for honey in the place he saw some before.

                                                                                  (‘Lesson 15: Djurra ‘-ng’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                See alsoboyehboyen

                                                                                Grammarincorporable

                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Northern knob-tailed gecko, prickly knob-tailed gecko.

                                                                                Scientific nameNephrurus sheai, Nephurus asper

                                                                                • Boywek karrinan kore kunrurrk kurrambalk karrihyo karrinan kahbarnbarndi.

                                                                                  We see geckos in the houses where we live, sitting up on things.

                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                • Nawu boywek nakka mayh, yiman kakukrohrok ngalwalngurru dja madjarndemed, kaluk nungan kukdjinjhdjinjh, mak kayo kore kuwardderurrk. Bu kukak kayimerran, wanjh kakolung kore kurorre bu kayawan mayh nawu kangun. Mak kabenkarrebolkan bininj dja daluk bu kabirriwohre darnkih kore kuwarddedihdiddid bu yiman kukak kayimerran kaluk kadjale, wanjh kabebme kore kured kabirrihyo.

                                                                                  The knob-tailed gecko is an animal that looks a bit similar to a chameleon dragon or Gilbert's dragon, with a rough spiky body. It lives in caves. When night falls, it comes down to the ground and looks for animals to eat. If men or women walk along the edge of the escarpment at night, it will follow them and turn up at their camp.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                • Boywek, namekke boywek namarnde kare kuwardde and kanbalhngun!

                                                                                  The knob-tailed gecko, that gecko goes around in the rocks as a spirit being and sodomises us!

                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                1When.

                                                                                • Bu ngayahwurdni.

                                                                                  When I was a child.

                                                                                2About, concerning, in relation to.

                                                                                • Ngayolyolme bu namarrkon djang.

                                                                                  I'll tell a story about lightning dreaming.

                                                                                • Bu ngudda.

                                                                                  That's up to you.

                                                                                3If (conditional sense).

                                                                                • Bu yinan kelebuk yuwn yibun.

                                                                                  If you see a tame animal, don't kill it.

                                                                                Grammarsubordinating conjuction

                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Porridge, usually made simply from flour and water.

                                                                                • Ngalkudji daluk wam djarreh yawani ngalmangeyi, wanjh minj mayi ngalmangeyi dja kumdurndi kured. Marrwedoweng wanjh yimeng "Ngakinje bubburru ba ngangun dja ngamarrwedoweng".

                                                                                  A woman travelled a long distance looking for long-necked turtles, but didn't find any and came home. She was very hungry, and said "I'll cook some porridge to eat then, I'm starving".

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                Etymologyfrom Makassan buburu? 'rice porridge'. Bubur is the word for porridge in modern standard Indonesian.

                                                                                1Blow (esp. wind), fan someone. Reduplicated form of buhme.

                                                                                Synonymsbuhme

                                                                                • Kunmayorrk kawarnambubuhme.

                                                                                  The wind is blowing across [through the car].

                                                                                • Medjek yima kanbubuhme.

                                                                                  Get the feather fan and fan me.

                                                                                2Cool down, cool off (in the open air).

                                                                                • Bu benehni benemadbom runguhruy wilkkihwilkkidi nawu kalawan mak burdbarrk wanjh bu djolengminj wanjh benewayhkeng benekurrmeng bubuhmeng.

                                                                                  They sat there and waited for the goanna and waterlilly corms to cook in the ashes and when they were cooked they lifted them out and left them to cool.

                                                                                  (https://bininjkunwok.org.au/information/dialects/)

                                                                                3Get some fresh air, get some peace and quiet, go and chill out. Generally refers to going off into the bush or somewhere quiet in nature to restore one's mood.

                                                                                • Nakudji nakohbanj mahmeng bu kadjare kare kabubuhme.

                                                                                  One old man said that he wanted to go and get some fresh air to improve his mood.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Bottle.

                                                                                • Budjdjulung kaburriwe, kabarrhme.

                                                                                  He throws a bottle and it smashes.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                Etymologyfrom Makassarese

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Cat, feral cat.

                                                                                Synonymsbiyawo

                                                                                • Bolkkime nawu budjiked karrikarrme nawern karri kore kurehrered kadberre kore karrihyo.

                                                                                  Nowadays we have lots of cats on our lands where we live.

                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Sandworm. Dug up in the sand along river banks and used as live bait for fishing, but not eaten as food.

                                                                                • Nawu budjum nakka mayh koroyi kayo kore kukayalanj bu ngarrimang wanjh ngarrikabbun kore kukurlk wanjh ngarrimang bu ngarrikan ba djenjken ngarrimang.

                                                                                  Sandworms are legless animals with long bodies that live in the sand, when we gather them we dig them out of the ground with our hands and take them to catch fish with.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                • Bu ngarriyime kerlkkerlk yiman kayime nawu mayh kedjebe, dolek, kurndi, budjum, burlng dja yolk. Dja mak kunmadj manbu kamadjkerlkkerlkmen.

                                                                                  We use the word 'soft' to describe animals like file snakes, wood grubs, sand worms, witchetty grubs, sandworms, caterpillars and maggots. And also clothes can also be soft.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                1Blow.

                                                                                • Kunkurra kabuhme, darnki mandjewk kadjakdung.

                                                                                  The wind is blowing, soon it's going to rain.

                                                                                • Nangale kabuhme mako?

                                                                                  Who's going to play the didjeridoo?

                                                                                22. be blown on.

                                                                                • Med ngaladminj, ngarrbuhme.

                                                                                  Hang on, I'm hot, let's take the breeze.

                                                                                Kunbalakburrhnjudjbonghme.

                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Dry or shallow.

                                                                                • Bukminj rowk kamak karridjowkke.

                                                                                  It's all dry, we can cross OK.

                                                                                • Birndu kangun dumdum dja yehyeng nawu kayo kare kore kukku kukadjid dja kore kubuk.

                                                                                  The glossy ibis eats beetles and all kinds of things that live in the water, the sand and the shallows.

                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                See alsokelebuk

                                                                                -bukmen

                                                                                  Dry out.

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Pheasant coucal.

                                                                                Scientific nameCentropus phasianinus

                                                                                • Bukbuk karribekkan kawokdi kayime bukbuk bukbuk bukbuk.

                                                                                  We hear the pheasant coucal calling out “book-book, book-book, book-book”.

                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                • Bukbuk nakka mayhmayh nawu bedman kabirriyo kore kungarrehngarreh, kaluk birrikukburlerri dja mak birriberdmudkuyeng. Mak bedda kandidjewkwarrewon bu yiman wirlarrk kabindimarnemang. Kabirridjalwokdi barnangarra dja kukakkuyeng munguyh bu kabirrimang nawu wirlarrk bedberre, wanjh mandjewk kamarnburren bu kadjaldjakdung munguyh, minj kangurdme. Bu dabborrabbolk kabirrinan nawu mandjewk kadjakdung munguyh, wanjh kabindimarneyime nawu birriwirlarrkmey bu kabirribidwolngworren kore kunak ba nawu mandjewk kangurdme.

                                                                                  Pheasant coucals are birds that live in jungle areas. They have black bodies and long tails. If we steal their eggs, they will make big rains. They just call all day and all night if we take their eggs, and storms build up and it rains ceaselessly without stopping. If the old people see that it just keeps on raining, then they tell the people who stole the eggs to smoke their hands, then the rain stops.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                Dream.

                                                                                  -bukirrinan

                                                                                    see something in a dream.

                                                                                  -bukirriyo

                                                                                    Dream.

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Dream of something.

                                                                                  Synonyms(kodj)bukirrire, bukirriyo

                                                                                  • Ngarrnan, marrek ngarrnan, yika yiyo yibukirribun Wakkewakken o ankung.

                                                                                    We see it, not really see it, sometimes when you sleep you will dream and see the Wakkewakken or the honey.

                                                                                  Kunbalakborridjbonghme

                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  That probably, over there probably, might be, thing.

                                                                                  • Yimankek mununminj, bonj, wanjh ngarriwam. Bukka Arrkuluk.

                                                                                    When it was dark enough , that was it, off we went. Over there by Arrkuluk.

                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Show, demonstrate, teach, make manifest.

                                                                                  • Kamak kanbukkan?

                                                                                    Can you teach me?

                                                                                  • Wardi kanbukkan bale kayime.

                                                                                    Try and show me, what do you do?

                                                                                  • Kabukkarren nawu kundjak karrihkarrme kuburrk kadberre.

                                                                                    Symptoms which are manifest when we have physical illness.

                                                                                  Kunbalakbuyukme

                                                                                  Dry up (of bodies of water), dry out (of plants etc), evaporate.

                                                                                  • Kabolkbukmen.

                                                                                    The land is drying up.

                                                                                  • Bu kurrung manbu kabbal kabukmen.

                                                                                    In the dry season, the floodplain dries up.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  • Kabirridakurrme manbu kunngobarn kabukmen wanjh kabirrimarnbun nawu badjkid.

                                                                                    They put the pandanus out in the sun, it dries out and they make baskets from it.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  Kunbalakburnduyhmen

                                                                                  Earthquake; also the name of a Jawoyn ancestral being and concomitant religious cult in which earthquake and subterranean fire feature as part of apocalyptic beliefs.

                                                                                  • Yibekkang kukak bolkrokahrokang? Ngarringeybun bula.

                                                                                    Did you feel the earth shaking last night? We call that bula.

                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Together, two people doing something together.

                                                                                  • Nawu yul benebulalh ngarrbenbenekurdudmeng benebulaldokani kore manyonj.

                                                                                    Nawu bininj benebokenh ngarrbenbenenang benedjarrkrey kore manbolh.

                                                                                    We saw two men walking together along the road.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Regular Bininj Kunwokdjarrk-

                                                                                  Two.

                                                                                  • Kunbonj kardukardu bulalh benehmorndi kumelworn.

                                                                                    Kunkare yawkyawk bokenh benehni kured.

                                                                                    Once, long ago, two young women were sitting at camp.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 36-39)

                                                                                  • Nawu yul benebulalh ngarrbenbenekurdudmeng benebulaldokani kore manyonj.

                                                                                    Nawu bininj benebokenh ngarrbenbenenang benedjarrkrey kore manbolh.

                                                                                    We saw two men walking together along the road.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Regular Bininj Kunwokboken

                                                                                  GrammarWhen referring to people, 'benebulalh' is often used.

                                                                                  Male subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and mardku matri-moiety.

                                                                                  • Baw, ngurringurdmen! Bulanj kabiwokmang Balang!

                                                                                    ‘Would you people be quiet! Bulanj is recording Balang!’

                                                                                    (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. xiv)

                                                                                  • Kaluk Bulanj bimarnedjareni ngaleng bu yiman birrimarrimeninj namekke. Bulanj nawu walk bikang yibengkan laik ngarrbinmarneyime 'Nani yikan kureh ba bininj yibinmang yibinreydurndeng ba karriyakwon.'

                                                                                    Another man of Bulanj subsection coveted her, (the boy's mother, a woman of Kodjdjan subsection), and wanted to marry her. Bulanj was going to accompany the boy to be circumcised according to the custom, like when we ask 'You take the circumcision candidate (to another group of people in a distant location) so that you will retrun with lots of people to complete the ceremony.'

                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                  Word audio:

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                                                                                  Female subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and mardku matri-moiety.

