Bininj Kunwok
dictionary

app logo

Oh, oh no, the thing is, no way (conveys that the speaker is shocked or wants to contradict something that has been said).

  • "Aba, yaw kinga nganang. Marndi wurdyaw kayawbaye kadberre warreh," yimeng ngalbu Ngalwakadj bedberre.

    “Oh, I saw a young crocodile. It might bite our kids” Ngalwakadj told them.

  • "Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng." "Aba, minj won, ngaye mak ngamarrwedoweng."

    "Give me a [turtle] leg, because I'm hungry” “No way. I can't give you any. I'm hungry too."

    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

Beach, sand.

  • Kore manyunkurr, adjbud kayo.

    On the island, there is a beach.

    (Wildflower Band, ‘Galiwin’ku’)

  • Nabangardi yimeng "Ngare kore wadjbud kurrula kahyo, ba djenj ngayawan".

    Nabangardi said "I'm going to the beach, the saltwater, to look for fish".

    (Jeanette Burrunali)

1Is it?; maybe; I don't know!

  • Ngaye ngadjawayhme nuye bu ngayime "Adju baleh wam nawu Nabangardi?"

    I ask him, I say “I don’t know, where did Nabangardi go?”.

    (Jill Nganjmirra)

2Said after a joke which provides mild embarrassment to the hearer.

    EtymologyIwaidja aju 'it-lies', 'it is', 'it exists'.

    See alsokunubewu

    Name of a male ancestral dog being, who travelled with the female Ancestral dog Omwarl through the area around Gunbalanya. The name is from the Mengerr language but Kunwinjku speaking residents of Gunbalanya are familiar with the story of these two dogs. The name has been also spelt Adjumarllarl but there is no linguistic basis for a rl+l sequence in either pronunciation or syllable structure. However, the Adjumarllarl spelling is now largely an accepted convention.

    • Bu korroko duruk bokenh Adjumarlarl dja Omwarl benemwam karrikadbeh kukku benehboyawani.

      The two Ancestral Dogs Adjumarlarl and Omwarl came [to the Gunbalanya area] from the west, looking for water.

      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation, Adjumarllarl and Omwarl Story)

    Etymologyfrom the Mengerr language

    See alsoDuruk Benengadbom

    1Kind of shrub.

    Scientific nameGrewia xanthopetala, Grewia multiflora

      2Kind of hibiscus. As for the Grewia species, the bark of this hibiscus is used to make string and the young stems are good firesticks.

      Scientific nameHibiscus tiliaceaus

        The Amurdak language.

        SynonymsWurradjbak

        • Nawu korroko bininj birriyuhyungki birrimulewarreni bu bedda kunwok bedberre kore birriwokdi. Yika manbu kunwok mankang kuberrkbeh dja yika kore kurrulabeh. Wanjh bolkkime bininj birriwern kabirribebbehwokdi manbu kunwok bedberre. Yiman Amurdak dja Wardadjbak makka kuberrkbeh birriwokdi. Dja manbu Yibadjdja dja Marrkku makka wanjh kumekke ngalengman kore kabirrihni bolkkime bininj manbu kunwok kumekke kabirridjalwokdi.

          In the old days, our ancestors all spoke to each other in their own languages. Some languages came from inland areas, and others from saltwater areas. Still today, people each talk their own languages. Amurdak and Wardadjbak for example were spoken in inland areas. Iwaidja and Marrku are still spoken where the speakers of those languages live.

          (Jill Nganjmirra)

        LanguageKunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

        1Name of the hill on the southern side of Gunbalanya township in Mengerrdji language country.

        • Nawu manimunak wirlarrk djang kahdjangdi kore kaddum kuwardde Arrkuluk.

          There is a sacred site for Magpie Goose eggs on the top of Arrkuluk rock.