                                                                                  • Bu anyungki, makka djal Bininj duninj bawokyimi like old people

                                                                                    In the beginning, she (emu) was a human being and she talked, she was an old woman, old people, … of the ngal-Kangila subsection and the Wurrbbarn clan.

                                                                                    (Djnj)

                                                                                  • Ngali bininjni ngalu ngurrurdu borledkerrinj nahni birridolkang kungol, ngalih wanjh ngale birribawong kukurlk kawake. Bulanjdjan ngal-Wurrbbarn. Yo. Ngalnguyakimuk Bakkarda (Kardbam), Wurrbbarnbulu, Burnungku, Warrayhngu, Kamal.

                                                                                    This emu was once a human being and... all the people here associated with her changed into animals (points to a painting illustrating

                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  1Erase, rub out, delete.

                                                                                  • Yimarneyimen kabularrbun.

                                                                                    Tell him to delete it.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  1Finish a task.

                                                                                  • Ngayeh ngayakwon story ngawernhbularrbun, ngare, ngare wanjh kuwadda, ngahdurndeng.

                                                                                    I'm going to finish telling all this information completely and then I'm off, I'm going back home.

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Dilly bag tightly woven from light fibres.

                                                                                  Synonymskul-kolborn

                                                                                  • Bolkbawong wam manberrk yawani manme mangi dahkendongi ngalengarre manme kore bulbbe.

                                                                                    She left that place and went into the bush looking for food, which she collected in her dilly bag.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  1Middle, centre.

                                                                                  • Kubuldjdjarn yikurrmen.

                                                                                    Put it in the middle.

                                                                                  2Deep (of water or substance).

                                                                                  • Kabuldjarn.

                                                                                    It's deep.

                                                                                  -kumurrng buldjdjarn

                                                                                    Very early before sunrise

                                                                                  -Bininj buldjdjarn.

                                                                                    Ethnonymic reference: ‘the people from the middle/central regions’. This is one of several terms of this nature that indicate the place of origin of a person ideally through their matriline.

                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Cattle, male or female.

                                                                                  • Nahni bininj kukbele kangeyyo Paddy Cahill nawu kumwam kondah Kunbarlanja kondah durrkmirri manme dudjengi dja djarrang dja bulikki benhbukkani bininj ngad nawu birrikukburlerri.

                                                                                    That white man named Paddy Cahill came to Gunbalanya, he was working here planting vegetables and he also showed the people horses and cattle, us Aboriginal people.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  Etymologyfrom English 'bullock'.

                                                                                  Word audio:

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                                                                                  North of Mimanjarr crossing on the Tomkinson River flood plain. It is a popular seasonal camp rich in food resources from early to middle dry season. Visited for

                                                                                  • Bulkay djenj kukadje.

                                                                                    At Bulkay there are lots of fish.

                                                                                  Middle, centre.

                                                                                  Synonymsbuldjdjarn

                                                                                  • Beneyimerranj mahni manlabbarl manbardmo karri. Mandulkkimuk kahdi kore bulkayh.

                                                                                    Those two [Yawkyawk spirits] became that billabong, with waterlilies on it. There is a big tree in the middle of it.

                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 172)

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Properly, really, seriously.

                                                                                  • Bu bulkkidj duninjh ngurridjare wanjh ngurrimray karridjarrkbidyikarrmerren.

                                                                                    If you really want it, come and let’s all help each other [to make it happen].

                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                  Word audio:

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                                                                                  Name of a patriclan on the southern Arnhem Land plateau.

                                                                                  • Kabanibirliyingarrnghmang kabolkbulumo.

                                                                                    Kabanibirliyingarrnghmang is a place belonging to the Bulumo clan.

                                                                                    (LBN)

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  1Ghost Bat.

                                                                                  Scientific nameMacroderma gigas.

                                                                                  • Bumabuma minj karrinan kore kubolkwarlah kuberrk. Nungan kadjalyo kore kuwarderurrk kaddum kuwarde.

                                                                                    We don't see ghost bats out in the open. They just stay in caves up in the rocks.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  2.Mythical hero ancestor who turned into a bat.

                                                                                  • Daluk bikang biyiwam Bumabuma marnburrinj warlang wanjh.

                                                                                    He took the women, went with her and then turned himself into a bat.

                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  1Give off smoke, mist, etc. Generally this verb is combined with a noun stem, as in dolngbume (smoke rises up) etc.

                                                                                  • Kundolng kadolngbume.

                                                                                    Clouds of smoke are rising up [from the burning country].

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  • Benebokenh Ngalyod benemhwam kore wadjbudbeh benewam Katherine Gorge, Nitmiluk. Bu benehrey benehdjarrkrey darnkih wernkih wanjh benedukkarrinj kunbardmo berrewoneng benebardmodukkarrinj kore kanjdji manbu kukku kahbodjurrhbume kore kunred kabolkngeyyo Marlkawo.

                                                                                    Two Rainbow Serpents came from the sea to Katherine Gorge, Nitmiluk. They travelled together very close to each other, then they entwined their bodies under the waterfall [where the falling water creates mist] at a place called Marlkawo.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  2Have a smoky colour, be greyish or silvery like smoke.

                                                                                  • Manbu kundulk kadulkngeyyo mardderr ngalengman kadjordmen kore kukabohkabo, dja manbu kunmalaworr makka wanjh kamalaworrbume.

                                                                                    The silver-leaved paperbark grows by rivers, its leaves have a greyish colour.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  • Manngohngo manbu kundulk ngalengman kadjordmen kore kuwarddehwarddeh. Kaluk ngalengman kaworrbume. Yiman kadulkrohrok manbelk manbu ngalengman kadjordmen kore mankabokabo, njilhmi dja kabehbeberrk.

                                                                                    Pandanus basedowii is a tree that grows in up in the escarpment. It has greyish leaves. It looks similar to Pandanus spiralis, which grows by rivers, springs and in open woodland.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  1Hit, strike.

                                                                                  • Ngalkudji bikebbadjdji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

                                                                                    He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He almost hit the other one, but she fainted with fright and fell down.

                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                                                  • Kunberl nganmarnebom.

                                                                                    He broke my arm.

                                                                                  2Kill, injure.

                                                                                  • Ngalyod kumwam kanjdjibeh kurorre benbom birriwern bininj nawu birrihyoy kumekke.

                                                                                    The Rainbow Serpent came up from under the earth and killed all the people who were there.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  3Burn.

                                                                                  • Manbang manekke ngandjenbom.

                                                                                    That food's strong, it burnt my tongue.

                                                                                  4Produce.

                                                                                  • Manih kundulk yekke kanguybun.

                                                                                    This tree produces flowers in the dry season.

                                                                                  5Suffer effects of a storm, be rained on.

                                                                                  • Mandjewk nganbom ngadberre.

                                                                                    The storm fell on us.

                                                                                  6Ring on the telephone.

                                                                                  • Kaluk kukak kabirribun delebon birriyimeng.

                                                                                    They said they would ring up by phone tonight.

                                                                                  Kunbalakbonghme

                                                                                  -burren

                                                                                    Fight, fight each other.

                                                                                  Word audio:

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                                                                                  Very small ant, generic name for various small ant species.

                                                                                  • Bung nakka mayh nawu kukyahwurd duninj, bu manme kabirrinome wanjh kabirribebme kore kabirrihyo kunred bedberre. Wanjh yika mak kukku kabenreddjuhke, wanjh kunu kabirribebmerren kuberrk. Nawu bung kukbuhbuyika. Yika namak, yika nabang, kanbaye wanjh karrikurlahlukulurlme.

                                                                                    Bung are very small ants, when they smell food they come out (in front of the people who are there on their country). Or when water floods their homes, they all come out into the open. There are different types of ants we call 'bung', some of them will make your skin swell if they bite you.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Trip someone up.

                                                                                  • Yiwayhkemen wardi nganbungkarrkbun ngamankan!

                                                                                    Pick it up, otherwise it'll trip me up and I'll fall over!

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Genre of dance and music associated with people living to the south-east and east of the Arnhem Land plateau including Rembarrnga, Burarra and all Yolngu groups. Used in opposition to the musical genre called kunborrk in Bininj Kunwok.

                                                                                  • Manbu mankare bungkul, manwern kakarrengeyyo. Yiman nangale karrowen wanjh kabindimarnekayhme nawu bungkul kabirriwayini, bu kabirrire kabirridahdahme.

                                                                                    There are many old songs with different names. For example when someone passes away they go and sing, calling out things relating to their clan while clapping clapsticks.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  EtymologyFrom Eastern languages, e.g. Burarra = bunggul, Yolŋu Matha = buŋgul

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  A name for two geographically discontiguous clans in Kakadu National Park and north-western Arnhem Land, the latter associated with the Amurdak language and former with the Gaagadju language.

                                                                                  • Birri-Bunidj kunred bedberre yiman kayime Madjikkarra. Nayidjdji nungka na-Bunidj.

                                                                                    The Bunidj people have country such as at Madjikkarra. [Bill] Nayidjdji is a Bunidj clansman.

                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  A generic name for several species of small skinks. Average size 9cm.

                                                                                  Scientific nameCryptoblepharus spp.

                                                                                  • Borliblib kangun djaddedde wolbu merlemerleh dja bunjdjing.

                                                                                    Magpie larks eat grasshoppers, lacewings, butterflies and skinks.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  • Bu wurdyaw nawu barrken ngarrikarrme, wanjh minj ngarrikukkarrme nawu bunjdjing, wardi mungu nawu wurdyaw barrken ngarriyawkarrme, wanjh kunu minj kadjikkangun nawu kundjikka kore ngalbadjanbeh.

                                                                                    When we have an infant child, we don’t touch skinks, otherwise if we then accidentally touch our child, it will stop drinking milk from its mother’s breast.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  • Dja ngaleng nawu wurdyaw bu kayidmedangen bu kadjordmen, wanjh minj munguyh ngalbadjan kabidjikkawon. Dja ngarrimang nawu bunjdjing wanjh ngarrikombarung nawu bunjdjing kore kukom nuye nawu wurdyaw bu ngarringurdke minj kadjikkangun, dja wanjh kakomrayekmen, ngaleng manmewi kadjalngun dja kukku kadjalbongun.

                                                                                    And when a child gets its teeth as it grows up, the mother can’t keep on feeding it breastmilk. So we get a skink, and rub it over the neck of the child so it stops drinking milk and only eats food and drinks water.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Term used to refer to a blind person or someone who can't see well, a substitute for using the person’s name.

                                                                                  • Kakukkan djenj… Mamik dja Bunje mak kabenbenewon.

                                                                                    He’s carrying a fish… Maybe he’ll give it to shorty and the blind man.

                                                                                    (‘Lesson 11: Djurra ‘i’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Kiss.

                                                                                  • Kabenebunjhmarren.

                                                                                    They are kissing each other.

                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                  Merten's Water Monitor.

                                                                                  Scientific nameVeranus mertensi

                                                                                  • Burarr namak mayh bu ngarringun yiman kalawan karohrok.

                                                                                    Water goannas are good to eat, just like other goannas.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  • Nawu kukku kayo nakka kunngey bokenh bu ngarringeybun burarr dja durrbu dja nayahwurd nakka djerlih.

                                                                                    We have two names for those (goannas) that live in the water, 'burarr' and 'durrbu', and the smaller type we call 'djerlih' (Mitchell's water monitor).

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                  Kunbalakdedjronj, djingronj

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                                                                                  Language of people from the lower Blyth River and Milingimbi and largely spoken on the floodplain area to the east of Maningrida, and in Maningrida itself. Also referred to as Gu-jingarliya and includes several related named varieties such as Gun-nartpa, Anbarra and Martay.

                                                                                  • Manbu Burarra makka kunwok bedberre nawu bininj bedman kabirrihni koyek bu kabirriwokdi. Kaluk yika kabirrini kore Manawukan nawu kabirriwokdi yiman Burarra, Nganbarra dja Mardday. Nakka wanjh yiman bedman birriredbo kore darnkih kabirrihni bu kabirrihwokdi bolkkime.

                                                                                  • Burarra is a language spoken by people who live in the east. Some of them live in Maningrida, speaking Burarra, Anbarra and Martay [dialects of Burarra]. They are the traditional owners of the country nearby where they are living and speaking now.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Spangled Grunter.

                                                                                  Synonymsbokorn

                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                    Social category based on ceremonial grouping of the following subsections; ngarridj/ngarridjdjan, bangardi/bangardidjan; kamarrang/kamanj, balang/belinj.

                                                                                      See alsokuyal

                                                                                      Pick up a scent (e.g. a dog picking up the scent of an animal).

                                                                                      • Burddjimey mayh.

                                                                                        It picked up the scent of an animal.

                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                      Rub quickly back and forwards between the hands such as in the use of fire sticks.

                                                                                      • Korroko kundjakkorl birriburdebmi birrinami wurlhmi manbu kunak.

                                                                                        In the old days, people would rub fire sticks together to start a fire.

                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                      Kunbalakbidjirrbonghme

                                                                                      Word audio:

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                                                                                      Name of a patriclan with territory on the Arnhem Land plateau.

                                                                                      • Manih birri-Burdoh bedberre birribidkuykmerrinj.

                                                                                        These hand stencils here were made by people of the Burdoh clan.

                                                                                        (Mick Kubarkku)

                                                                                      Sentence audio:

                                                                                      Mould or other rotting substances with a greenish hue.

                                                                                      • Kanudbore buriburi.

                                                                                        There is a greenish pus discharge [from an infected wound].

                                                                                      Sentence audio:

                                                                                      Black.

                                                                                      Synonyms-kurduk

                                                                                      • Kukbulerri.

                                                                                        Black (skinned) person.

                                                                                      See also-bulerriwon

                                                                                      Kunbalakkurlngunj.

                                                                                      -burlerran

                                                                                        Blacken, become black.

                                                                                      Sentence audio:

                                                                                      Bulman, a community to the south-east of the Arnhem Land plateau.

                                                                                      • Nawu korrokko dabborrabbolk birriyuhyungki bu birribolkngeybuni kunred Burlmun kore kuhri walem. Kunubewu kunbolkney bininj ngarre. Kunekke kunu birribolkngeybuni.

                                                                                        Our ancestors called that place Burlmun, down there in the south. It might be an Aboriginal place name [I'm not sure, but] that's what they called it.

                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                      • Kurebeh kabikodjwidjwon Burlmun.

                                                                                        From that side of the country it keeps going past to the other country at Bulman.

                                                                                      1Grub, moth larvae, adult moth; tiny ant sp.

                                                                                        2Boil (infected sore).

                                                                                          GrammarThe semantic connection between the two senses of this word is that the various insects described as ‘burlng’ are believed to bite humans and cause infections such as boils.

                                                                                          Word audio:

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                                                                                          Freshwater eels, single gilled eel.

                                                                                          Scientific nameSynbranchus bengalensis, Ophisternon gutturale

                                                                                          • Burlukkurri kayo kore kukku kubak dja kukih.

                                                                                            Eels live in the water, amongst the water weeds and in the mud.

                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                          Sentence audio:

                                                                                          Praise.

                                                                                          • Kabirriburlume nawu namekbe yawurrinj.

                                                                                            They praise that boy.

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                          -burlumerren

                                                                                            Show off, perform with confidence.

                                                                                          Sentence audio:

                                                                                          Swell up.

                                                                                          • Mimburlurlhmeng.

                                                                                            Swollen eye.

                                                                                          • Kaburlurlhme yiman kayime balloon.

                                                                                            It swells up like a balloon.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          See alsolurlmeng

                                                                                          Kunbalakburlurlhbonghme

                                                                                          Word audio:

                                                                                          Sentence audio:

                                                                                          Finish, stop.

                                                                                          • Mayh ngarriyakwong, bonj burnbom.

                                                                                            We completed the ceremony and now it's finished.

                                                                                          • Bonj wanjh, ngurriburnbu wurdwurd. Ngurrikeyo, karrikeyo.

                                                                                            OK that's it, cut it out kids. Go to sleep, let's all go to sleep.

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                          Word audio:

                                                                                          Sentence audio:

                                                                                          1Scabies.

                                                                                          • Nawu burrabburra nakka kore kukurlah kangalme, bu kabenmarnbun kabirrilirrhmerren munguyh. Wanjh kabirrikurlahmokmen. Yiman karohrok kunyaymi, bu kabirriyayme. Kaluk kundulkkurlah dja kunmalaworr ngarrimang manbu kundulkkurlah kangeyyo mandjalen, dja nawu kunmalaworr kangeyyo manleklek. Bu ngarridong ngarrikurrme kore banikkin kukku dorrengh, bu kaborung kore kunak, wanjh yerre ngarrbenkurlahdjuhke bu kabirrikurlahmakmen rowk.

                                                                                            Scabies breaks out on the skin, and makes people scratch themselves constantly. Then they get sores. It's like a kind of itch, when people are itchy. When that happens, we get bark and leaves, bark from the Darwin woollybutt tree (Eucalyptus miniata) and leaves from the Opilia amentacea liana. We pound them and put them in a billycan with water, and when it boils over a fire, then we dip people's skin into it and their skin gets better.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                          2Fungal itch, ringworm.

                                                                                          Synonymsbarrdjak

                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku= djilimin

                                                                                            EtymologyNote Makassarese puru-puru 'pimples, pustules' and Malay puru 'sore, ulcer'.

                                                                                            1. Understand, know.

                                                                                            • Daluhdaluk nawu dabborrabbolk kabirriburrbun manbu manrakel mankinjdjek dja karrbarda.

                                                                                              Older women know [how to distinguish] the foliage of long yams and cheeky yams.

                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                            2Think, think about.

                                                                                            • Med, ngaburrbun.

                                                                                              Wait, I'm thinking.

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                            Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                                                                                            Word audio:

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Fight one another.

                                                                                            • Yawkyawk bokenh beneburrinj.

                                                                                              Two young girls had a fight.

                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                            Word audio:

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Dodge, duck out of the trajectory of a flying object.

                                                                                            • Birridjalkolehburriweyi birriyami Nawalabik dja nungka rongmangi burribawoni mankoleh bedberre minj birriyameninj.

                                                                                              They threw the spears at Nawalabik but he always kept dodging them so they couldn't hit him.

                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Karrkanj Yimerranj’ in ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T, 2005, p. 88)

                                                                                            • Kadjorrhyirdebme marneburribawon ngunbardkarlangderhme.

                                                                                              The head of the axe flies off, I jump out of its path and it chops into your knee cap

                                                                                              (Words to a wurrurrumi style song about two spirits chopping with a stone axe for honey in a log. The axe head)

                                                                                            See alsorongmang

                                                                                            Throw, chuck, throw away, push down.

                                                                                            • Yimburriwemen!

                                                                                              Chuck it over here to me!

                                                                                            • Bikukburriweng.

                                                                                              She pushed him down.

                                                                                            Kunbalakwarlhke

                                                                                            Word audio:

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Deep part, middle area.

                                                                                            • Kaboburrk.

                                                                                              The water is deep.

                                                                                            Word audio:

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Recognise, understand (literally, 'see the shape' or 'see the main substance' of something).

                                                                                            • Ngad bininj ngarringun manbu badjdjo... ngarrire ngarrirakelnan ngarrirakelburrknan wanjh ngarrikarung.

                                                                                              We Aboriginal people eat bush radishes... we go and we see the leaves, we recognise the leaves and we dig them up.

                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                            • Ngawernhburrkburrknang manekke English manbu kunwok.

                                                                                              I really understood English.

                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                            Kunbalakwalngakurrurdme

                                                                                            Word audio:

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                                                                                            1No, nothing.

                                                                                            • Burrkyak, minj ngakarrme.

                                                                                              No, I don't have any.

                                                                                            • Burrkyak, minj korroko ngunnayi, djalbolkkime bu kerrngekkenh duninj ngunkuknan.

                                                                                              No, she's never seen you before, she’s going to see you in person for the first time now.

                                                                                              (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Nabulanj Namandjulngunj et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

                                                                                            2It was no use, nothing happened, to no avail.

                                                                                            • Birriyawam birrikayhmeng burrkyak.

                                                                                              They looked for him and called out, but to no avail.

                                                                                              (Garnarradj, Elaine, ‘Nakudji Wurdyaw Bengwabom’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                            LanguageKuninjku,Kune= kayakki

                                                                                            Large bag for storing or transporting one's belongings, typically made of cloth but sometimes also from traditional fibre string.

                                                                                            • Nawu burruhburrukkang nakka yiman baladjdji, nawu kunmadj dja njalehnjale ngarridahdahkendong. Wanjh ngarrikurrme bu kayo kore kururrk, mak yika bu ngarridjalmadjkan bu kore baleh yarrkka ngarrire.

                                                                                              'Burruhburrukkang' is a kind of bag, which we put our clothes and things in. We keep it inside the house, or sometimes carry our belongings with it when we go somewhere.

                                                                                              (Jill Njanjmirra)

                                                                                            Etymologyfrom Makassan purukaŋ 'bag with sliding band (string), money bag' (Evans).

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Without purpose or cause, lacking a motivation, with no specific intent.

                                                                                            • Djal burudjang bibom.

                                                                                              He just hit him for no reason.

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Hey, oi. Said to get someone's attention so you can let them know something. The extended version 'booy' is called out when walking in the forest to let dangerous animals know of your presence and scare them away.

                                                                                            • Buyh, bininj kamhre nakka kanbun.

                                                                                              Hey! There's a man coming, he's going to bash us (if we don't get out of here).

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            • Ngarridjorlkmeng. Ngarrihni, wanjh ngandimarneyimeng, “Buyh!” Ngalwakadj yimeng [...] “Karrire".

                                                                                              We ran away (that one time). We were all there, and they said to me, “Hey!”, and Ngalwakadj said “Let’s go.”

                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                            • Birribolkkakawoni, "Booy, booy".

                                                                                              They were walking around crying out "Booy" [to scare away the dangerous animals].

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Name of a duwa moiety patriclan on the southern Arnhem Land plateau.

                                                                                            • Buyhmi kunred bedberre Birndalak kubolkngeykimuk birribolkngeybuni, dja mak kunwok bedberre Kundedjnjenghmi. Kumekke kore mankarndan darnkih kunred Bolmo, kadarnhbolkrohrok.

                                                                                              The Buyhmi clan estate is Birndalak, and their language is Kundedjnjenghmi. They are close to a border with the nearby Bolmo clan country along the watercourse.

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            • Buyhmi duwa Djawonj, Birndalak.