          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

        2Hill on the western side of the entrance to Birraduk [Birrirddak] Creek valley, directly south of the Gunbalanya-Nabarlek road. This site has the same name as the hill at Gunbalanya and is therefore sometimes called ‘Arrkuluk number two’.

          An interjection used to express emotional attachment, dearness.

          Synonymsworro

          • Awurd, mayh namekke ngan­kodjborledke Kawk Kabim Djang

            So dear to me is that bird, its call reminds me of the sacred night heron dreaming.

            (Nabarlek Band song (Terrah Guymala))

          • Yika mak ngarriyime "awurd" bu nangale nawu kare djarre wanjh ngarrikongibun, dja mak bininj nawu karrowen, wanjh ngarriyime "awurd warre mankang mandengeyi".

            We might say “Awurd” (“Oh that dear man/woman”) if someone goes far away and we feel sorry for them, or for example if someone dies we might say "Awurd (oh that poor man/woman) it’s a terrible thing, they had a car crash".

            (Jill Nganjmirra )

          LanguageKunwinjku

          1So that.

          • Yirrolkka ba karrire.

            Get up so we can go.

          2But.

          • Ba minj birrinayinj nganabbarru yoy, wanjh manwurrk biwayhkeng.

            But they didn't see a buffalo sleeping there until a bush fire woke him up.

          Sore, be in pain.

          • Baleh yihbabang?

            Where does it hurt?

          • Ngabardbabang.

            I have a sore knee.

          • Baleh yimi bu yimimbabangni?

            How long has your eye been sore?

          LanguageKuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

          Kunbalakngarrkme

          Grammara kind of adjective which can take predicate prefixes (pronominal and nominal)

          Carry a load attached to a stick over the shoulder, especially fish.

          • Yidjirribiwo ba ngababbulibun djenj.

            Tie the fish up (passing vine or string through the gills) so I can carry them on a stick.

          • Karrimadjbabbulibun.

            Let's carry our swag on a stick over our shoulder.

          1Catch an object which has been thrown, launched etc.

          • Bu ngurridirri ngaleng kaburriwe wanjh ngudda yibabma.

            If you're going to play, she'll throw it (the ball) and you've got to catch it.

          • Mongerrk-Mongerrk birriyameng nawu bininj birriyuhyungki, wanjh birrikukkinjeng kore kunak. Kunmurrwirn nuye bu dolkani wanjh birribabmangi, birriyawoyhkinjeyi kore kunak ba bu minj yawoyhmarnburrimeninj.

            The Ancestors speared Mongerrk-Mongerrk, and burned his body on a fire. As scraps of his charred skin floated up into the air from the fire, they caught them and burned them again, so he couldn't re-form himself.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          2Reel in, pull in (e.g. a fishing line or rope).

          • Yiyarlbabbabmang werrk!

            Quick, pull in the line!

          Kunbalakbabmimodme

          Verb prefix indicating that one action follows another, possibly as a consequence. So, then, afterwards, as a result, in that case, with good reason, etc.

          • Birribadbom nabuyika benuk.

            Then they speared another bush turkey.

            (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

          • Dja kunubewu bolkkime wanjh nganang bu yiman kayime kurrung darnkih wanjh kabindibadkan kabirriwarlbun.

            Well I notice at the moment, probably because it’s coming up for build-up season, they’re taking them hunting a lot.

            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

          See alsobadbu

          Short eared rock wallaby.

          Scientific namePetrogale brachyotis

          • Korroko bininj birrirey djalakkiradj dorrengh kore kuwardde birriyawani birrinani birridanjbuni nawu badbong.

            In the old days, people would take spears into the escarpment looking for short-eared rock wallabies, and when they saw them they would spear them.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          Kunbalakdolhwarr

          1Exactly right!, absolutely! That's what I mean!

          • Badbu djalkurrmerrinj ngayi ngabengkan... I know!

            Yes, that's right, I know it put itself there, I know that.

          2When, if.