                                                                                              The Buyhmi clan is a duwa moiety Jawoyn clan, and Birndalak [is a place in Buyhmi clan estate].

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            1Other, another.

                                                                                            • Birribadbom nabuyika benuk.

                                                                                              Then they speared another bush turkey.

                                                                                              (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                                            • Kernalk bokenh ngalbu ngalmudbele dja ngalbuyika ngalmudburlerri.

                                                                                              There are two types of ibis, the one with black feathers and another one with white feathers.

                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                            2Different, different kind.

                                                                                            • Nawu karrkkanj nakka mayhmayh yiman marram dja nungan kukbuyika.

                                                                                              The brown falcon is a bird like the whistling kite, but it looks a bit different.

                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                            Word audio:

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Faded, dim, indistinct, not bright.

                                                                                            • Nakka banikkin melkbuyu.

                                                                                              The inside of that tin is rusty (not shiny).

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            • Battery karrowen wanjh muddika kamimbuyumen minj kawernhbolkwolkan.

                                                                                              When the battery dies, the car's lights become dim and don't light up the surroundings anymore.

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                            -buyungmen

                                                                                              Become faded, indistinct, not bright.

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Show, instruct, teach.

                                                                                            • Nawu nakahbonj kabenyirrokan wurrngahwurrngalk. Kabenbuyukme bu kabirriberdedjbonghke nawu djang morlarrinj nadjinem ba bu nawiribbu mandjil wanjh kakorrongkomen.

                                                                                              Nawu nakohbanj kabenkan yawuhyawurrinj. Kabenbukkan bu kabirribehke djang nawu kunj nadjinem ba bu nabuyika mandjewk wanjh kawernmerren.

                                                                                              The old man is taking the young men out. He's showing them how to do an increase ritual at the Black Wallaroo sacred site, so that next year there will be lots of wallaroos.

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            Regular Bininj Kunwokbukkan

                                                                                            In the sun.

                                                                                            • Karrayo.

                                                                                              It's lying in the sun.

                                                                                            LanguageKuninjku= larrhmikurrme, larrhme

                                                                                            -dakurrme

                                                                                              Place out in the sun.

                                                                                            -dayo

                                                                                              Lie in the sun.

                                                                                            Word audio:

                                                                                            Sentence audio:

                                                                                            Paper wasp.

                                                                                            Scientific name(family) Vespidae

                                                                                            • Nawu dabbe, kakukrohrok nawu kulurrmumu, dja djakbarl. Nakka mak nabang yerri. Kaluk nakka minj karedmarnbun redkimuk, dja redyahwurd bu karedmarnbun, dja nungan bodkumuk dja kukkurlba (red).

                                                                                              Paper wasps are similar to potter wasps and other wasps. They're also dangerous. They don't make big nests, they make small nests, they're large reddish flying insects.

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            See alsodjakbarl

                                                                                            1Feather, feather like crest and tail on the rainbow serpent.

                                                                                              2White egret, a name derived from the bird’s plume.

                                                                                              • Kunngey kakarrme danjbik bu ngarringeybun. Komorlo kabakaba dja dabberrk dja ngaldjalkudji ngalbu mayhmayh.

                                                                                                It has three names that we call it by. Komorlo, kabakaba and dabberrk, but they all refer to the same bird.

                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                              3Plume of smoke, can be used as a signal e.g. that someone is on their way.

                                                                                              • Bu kabirriwurlhke djarre wanjh kundolng manekke kamarnburren dabberrk.

                                                                                                If people make a fire a long way away, the smoke forms a plume in the sky.

                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                                              1Old person, adult, elder, (human) ancestor.

                                                                                              • Manbu karrbarda mandule dja kunborrk bu korroko nakudji nakohbanj dabbolk Nakangila Nabarrbinj marnbom.

                                                                                                An old Nakangila skin man of the Barrbinj clan made the Long Yam song cycle, a long time ago.

                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                              2Friend.

                                                                                              • Kabenedabbolk.

                                                                                                They're friends.

                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                              Word audio:

                                                                                              Sentence audio:

                                                                                              1Elders, adults, old people.

                                                                                                2Ancestors, the 'Old People'. The human ancestors of present-day people, as opposed to mythological Ancestors.

                                                                                                • Korroko dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dolek.

                                                                                                  In the old days, people [our ancestors] used to eat wood grubs.

                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                See alsodabbolk

                                                                                                Kunbalakkarrabolko

                                                                                                Grammarreduplication of dabbolk

                                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                                1Press in on, crowd around.

                                                                                                • ‘Oh barrk bolkki ngarduk kunj ngarrabke’ ngarriyime.

                                                                                                  'Oh I'm going to close in that black wallaroo there, a kangaroo for me' we say.

                                                                                                • Benedjalwam bu kunred djarre benerrabkeng kumekke.

                                                                                                  They kept going to places far away in order to close in on him there.

                                                                                                • Ngalbu makkakkurr ngalka ngalkimuk mayhmayh ngalbu ngalengman kadjalngun djenj... Dabborrabbolk birrirey birridabkeyi kore kurrubbe yiman kayime Mandjaworlbidji wanjh birribuni kundulk birrimangi birrikerribuni wanjh birringuni.

                                                                                                  The pelican is a big bird that eats fish. In the old days, people would herd them into a closed-off area like Mandjaworlbidji (the 'Big Waterfall' at Gunbalanya) and kill them, gather wood and cook them in a ground oven.

                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                2Meet, meet halfway, come across.

                                                                                                • Nabulanj bimarneyimeng Nakangila "yimray kandabke kore manbolh". Wanjh Nakangila yimeng "Ngamre, dabke kore manbolh nan".

                                                                                                  Nabulanj said to Nakangila "Come and meet me halfway, on the road". And Nakangila said "I'll head over then and meet you there".

                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                • Barrk kare kukku kabongun kore kahboyo, wanjh bininj kare kabidabke kore kukku kaboyo wanjh kabiyame.

                                                                                                  The black wallaby goes to the waterhole to drink, and the man goes and comes across it there and spears it.

                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                                Egg, of any animal.

                                                                                                • Dabuno karrabukabun.

                                                                                                  They sit on the eggs.

                                                                                                  (Mick Kubarkku, quoted in Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus : indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 48)

                                                                                                LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                See also-dabungukdeng

                                                                                                Kunbalakmorrodjornno

                                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                                King brown snake.

                                                                                                Scientific namePseudechis australis

                                                                                                • Bolkkime karrbennan kalawan dja dadbe kabeneburren wanjh kalawan kakarrme.

                                                                                                  Now when we see a goanna and a brown snake fighting, the goanna will always win.

                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                Kunbalakdarrmayal

                                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                                Daddubbe spirit, often depicted in paintings with an amputated leg. Said to live in escarpment country and be similar to Mimih spirits, though they are short and stocky, as opposed to Mimih which are tall and very skinny.

                                                                                                • Bininj nawu nakurdang wanjh kabinan nawu Daddubbe bu kabebme kukak kayimerran.

                                                                                                  ‘Clever men’ can see Daddubbe spirits when they come out at night.

                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                • Nawu Daddubbe nakka nungan kahyo kore kuwardderurrk yiman kayime mimih bu kabirriyo kore kuwardderurrk.

                                                                                                  The Daddubbe spirit lives in caves, just like Mimih spirits which also live in caves.

                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                • Mimih nangarradjku, Daddubbe namardku.

                                                                                                  The mimih spirits are of nangarradjku moiety but Daddubbe is namardku moiety.

                                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                                Name of a patriclan located in Kakadu National Park.

                                                                                                • Bunidj mak birriburrbuni en, nakka nawu Kakudju nawu birriwokdi, njamed, ah Murumburr, birrihbengkang, Djindibi, Dadjbaku birriburrbuni nani Kunwinjku nawinjku konda Kunbarlanja Mengerrdji nakka birri-burrbom manekke story.

                                                                                                  The Bunidj clan people knew that [story about the knob-tailed gecko dreaming] and the people who used to speak Gaagadju, and also whatsit, the Murumburr clan, they knew and the Djindibi clan, Dadjbaku clan, they knew and the people who spoke Kunwinjku here at Kunbarlanja, and also those such as the Mengerrdji language people, they all knew that story.

                                                                                                Word audio:

                                                                                                Sentence audio:

                                                                                                1Cut, slice.

                                                                                                • Kabindibukkan bu mako kabirridadjke kabirrimarnbun.

                                                                                                  They show them how to cut (trees for) didjeridus and how to make them.

                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                2Divide, draw a dividing line.

                                                                                                  3Cut off, interrupt.

                                                                                                  • Diledadjkerren.

                                                                                                    Abruptly interrupt urination.

                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                  See alsodadjme

                                                                                                  Kunbalakdilhke

                                                                                                  Word audio:

                                                                                                  Sentence audio:

                                                                                                  1Be cut.

                                                                                                    2Cease, stop.

                                                                                                    • Mandjewk karradjme wanjh karrimang.

                                                                                                      When it stops raining we can get it.

                                                                                                    Kunbalakdilhme

                                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Give.

                                                                                                    Synonymswon

                                                                                                    • Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng.

                                                                                                      Give me a (turtle) leg, I'm starving.

                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Be inside or within the boundary of something, e.g. a container. Sit, sleep or lie on or in something e.g. a mat, blanket, canoe or car.

                                                                                                    • Baladjdji nang kahdarlkan manbu manme dahkedahkendi mankinjdjek, wanjh yimeng, "Ngurrimray, ngurrinan... Minj mak njale karrahkendi. Manme manu yakminj".

                                                                                                      He saw the dillybag, which had been filled with cheeky yams, floating in the water, and said "Come and have a look... There's nothing in there, the food is gone".

                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 190)

                                                                                                    • "Nahni marebu ngunedahkendi." "Kek", beneyimeng, wanjh benemey benehdahkendi.

                                                                                                      "That mat is for you two to sit on." "Really?" they said, and they took it and sat on it.

                                                                                                      (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Place into a container.

                                                                                                    • Yiborrahkendo!

                                                                                                      Fill up the water (container).

                                                                                                    Kunbalakdahkenlorlme

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Block an action, refuse permission, stop someone from doing something.

                                                                                                    • Yimarnek kamrayinj la Ngarridj birrahmeng.

                                                                                                      She was going to come but Ngarridj wouldn't let her.

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Say, do.

                                                                                                    • Nangomi dakalhmeng, "Kab ngarrokan ngabobekke ngarrku".

                                                                                                      Nakudji yimeng, "Kab ngare ngakinje ngarrku."

                                                                                                      One of them said "How about I go and cook this for us?".

                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak: stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 64-67.)

                                                                                                    • Dakalhmeng minj yidokan.

                                                                                                      Yimeng minj yire.

                                                                                                      She said not to go.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    Regular Bininj Kunwokyime

                                                                                                    1Hold tight, hold trapped (in one's mouth etc).

                                                                                                    • Kinga kahbimdi bayeng djenj kahdakarrme kore kundang nuye.

                                                                                                      This is a picture of a crocodile, with a fish held tight in its mouth.

                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                    • Ngandjalberldakarrmeng.

                                                                                                      He kept me handcuffed.

                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                    • Ngalbadjan kayime "Aa nakka wurdyaw njale kahdakarrme kore kudang nuye? Wardi kabikombakke".

                                                                                                      The mother says "Ah, what's that kid got in his mouth? It might choke him".

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    • Mak bu kunmok yikarrme kore kukarre ke, bu yidjuhme kore kukku nawu baladj ngunbelbme dja ngunbaye bu ngundakarrme.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    2Stick into, stick into something and stay there.

                                                                                                    • Drip ngundakarrme.

                                                                                                      You'll get a drip stuck into you (at the hospital).

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    • Nakudji bininj bidulubom mandjawak nawu nabuyika bininj kore kubodme nuye bu bidakarrmi.

                                                                                                      One man stabbed another man in the back with a knife, and the knife stuck in his back.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Chop, strike, chop up.

                                                                                                    • Bininj kadakme nawu dolobbo kore kundulkbeh manbu manbordokorr.

                                                                                                    • The man chops the bark off the stringybark tree.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    • Nawu dabborrabbolk bu korroko kunkanj kunj dja nganabbarru birridakdakmi ba bu birrikanjnguni kamak. Birrimarnbuni bu kanjkerlkdangeni.

                                                                                                      In the old days, our ancestors would chop up kangaroo and buffalo meat into little pieces, so they could eat it more easily. That would make the meat softer.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    LanguageKundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Place out in the sun.

                                                                                                    • Kabirridakurrme kore kurrungbang kadayo kabukmen.

                                                                                                      They put it out in the hot sun, it lies there in the sun and it dries out.

                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                    LanguageKuninjku= larrhmikurrme

                                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Dingo. Literally dalk-ken, 'from the grass'.

                                                                                                    Scientific nameCanis lupus dingo

                                                                                                    • Ngahli daluk Ngalyangdoh dja dalkken ngalengarre benewam benehwarlbuni kukak.

                                                                                                      That woman Ngalyangdoh and her dingo went off hunting at night.

                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    1Woman.

                                                                                                    • Daluk bokenh benewam ngalmangiyi kore kabbal.

                                                                                                      Two women went looking for long-necked turtles on the floodplain.

                                                                                                      (Nabobbob, Rose, ‘Kunbidkudji Kunwok’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                                    2Wife.

                                                                                                    • Daluk kakarrme.

                                                                                                      He's married (he has a wife).

                                                                                                    3Female.

                                                                                                    • Merlbbe daluk ngalkka nabininjkobeng ngalengarre warradjangkal.

                                                                                                      Merlbbe is the female agile wallaby, and her mate is the male agile wallaby, warradjangkal.

                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                    See alsodaluhdaluk

                                                                                                    Kunbalak1.kardukardu 2. ngaldjubdjubken

                                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    1.Freshwater mangrove itchy caterpillar.

                                                                                                    Scientific nameEuproctis lutea

                                                                                                    • Bu burlng kabirrikarrme kore kukurlah bedberre, wanjh kabenkurlahmarnbun kabirrikurlahdjinhdjinhmen. Yiman kayime dan, bu kabirrimalaworrkarrme, wanjh kabirrikurlahdjinhdjinjhmen dja kabirrikurlahlukulurlme.

                                                                                                      When people have boils on their skin, it makes their skin lumpy. Or for example itchy caterpillars, when people grab leaves [that caterpillars are on], then their skin becomes lumpy and swollen.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    2In Kuninjku, this name can also be applied to a kind of stink bug.

                                                                                                    Scientific name(family) Pentatomidae

                                                                                                    • Dan, bu yingingerrehme kabanj.

                                                                                                      If you squash a stink bug it gives off an odour.

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Name of a patriclan to the north of the Arnhem Land plateau.

                                                                                                    • Kubomerlem kumekke kadjobme Warddjak. Ngalengman beh Danek. Danek wanjh kayimerran. Kukalak manu.

                                                                                                      The place Kubomerlem is where the Warddjak clan finishes. Then further on its Danek. It becomes Danek land then. That is Kukalak [a regional estate name].

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    A glowing water plant or other mystical light phenomenon that appears in water bodies and is associated with the Mardayin ceremony.

                                                                                                    • JM: Njamed dangarrk. Yoh, ka-yo, yiman dayno. KL:Yoh, dangarrk ka-ngerrhmirri, Mardayin. Ka-rung kandji.

                                                                                                      JM: They are whatsit, dangarrk. Yes, they are like round [shapes]. KL: Yes, the dangarrk give off light and are Mardayin [sacred]. They burn under [the water].

                                                                                                      (John Mawurndjul and Kay Lindjuwanga from Maningrida Arts and Culture bark painting documentation, June 1994. Recorded by Murray Garde and on file ‘Mawurndjul Texts’.)

                                                                                                    1Close a door, window or opening, shut one's mouth.

                                                                                                    • Yirrangbalhmen!

                                                                                                      Close the door!

                                                                                                    • Yirrangbalhmerrimen!

                                                                                                      Close your mouth!

                                                                                                      (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                    2Lock someone in, shut someone in.

                                                                                                    • Kumunun wanjh ngandidangbalhmi.

                                                                                                      At night they used to lock us in.

                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Name of the northern dialect of Dalabon, once spoken at Korlobidahdah on the Cadell River but in 2007 is considered moribund, if not extinct.

                                                                                                    SynonymsDalabon

                                                                                                    • Nakka kuwardde kahnan kabarriyime Dangbon, yilinkirrkkirr 'manjh kunjno' bayimi. Kabimarneyime o kunj nuye kabimarneyime Dangbon, yo yilinkirrkkirr.

                                                                                                      It looks around in the rocks and in Dangbon it is called yilinkirrkkirr [sandstone shrike thrush] and in Dangbon they say [in Dangbon language] 'the kangaroo's bird' and in Dangbon it's called yilinkirrkkirr.

                                                                                                      (LBN (Kundedjnjenghmi))

                                                                                                    Grammardang 'mouth' bon 'to go [in Dalabon language]'

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    1Stand, reach a standing position, come to a standstill.

                                                                                                    • Beneburriweyi madjawarr durndengi djabdangeni kore benedanginj.

                                                                                                      The two of them were throwing spears, but the spears were bouncing back and coming to stand upright in the ground where the two of them were standing.

                                                                                                      (From Evans 2003:379, (9.115))

                                                                                                    • Ngarridanginj wanjh ngarrikoluy.

                                                                                                      We stopped and got down (from the truck).

                                                                                                    2Come to live in a place.

                                                                                                    • Bu korroko ngarranginj, bu mandjewk mandjewk ngadjaldi munguyh.

                                                                                                      I came here to live a long time ago, for many years and I'll stay here always.

                                                                                                      (Margaret from Manmoyi in Gerhalter translation)

                                                                                                    3Be siblings.

                                                                                                    • Mongerrk benbenenang daluk bokenh. Bedda benedanginj.

                                                                                                      One day, Mongerrk saw two women. They were sisters.

                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                    4Was born.

                                                                                                    Synonyms-dolkan

                                                                                                    • Nawamud kumekke kunred danginj wanjh kunuka kaborndokdi.

                                                                                                      Nawamud was born in that place, that’s his birthplace.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                    5Grow, appear, come to be, become. Form of the verb -di ('there is, stand') that implies the process of coming into being, literally 'standing up'.

                                                                                                    • Minj karribukkan bu kayahwurd. Kadjalle kadjawurrkdangen bu kabidbun.

                                                                                                      We won’t teach him when he’s too young. When he grows some whiskers, then he can go up to the ceremony ground.

                                                                                                    • Ngurringeynamerrimen, wanjh ba membership ngurriyimerran, dja ngurringeydangen kore djurra.

                                                                                                      Sign your names, so you'll become members and your name will appear on the list.

                                                                                                      (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015)

                                                                                                    Grammarthis idiomatic sense being a semantic extention of the verb to stand is also only represented by the past perfective form -danginj

                                                                                                    -kukdangen

                                                                                                      Fruit, start fruiting, grow fruit.

                                                                                                    -djawurrkdangen

                                                                                                      Grow a beard.

                                                                                                    -balemdangen

                                                                                                      Grow fat (of game animals).

                                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Siblings, brothers, sisters.

                                                                                                    • Nganedanginj.

                                                                                                      We are siblings / we are brothers / we are sisters.

                                                                                                    • Birridanginj.

                                                                                                      They are all siblings.

                                                                                                    • Ngarriwen nawu ngarrimarnbun manbu badjkid nawu ngaye ngarridanginj.

                                                                                                      There are lots of us here making baskets, me and my sisters.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra, quoted in Hamby, Louise (ed.), Twined Together: Kunmadj Njalehnjaleken, Injalak Arts and Crafts, Gunbalanya, 2005, p. xiii)

                                                                                                    See alsodangen

                                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Put something in someone's mouth, feed someone.

                                                                                                    • Ngalbadjan kabimarneyime wurdyaw ngalengarre nawu nayahwurd "Ngaye dangkenwon manme".

                                                                                                      A mother will tell her young child "I'm going to put the food in your mouth".

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    • Ngalbadjan kabidangkenwon kundjikka ngalengarre nawu wurdyaw barrken.

                                                                                                      The mother gives her young child the breast.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Put something in one's mouth, feed oneself.

                                                                                                    • Yimankek benwoyi dja burrkyakni benkoweyi. Kaluk bu birribalrlobmi darnkih wanjh ngalbu Kurdukadji djaldangkenworreni ngalengman deleng. Wanjh wurd birridurndengi kunmarrwe.

                                                                                                      She pretended she was going to give them some, but she was just teasing them. When they ran up to her, the Emu would just put the food into her mouth, and they went back hungry.

                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 8)

                                                                                                    • Wurdyaw birrimarneyimeng nungan dangkenworrimen manme bu kangun ba kaburrbun.

                                                                                                      They told the child to feed himself, so he could learn how to do it.

                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Open (eg. door, lid, window etc.)

                                                                                                    • Bimarneyimeng "Ngarre bukkan mandjabu kore ngamarnbom ngabawong". Benewam dangmarrhmey manbu mandjabu.

                                                                                                      He said "Let's go, I'll show you where I left that fish trap I made". They went, and he opened up the fish trap.

                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                    Word audio:

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Opening, entrance, mouth, lid (of cave, basket, room, didgeridoo etc).

                                                                                                    • Dulklorrkkelorrkken nakka yiman nayuhyungkih kabirriyo kore kundulk manlohlorrk kore kurrangmaye kundulk kore Ankung Djang.

                                                                                                      Dulklorrkkelorrkken spirits are like creation Ancestors, they live in hollow trees, where the trees have an opening, in Honey Dreaming country.

                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                    -kurrangmaye

                                                                                                      The area just outside of the entrance to a rock-shelter; just beyond the overhang of a rock-shelter, typically a domestic space associated with a rock- shelter.

                                                                                                    Sentence audio:

                                                                                                    Strict, strict person, one who can speak strongly.

                                                                                                      Word audio:

                                                                                                      Sentence audio:

                                                                                                      Loudmouth, literally ‘mouth-wide’.

                                                                                                        Sentence audio:

                                                                                                        Argue, discuss with each other.

                                                                                                        • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                          Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us the story.

                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                        Three.

                                                                                                        • Mandengeyi danjbik wam kore Kunnanj.

                                                                                                          Three cars went to Kunnanj.

                                                                                                          (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 19’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981.)

                                                                                                        • Wurdwurd birridanjbik birriwam djenj.

                                                                                                          Three children went fishing.

                                                                                                          (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                                        • Birriburdebmi danjbikkah, dja yika kunkarrngbakmeng, wanjh wurlhmi manu kunak.

                                                                                                          They would rub it [the fire stick] back and forth three or four times, and the fire would start.

                                                                                                          (Maralngurra, Dolly, ’Korroko Bu Bininj Birrimarnbuni Kunak’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974)

                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                        GrammarIf referring to people, the prefix 'birri-' is often added to make 'birridanjbik', 'the three of them'.

                                                                                                        Kill, spear, especially with a multi-pronged 'fish wire' spear.

                                                                                                        • Nawakadj dja Nabulanj benewam djenj benehdanjbuni kubbunj benehkani.

                                                                                                          Nawakadj and Nabulanj went spearing fish with a canoe.

                                                                                                          (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj Dja Nabulanj Benewam Djenj’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre.)

                                                                                                        Name of a Kuninjku patriclan from the Tomkinson and lower Mann Rivers district.

                                                                                                        • Yiman kayime Mukkamukka, Kubarrakahbul, ... yibekka kadjale Dorddjam, Kukarddak, Nganbelk, kadjale ngamed Mikalkborloh, Kornobolo Kawanjkerri, Miwurlkwurlk, kadjale Midjuyh kaddum Burddjinnguk, Miwakkawilk, Bobuneyi, koyek kadjale Bulubbulu, Kukalal, Walmidji, kadjale Kubarrakahbul manekke barrimraworrinj anbu na-Dankorlo [na-rrankorlo] ngamed konda, Mukkamukka, Nangalakardbam, manekke na-Marrirn.

                                                                                                          Like Mukkamukka, Kubarrakabbul ... it goes on to Dorddjam, Kukarddak, Nganbelk, further to whatsit Mikalkborloh, Kornobolo Kawanjkerri, Miwurlkwurlk, further to Midjuyh up to Burddjinnguk, Miwakkawilk, Bobuneyi, east further to Bulubbulu, Kukalal, Walmidji, then to Kubarrakahbul. That’s where they join together with the Dankorlo and here at Mukkamukka and Nangalakardbam,

                                                                                                        A grinding or gnawing sound, such as someone grinding their teeth, a dog chewing a bone or a cricket grinding its legs together.

                                                                                                        • Nakohbanj minj keyuwurrinj, dja bekkani mayh dardarrk dardarrk yimi.

                                                                                                          The old man couldn't sleep, he kept hearing an animal gnawing at something.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        Someone who always grinds their teeth, making a sound like "dardarrk-dardarrk".

                                                                                                        • Nawu bininj kayidmebayerren kunyidme nuye munguyh, wanjh nakka ngarriyime dardarrkdardarrk.

                                                                                                          We call people who grind their teeth all the time 'dardarrkdardarrk'.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        Grind together making a grinding sound (e.g. a cricket's legs), grind with one's teeth, gnaw, bite.

                                                                                                        • Duruk bu kunmurrng kangun wanjh munguyh kamurrngdardarrkme.

                                                                                                          When a dog chews a bone, it grinds away at it endlessly with its teeth.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Yika mak bininj kabirriyidmebayerren bu kabirriyidmedardarrkme.

                                                                                                          People also grind their teeth, making a grinding sound.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Nawu wurdyaw mey wakih darrkid, wanjh bibiddardarrkmeng.

                                                                                                          The child picked up a live yabby, and it bit his finger.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        See alsodardarrk

                                                                                                        Dry, dried out.

                                                                                                        • Nahni kunj kangeyyo ngorlomorroh, kaluk kadi yiman kayime kore kubolkdarleh.

                                                                                                          That kangaroo is called "ngorlomorroh" (Northern nail-tail wallaby), and it lives in dry areas.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Nang kayerrkan kore mandulkdarleh

                                                                                                          He saw there was some [wild honey] in a dead tree

                                                                                                          (Kunwinjku texts collected by Peter Carroll, on file at ASEDA)

                                                                                                        -darlehmen

                                                                                                          Dry out.

                                                                                                        -darlehwon

                                                                                                          Dry something out.

                                                                                                        Dry out.

                                                                                                        • Yirrmeng rowk wanjh mey daweng, dayohdayoy dayonginj rowk darlehminj.

                                                                                                          She split it all [the pandanus leaves] into strips, then put them in the sun to dry. They lay there in the sun and all dried out.

                                                                                                          (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                        See alsodarlehwon

                                                                                                        Dry something out.

                                                                                                        • Nahni kundung kamirrhmirrhme… Kunmadj kadarlehwon. Kamarlaworrdarlehwon. Kadalkdarlehwon. Kabolkmirrhmirrhme.

                                                                                                          The sun is blazing… It dries out the clothes. It dries the leaves. It dries the grass. The earth is baking and shimmering in the heat.

                                                                                                          (Galmur, Judy & Brennan, Queenie, ‘Gundung Garri-rung’, Barunga Press, 1993. Spelling changed to reflect current standard orthography.)

                                                                                                        Clap, crack, click. A sharp sound such as clapsticks hitting each other, a nut cracking, fingers clicking etc.

                                                                                                        • Benengalkeng namekke morlehmorlenj bokenh manngamed mankarralarlhmanj, wanjh benehnguni benebayeyi, 'darlk'.

                                                                                                          The two women found some whatchamacallit, mankarralarlhmanj (Sterculia quadrifida nuts, 'peanut tree' nuts), and were eating them, cracking them open with their teeth, 'crack!'.

                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                        -darlkdarlkme

                                                                                                          Make a clapping, cracking or clicking noise.

                                                                                                        Float.

                                                                                                        • Baladjdji nang kahdarlkan manbu manme dahkedahkendi mankinjdjek.

                                                                                                          He saw the dillybag, which had been filled with cheeky yams, floating [empty] in the water.

                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 190)

                                                                                                        • Manberlnginj kabirridarlkdarlkme.

                                                                                                          They're clapping clapsticks.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Mongerrk-mongerrk nawu benkuknguni daluhdaluk, kaluk benbenebekkang kore kurrulk benedarlkmini bu benemimbayeyi manbu manmim mankarralarlhmanj.

                                                                                                        • Mongerrk-mongerrk used to eat women, and he heard the two of them sitting up in the tree cracking open bush peanuts [Sterculia quadrifida] with their teeth.

                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, 'Mongerrk-Mongerrk' in 'Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories', Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 36)

                                                                                                        Close up, closely.

                                                                                                        • Karridarnhnan.

                                                                                                          Let's have a close look at it.

                                                                                                        1Close, close up.

                                                                                                        • Nawu kinga kumhdjalwam darnkih kore ngalmekbe daluk kore ningihni.

                                                                                                          The crocodile just came right up close to where that woman was sitting.

                                                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                        2Soon, nearly, about to.

                                                                                                        • Kordbolbok ngarribekkan kawokdi kukak kamulewan mandjewk bu darnkih kadjakdung.

                                                                                                          When we hear frogs at night, it means that it’s going to rain soon.

                                                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                        Talk, speak.

                                                                                                        • Aba, nuk kaluk kabenemwarnduyhme. Dja kunubewu kabirridarokdi.

                                                                                                          Aba, nuk kaluk kabenemdurndeng. Dja kunubewu kabirriwokdi.

                                                                                                          Oh, they'll probably be back later. Maybe they're all talking.

                                                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 60-63)

                                                                                                        Regular Bininj Kunwokwokdi

                                                                                                        Call on the telephone, radio etc.

                                                                                                        • Nawu konjkonj kunyukkah ngarrikurdudmeng darokwirdidjbonghmeng kore namari kamdokan.

                                                                                                          Nawu kukbele ngokko ngarrinang wokngimeng kore djamun kamhre.

                                                                                                          We saw the white guy calling the police, they're on their way.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                        Regular Bininj Kunwokwokngimen

                                                                                                        Poke out.

                                                                                                        • Kahkorodarrhme.

                                                                                                          Part of the snake’s body is sticking out of its hole.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Kalawan kakebdarrhme kumidjno.

                                                                                                          The goanna's nose is poking out of the burrow.

                                                                                                        • Nawu djenj namardaka dja marrngunj kore kanjdji kukku kabirriyo kudjorlok. Kabirringimen wanjh kabirridjawurrkdakadarrhme.

                                                                                                          Eel tailed catfish live in holes under the water. They go inside and we can see their whiskers sticking out.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Bu kunkanj kabirrikerribun wanjh kunkod manu kabirribarrkbun wanjh kunkurlk kabirridudjeng. Kaluk bu kabirrinan kunkod kadarrhme, wanjh kabirriyawoyhdudjeng kunkurlk.

                                                                                                          When people cook meat in ground ovens, they cover it with paperbark and then put soil over the top. If people see a bit of paperbark sticking out, they'll put some more earth on top.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        GrammarPlural form is 'dakadarrhme'.

                                                                                                        In the public domain, non-secret knowledge or a place which is open to general public access.

                                                                                                        • Kubolkdarrinj.

                                                                                                          A non-sacred place, outside the ceremonial area.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Narrarrinj bonj kamak daluk kabarriwokbekkan.

                                                                                                          That's non-secret [language], women are allowed to hear those words.

                                                                                                        • A: Morrdjdjanjno kakarrme Wubarr, ngabengkan. Andjamun. Nakudji morrdjdjanjno narrarrinj daluk kabirribekkan. B: Andarrinj makka, mak anbuyika ngakalalameng andjamun manu Wubarr.

                                                                                                          A: The Ubarr ceremony has morrdjdjanjno songs, I know them. They are secret. Only the public morrdjdjanjno songs can be heard by women. B: They are in the public domain, but those other special songs I just sang are from the Ubarr ceremony and are secret.

                                                                                                        LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kune, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                        Become unrestricted after having been taboo, have a curse lifted from.

                                                                                                        • Bu kabirridjamunhme nawu njalehnjaleh, yiman kayime manme, mayh, kunred, muddikka, wanjh kadjaldjamun. Mak yiman bininj, daluk dja wurdyaw kabindikukdjamunhme kore bedberre nawu mawahmawah kabindihyime, kaluk yerrikah wanjh kabindikukbehke mandubang kunmalaworr, wanjh kunu kabirrikukdarrinjmen. Dja mak nawu njalehnjaleh kabirridjamunhme wanjh kadarrinjmen rowk.

                                                                                                          When people put a ceremonial restriction or curse on something, for example food, animals, places, or cars, then it's taboo. For example men, women and children might 'curse' each other [in such a way that nobody can interact with the cursed person], only elder relatives. Only afterwards then people will cleanse that person by smoking them with ironwood leaves, and the curse will be lifted. All different objects can be cursed, and then have the curse lifted.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        1Alive.

                                                                                                        • Kunubewu benedarrkid. Kunubewu benedoweng.

                                                                                                          Maybe the two of them are alive. Maybe they're dead.

                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                        • Nungka karrarrkid.

                                                                                                          He is alive.

                                                                                                        2Actual, in person.

                                                                                                        • Ngarribokkadjuy nganabbarru wanjh ngarribebmeng kure darrkid ngarrinang.

                                                                                                          We followed the buffalo tracks until we arrived and actually saw it (the buffalo).

                                                                                                        To put something out in the sun, dry something in the sun.

                                                                                                        • Yirrmeng rowk wanjh mey daweng, dayohdayoy dayonginj rowk darlehminj.

                                                                                                          She split it all [the pandanus leaves] into strips, then put them in the sun to dry. They lay there in the sun and all dried out.

                                                                                                          (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                        Lie in the sun

                                                                                                        • Yirrmeng rowk wanjh mey daweng, dayohdayoy dayonginj rowk darlehminj.

                                                                                                          She split it all [the pandanus leaves] into strips, then put them in the sun to dry. They lay there in the sun and all dried out.

                                                                                                        • Burarr karrinan kakukdayo kore kunwardde kukorlh kore manwodj kahwodjyo kundulk.

                                                                                                          We see water goannas lying in the sun on flat rocks by the river or where there are logs.

                                                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                        See alsodakurrme

                                                                                                        Use triangular or third person kinship references.

                                                                                                        • Bu ngabendebikan ngayime nababba kamhre wanjh ngudda yiyime, yo, nakiwalak namekke.

                                                                                                          If I was to use third person kinship reference, I would say nababba is coming, and you would say yes, that's nakiwalak.

                                                                                                        • Ngabenbekken nahni wurdwurd nawu kabirrihre minj Kundebi kabirrikarrme. Burrkyak. Kabirridjalngeybun. Minj kabirridebikarren, burrkyak.

                                                                                                          I hear these children going about – they don’t have Kundebi. No. They just use people's names. They don’t use Kundebi with each other, no.

                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku= derbikan, Kune= derbuykan

                                                                                                        Sentence audio:

                                                                                                        Red-collared lorikeet. Affiliated with duwa moiety.

                                                                                                        Scientific nameTrichoglossus rubritorquis

                                                                                                        • Dedded kunmud kabirrimudmang kabirrikurrme kore djerrh wongkorr mardayin kunmadj.

                                                                                                          People get lorikeet feathers and weave them into sacred dilly bags for the Mardayin ceremony.

                                                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                        Word audio:

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                                                                                                        Black ant.

                                                                                                        • Wanjh kunu Mamik bibayeng deddel.

                                                                                                          And Shorty got bitten by a black ant there.

                                                                                                          (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja nakodjok benekang’ in ‘Kunwinjku Stories’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1982)

                                                                                                        Word audio:

                                                                                                        Sentence audio:

                                                                                                        Cut open the guts of a kangaroo during cooking.

                                                                                                        • Birridedjbuni birrinjamduhkeyi birribebkeyi mannjam kundurddu kudiw kunbalem dja njalehnjale rowk kore kunj kunjam.

                                                                                                          They would cut open the kangaroo, make an opening in its belly and pull out the stomach, heart, liver, fat and everything else inside.

                                                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                        Word audio:

                                                                                                        Sentence audio:

                                                                                                        Start and keep going, begin and then continue for a while.

                                                                                                        • Nawu mandjewk kadjaldjakdung bu kadedjdjilname munguyh, kadjale kaluk bu kayiburnbun.

                                                                                                          When the rain starts, it continues to rain for a long time. It keeps going until it eventually stops.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Bu namarrkon kamayhke, kadedjdjilnamename bu kahngurdulme.

                                                                                                          When the lightning flashes, the thunder starts and rolls on.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Namarrkkon dedjdjilnamenameng.

                                                                                                          The lightning kept flashing every couple of minutes.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmrra)

                                                                                                        See alsodjilname

                                                                                                        Begin, be ready to start.

                                                                                                        • Ngaleng nalkbom, nalkbom dja dedjdjingmey wayihwayini.

                                                                                                          She cried and cried, then began to sing.

                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                                                                        Short.

                                                                                                        • Ngaldedjdjumbung ngalkka.

                                                                                                          That short woman.

                                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                        Sentence audio:

                                                                                                        1Naked.

                                                                                                        Synonymslahlarrk

                                                                                                          2 Without a base, missing its bottom.

                                                                                                          • Banikkin dedjlarrk.

                                                                                                            A cup without a bottom, a cup with a big hole in the bottom of it.

                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                          3 Empty, with nothing in the bottom (e.g. of a bag), finished down to the last piece.

                                                                                                          • "Kankukwo kunwardde." "Minj ngakarrme kunwardde, dja dedjlahlarrk nawu baladjdji."

                                                                                                            "Give me some money." "I don't have any money, the bag is empty."

                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                          • Dedjlarrkminj nawu bakki.

                                                                                                            All the tobacco is gone.

                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                          LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                          Word audio:

                                                                                                          Sentence audio:

                                                                                                          Kick.

                                                                                                          • Kabirridirri budbol wanjh nakudji nawu kadedjmelme manbu budbol wanjh kadolkayhwe djarreh kare.

                                                                                                            They play football, and someone kicks the ball and sends it flying a long distance.

                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                          See alsomelme

                                                                                                          Sentence audio:

                                                                                                          Shake or shiver.

                                                                                                          • Mamamh ngamngimen dja mandjewk nganhbun ngabonjdjekdoweng ngahdeldelme.

                                                                                                            Grandpa let me come in, I'm getting rained on and I'm freezing and shivering.

                                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                          Word audio:

                                                                                                          Sentence audio:

                                                                                                          White ochre or clay, kaolin, huntite.

                                                                                                          • Manih delek ngukmak, kakukbarme duninj.

                                                                                                            This white clay is 'good shit' (of the rainbow serpent), it really is very bright.

                                                                                                          Kunbalakkabbarrk

                                                                                                          Word audio:

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                                                                                                          1Contents. Nominal suffix which indicates the idea of contents being held within a container of some kind.

                                                                                                          • Kadjalbodelengkurrme kabongerdkendi wanjh.

                                                                                                            The water goes in until it is full.

                                                                                                            (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal & Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘A Kundedjnjenghmi Wordlist of Eco-zone Terminology’, Northern Land Council Caring for Country Unit, 2007)

                                                                                                          2Only, just, nominal suffix 'exclusive involved participant'. Only me, just each other, all by ourselves etc.

                                                                                                          • Dalukdeleng beneburrinj?

                                                                                                            Was it only the two women [and not men] who were fighting?

                                                                                                          • Wanjh ngadman deleng bu ngarrinahnarren / Minj nangale ngankongibun bu konda kamre, ahwurd, ahwurd.

                                                                                                            We look after ourselves / No one feels sorry for us, no one is staying here, we are sad, we are sad.

                                                                                                            (Wildflower Band, ’Maburrinj (The lonely place called Maburrinj)’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                                                          GrammarFree noun in the form of delengno (with the third person possessor suffix -no only in Kuninjku, Kune and Kundedjnjenghmi dialects) and has the sense of 'contents (of a container)'. In a second sense the word appears as a suffix on core nominals with the sense of 'exclusive involved participant' (see Evans 2003:154). Incorporable in verbs such as delengkan, delengmang, delengkurrme, delengdahkendong

                                                                                                          -delengkan

                                                                                                            Take contents in a container, vehicle etc.

                                                                                                          -delengmang

                                                                                                            Get or pick up a container/bag etc. with contents in it.

                                                                                                          -delengdahkendong

                                                                                                            Put contents in container, put luggage in vehicle etc.

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                                                                                                          Splash or spill fluid on something.

                                                                                                          • Bu kabbal karrire wanjh kunkih karrikihmelme wanjh kandelkke kunkih.

                                                                                                            When we go onto the floodplain and step in the mud, the mud splashes us.

                                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

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                                                                                                          Well known hill in the Kunukdi estate, located around 8km south of the Djurlka waterfall just west of a narrow north-south running rocky ridge. Demed is a rounded hill which rises from a forested savanna plain. The outstation resource agency based in Gunbalanya is named after this hill.

                                                                                                          • Nadjurrk nakka bininjni, rengehrey kore borledmikenh Demed mandulum bu korroko. Nungka yerrkang ngudjngehmeng wanjh yimerranj kunwardde.

                                                                                                            Nadjurrk was once a man, he used to travel around on the far side of Demed hill long ago. He sat down to rest there and turned into a rock.

                                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

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                                                                                                          Cause an object to stop or slow down, delay someone, stop someone doing something, hinder someone.

                                                                                                          • Kanwohdenghke.

                                                                                                            You're delaying me (i.e. I want to go).

                                                                                                          • Bu yiman wurdwurdbubuyika mak kabirridurren, wanjh karrbendenghke o karrbenmarneyime “Yuwn ngurrimarneyidngalkerren”.

                                                                                                            If other kids start arguing with them, we stop them, or we tell them “Don’t go looking for trouble for yourself.”

                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

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                                                                                                          Stop moving (of large objects), be stalled (also figuratively).

                                                                                                          Synonymskukdenghme

                                                                                                          • 'Parachute' kabebme wanjh kakukdenghme manekke.

                                                                                                            The parachute appears and it (the aircraft) comes to a stop.

                                                                                                          • Karridjalkukdenghme munguyh.

                                                                                                            We're stalled, we're not moving forward (no-one is co-operating or taking decisive action).

                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                          Chop with an axe.

                                                                                                          • Nawamud dja wurdurd birriwam birriderdmi kundulk bu mankung birrimey.

                                                                                                            Nawamud and the children went and chopped open a tree to get the wild honey inside.

                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                          • Nangarridj benedurrinj Nakamarrang, wanjh nangarridj yimeng "Yidjare ngaye derdme kurlburru?"

                                                                                                            Nangarridj and Nakamarrang had a fight, and Nangarridj said "Do you want me to chop you with an axe, or what?".

                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                          • Bulanj rderdmeng wanjh borrolkang manekke djidjerok.

                                                                                                            Bulanj chopped the water tree and the water came pouring out.

                                                                                                          Kunbalakkolihme.

                                                                                                          Move something away (or if -mderrehke, movement is towards speaker).

                                                                                                          • Yiderrehkemen darnki kodbarre.

                                                                                                            Move it away (and put it) close to the house.

                                                                                                          1Move (a short distance).

                                                                                                          • Yiderrehmen!

                                                                                                            Move away a bit.

                                                                                                          • Yimderrehmen!

                                                                                                            Come closer.

                                                                                                          2Move forward, make progress (towards a plan or goal etc), move on, move away.

                                                                                                          • Karridubberrong yiman bolkkime karridi, karridubbedoy wanjh. Dja bu bewh wurd karribalderrehme.

                                                                                                            We don’t know which way to go at present, as we are now, we're stuck. We need to make progress.

                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                          • Yuwn ngurriwernhre kunrayek kore Balanda. Bokenh ngurrirlobmen. Ngad kadberre mak kunwok ngurrikarrmen rerrih, yuwn ngurriwe, la ngurrire kore kunkukbele, burrkyak. Marndi bewh ngurrihderrehme djarreh ngurrikarrebarlanhmang manbu ngad kadberre.

                                                                                                            Don’t dedicate yourself to the Balanda way of doing things. You must run with both. You must also hold on to our own language as well. Don’t discard it and go to the white language, no. If you move too far away (from our traditions), you'll lose the Law, our law.

                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                          3Make way, make room, move on.

                                                                                                          • Bindimarneyimeng, “Ngurriderrehmen ngudda ngurrikukbele ngurriderrehmen wardi bu ngadman bininjwi.”

                                                                                                            They’ve said to them, “Right, you just move on. You white people move on, its our turn" (to get the jobs, etc).

                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                          Kunbalakderrehbonghme

                                                                                                          1Stand.

                                                                                                          • Med yirrin!

                                                                                                            Stay there, wait. (lit. you sing. stand imper.)

                                                                                                          • Dingihdi.

                                                                                                            He stood there for some time.

                                                                                                          2Be present (especially temporarily or in a phase).

                                                                                                          • Minj diwirrinj.

                                                                                                            She wasn't there.

                                                                                                          • Ngudda bale yihrri?

                                                                                                            Where have you been?

                                                                                                          • Yekke kabalemdi [kunj], yekke nakka bonj.

                                                                                                            In yekke season [kangaroos] are fat, certainly in yekke season.

                                                                                                          3Be in affinal relationship with someone.

                                                                                                          • Bale yiyime kela? Ngunehdi?

                                                                                                            What kinship relationship are you to Kela? Do you call him brother-in-law?

                                                                                                          Kunbalakdjarrbelme

                                                                                                          -dingihdi

                                                                                                            Reduplicated form of 'di' meaning to stand or be somewhere for some time.

                                                                                                          A bush potato.

                                                                                                          Synonymsmardidjdjad is the duwa name. Didjkala is the yirridjdja name

                                                                                                          Scientific nameCartonema spicatum, Cartonema trigonospermum (Altman also records Cartonema parviflorum as didjkala).

                                                                                                            Various kinds of rainbow fish and hardyheads e.g. Banded rainbow fish, Mariana's hardyhead. Some speakers also include the spotted blue-eye or the delicate blue-eye.

                                                                                                            Scientific nameMelanotaenia trifasciata, Craterocephalus marianae

                                                                                                            • Dilebang nakka djenj kilekilelh yiman nadjirrkku dja kukbuyika. Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dilebang.

                                                                                                              Rainbow fish are small, like glassfish but different. In the old days, people used to eat them.

                                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                            Urinate, piss.

                                                                                                            Synonymslebun, djorrkoybun

                                                                                                              The action of making a dot.

                                                                                                              • Djal bimwi yuwurrinj yiman delek bolkki ngahbimbom wolewoleh kunekke ngayimeninj kunkudji dilh dilh dilh.

                                                                                                                There was only (solid figure) images in white ochre like I use today and like I painted before with dots, one by one, dot dot dot.

                                                                                                                (Mick Kubarkku, on file “Transcript of cassette RA93-2” by Murray Garde, 1993.)

                                                                                                              Spotted, having spots.

                                                                                                              • Nawu djabbo kukdilhdilhmiken dja mak djenj nawu dilhdilhmiken.

                                                                                                                The quoll has spots, and there are also fish that have spots.

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                              • Nawu mayh nawern kukdilhdilhmiken, yiman kayime nayin djenj mayhmayh dja mayh buhbuyika. Mak kunmadj madjdilhdilhmiken.

                                                                                                                There are many animals with spots, for example snakes, fish, birds, and all kinds of things. Clothes can be spotted too.

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                              Make small dotted marks. Usually this refers to painting or drawing, however it can also refer to e.g. making a series of small cuts for ceremonial purposes.

                                                                                                              • Yoh dilhdilhmeninj la ngaleng Mardayin birrirarrkwemeninj mankarre nawu nadjamun 'old fashione one'.

                                                                                                                Yes, he used to paint dots but for Mardayin ceremony they used 'rarrk' (cross hatching) which was the old fashioned way.

                                                                                                              • Wurdyaw bu lakkayen kabirrimarnbun, wanjh ngalbadjan kabirrimanemdilhdilhme dja kuyon ngalengarre.

                                                                                                                When a young boy is circumcised, people put small cuts on his mother's chest, and the back of her lower leg [to signify that her son is undergoing this rite].

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                              Dive under water, dive down.

                                                                                                              • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh yiman marrngunj burd djakolk nawern nawu djenj kare kore kukku kubowinjku. Karrbennan birriwern kore kukku kabirridjuhmiyindi kabirridimhme kanjdji kore kukku kabirriyawan djenj kabirridanjbun kundang bedberre wanjh kabirringun.

                                                                                                                Cormorants eat small freshwater fish, like baby eel-tailed catfish, spangled grunter and purple spotted gudgeon. We see lots of them in the water, diving down under the water to look for fish and spearing them with their beaks and eating them.

                                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                              Stand or be somewhere for some time, a long time (reduplicated form of ‘di’, to stand or be).

                                                                                                              • Wam nang kabenehbokyo, wanjh med dingihdi burrbuhburrbuni.

                                                                                                                He went and saw that their footprints were there, then stood there a while thinking.

                                                                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nabangardi bidbom kuwardde’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                                                              Common Australian cicada.

                                                                                                              Scientific nameCyclochila australasiae

                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                Clan name associated with Jawoyn language and the upper Mann River region.

                                                                                                                • Djal Mann River. Nawu Dinjhmi Bokmarnde, anekke Mann River.

                                                                                                                  Still on the Mann River. Those Dinjhmi and Bokmarnde clans are on the Mann River.

                                                                                                                1Moon.

                                                                                                                Synonymskarrakbal

                                                                                                                • Ngad karrinjilngmak bu dird kabolkwolkan, wanjh karribolknan bu kukak, nungka kayawoyhmimbimen.

                                                                                                                  We are happy when the moon lights up the sky, so we can see at night. The moon comes back to life [every night].

                                                                                                                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                                • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                                  Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us that story.

                                                                                                                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                                2Month, the lunar cycle.

                                                                                                                • Ngamadbom nakudji dird.

                                                                                                                  I waited one month.

                                                                                                                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                -dirdko

                                                                                                                  Moonlight.

                                                                                                                -dirdbuyika

                                                                                                                  Next month.

                                                                                                                Moonlight.

                                                                                                                • Dirdko karrire.

                                                                                                                  Let's go by moonlight.

                                                                                                                • Bu dirdko wanjh kabirriwaralnarren, yiman kayime mak kundung bu koyek dja karrikad bu kadungdi wanjh kabirriwaralnarren.

                                                                                                                  By moonlight people cast a shadow ['see their own shadows'], just like when the sun is in the west or the east.

                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                A bright moon.

                                                                                                                • Bu ngarriyime dirdngukmak wanjh kunu dird kabolkwolkan bu ngarrire, yiman kayime bu

                                                                                                                  When we say 'dirdngukmak', that means when the moon is bright enough to light our way at night.

                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                • Kuhni dirdngukmak dja karrire ngarrbek karriyawan.

                                                                                                                  There's a bright moon, let's go hunting echidnas.

                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                See alsongukmak

                                                                                                                Play.

                                                                                                                • Wurdurd beh ngurridirri kandibengbun.

                                                                                                                  You kids go and play over there, you're driving me crazy.

                                                                                                                1And. Can link both nouns and clauses.

                                                                                                                • Ngarrbek dja Ngalmangiyi benemdolkkang kakbibeh.

                                                                                                                  The Echidna and the Long-necked Turtle came down from the north.

                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                                • Ngudda yiyawnahna, dja ngaye ngawarlbun ngarrku.

                                                                                                                  You look after the kid, and I’ll go hunting for us.

                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                                2But.

                                                                                                                • Ngalbu ngalkordow ngalka mayh ngadberre bu ngarringun bu korrokoni dja bolkkime larrk.

                                                                                                                  The egret is one of the animals we used to eat, but not any more.

                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                • Ngurrurdu korroko dolkani rey kaddum kaluk bininj benebokenh yimankek beneyameninj dja larrk.

                                                                                                                  One day the Emu flew up into the air, two men tried to spear her but without success.

                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                3Because.

                                                                                                                • Bu Kudjewk wanjh birringimi kuwardderurrk birriyoy dja mandjewk dja birndu.

                                                                                                                  In the wet season they moved into caves to stay, because of the rain and mosquitos.

                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                4So; and so.

                                                                                                                  Japanese person.

                                                                                                                  • Yiman nawu koyek nakka wanjh bindiyameng dalukkenh daluk bindikilekmi bindiberlmangi wanjh kunekke bindiyameng nawu birribuyika Djabbani.

                                                                                                                    There in the east, that’s where they speared them because they were interfering with women, sexually exploiting the women and so that’s why they speared those foreigners, those Japanese.

                                                                                                                  Metal container, billycan.

                                                                                                                  Synonymsbiliken

                                                                                                                  • Bu djabbirlarna ngarridedjbarnname kore kunak karung bu ngarrikinje manme, wanjh kadedjdjerrkdan wanjh kunukka ngarridedjmarnbun ba djurrmud kadedjbarndi kore kahrung.

                                                                                                                    When we put a billycan on the fire to cook food, and it starts tipping sideways, we set it upright again over the flames.

                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                  Etymologyfrom Malay se-belanga 'one earthen cooking pot' or Makassarese balanga 'earthen cooking pot'.

                                                                                                                  Northern (spotted) quoll.

                                                                                                                  Scientific nameDasyurus hallucatus

                                                                                                                  • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                                    Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us that story.

                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                                  LanguageKune,Kuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                  Kunbalakyulukyuluk

                                                                                                                  To stick into the ground, to end up standing upright.

                                                                                                                  • Wanjh nakudji yimeng njalekenh manbu mankole ngarrburriwe kamdurndeng kadjabdan kore kubodme ngarrku. Wanjh bu benebalwam djarrehwurd benenang ngalbu Ngalyod kahyo wanjh benedurndi kured.

                                                                                                                    One of them said “Why does the spear end up landing [sticking into the ground] behind us when we throw it?”. Then when they went a little further they saw that the Rainbow Serpent was there, and they went home.

                                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                  1Stand upright, be standing, an elongate object standing on its base.

                                                                                                                  • Kadjabdi lorrkkon.

                                                                                                                    The bone pole is standing upright.

                                                                                                                  2Travel directly to the destination without stopping, "straight up kare".

                                                                                                                    Fly eggs.

                                                                                                                    • Nawu djabdjab nakka ngarringeybun bod dja morl yiman wirlarrk kabirrikurrme kore mayh kunkanj, bu yiman kurobbe kakanjyo. Wanjh bod dja morlmorl kabirriyerrkarren kore kunkanj kabirrikurrme wirlarrk bu kamarnburren yolk. Wanjh kunukka minj ngarringun dja ngarriburriwe.

                                                                                                                      'Djabdjab' is what we call the eggs that flies and blowflies lay in the flesh of [dead] animals, when the meat is lying there on the ground. Flies and blowflies will all sit on the meat and lay eggs, to later turn into maggots. We don't eat it after that, we throw it out.

                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                    • Djabdjab kadundulubun.

                                                                                                                      It lays eggs [the fly lays its eggs by piercing the meat].

                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                    Mouth Almighty.

                                                                                                                    Scientific nameGlossamia aprion

                                                                                                                    • Nahni djenj djabel korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birringuni yiman nadjirrkku dja bolkkime minj ngarringun.

                                                                                                                      People used to eat mouth almighty fish, just like they used to eat glassfish, but these days we don't eat them.

                                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                    LanguageKuninjku= djenjbarrang

                                                                                                                    Yam knife made from the shoulder blade bone of a kangaroo.

                                                                                                                    • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrimangi kunj djaberlemurrng, birrimarnbuni djaberle bu birridadjkeyiken manme. Yiman kayime mankinjdjek birridadjkeyi.

                                                                                                                      In the old days, our ancestors would get the shoulder blades of kangaroos and use them to make bone knives for cutting food, for example cheeky yams.

                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                    Grammarno prefix

                                                                                                                    Place an elongate object on its end, place into the ground (such as a pole o