          • Badbu djal ngaleng werrk ngunnang, wanjh ngunkukbawon.

            When she [an emu] spots you first [before you see her], well she'll run away from you.

          • Badbu kondabu ngarrinankah arribukkayi manekke.

            If we see some here, we should show it to him.

          Grammarsubordinate conjuction

          Mirror, glass.

          • Baddumang ngarrikebnarren.

            We are looking at our faces in the mirror.

          • Warlirr kundung karrirung, kunekke kadberre karrirung, dja baddumang kabirrikarrme, baddumang kabirrikarrme kune kayime kakolhdebebme, kakolhdebebme, soon kabirrikarrme, glass, mirror, soon kabirrikarrme kadberre yiman muddikang rerri. Bokenh kabenekarrme, glass baddumang kukak kabirribebme.

            When the sun is hot, when we get really hot, then they have pieces of glass and when plants start sending out new growth [just before rain comes] then they [spirit beings] have pieces of glass and they take us away in something like a motor vehicle. They are in pairs with their pieces of glass and they appear at night.

            (Jimmy Bungurru (first language was Ndjébbana).)

          EtymologyFrom Makassarese patomang ‘compass’. Note also Ndjébbana baddúmang ‘swimming goggles, glass, mirror’. Also Iwaidja badumang (or bathumang) and Mawng patumang ‘glass, mirror’

          European style smoking pipe.

          Synonymsdjikka

          • Bu korroko wanjh larrwa dja badj birriwungmi dja bolkkime larrk.

            In the old days people used to smoke long Macassan pipes and European style pipes too, but not any more.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          Etymologymost likely an English loan but note Makassarese patti 'chest, case' and kalling 'tin, can' and cf Iwaidja patjukaling 'large container, drum' and Burarra bajikala 'long smoking pipe'.

          Kunbalakkunmuluru.

          Big one, large, main part. When two things are conceived of as existing in a greater-lesser, main-subordinate or parent-child relation, 'badjan' describes the greater or parent part. The lesser or child part is referred to with 'yaw'.

          • Kundulk mandubang birrilawkmangi birridjedmi birrimarnbuni manberlnginj, manbadjan dja manyaw wanjh birribekkani manmak wanjh bonj.

            They would peel the bark off ironwood branches and carve them into clapsticks, a large one and a small one, hear that they sounded good and that was it.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          • Manbu manbadjan makka rungkal. Manu manyaw makka rarrk.

            The large external lines are the outlines, the small lines are the hatching (within the painted figure).

            (Joey Nganjmirra)

          Bash, hit to injure.

          • Kunwardde ngakodjbadjdji.

            I bashed it on the head with a rock.

          Kunbalakbonghme

          Small herbaceous plant which has an edible radish-like tuber.

          Scientific nameBrachystelma glabriflorum

          • Ngad bininj ngarringun manbu badjdjo ngarrire ngarrinan manrakel wanjh ngarrikarung ngarrimang kaluk mankuk ngarringun minj ngarrikinje mandjoleng ngarringun.

            We Aboriginal people eat bush radishes, we go and we see its leaves then we dig it up and eat it raw. We don't roast it and eat it cooked.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          LanguageKuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kune, Kunwinjku

          Etymologypossibly from Makassarese pacco 'Arum colocasia R., a plant with roots which are edible after cooking'. Cf Bajau pacco 'taro, Colocasia esculenta'. Also Mawng badjdjung 'yam type'.

          Buffalo, bull, cow. Literally 'foot-big'.

          • Ngarridokang wanjh ngarrikurdudmeng badjdjorrkorrongko kumhdjarrbelmi bu ngankurdudmi. Kaluk minj nganyorrwayi ngadberre dja warreka kulkulmeng.

            Ngarriwam wanjh ngarrinang nganabbarru kumhdi ngankuknani. Kaluk minj ngankadjuyi ngadberre dja warreka rlobmeng.

            We were walking along and saw a buffalo there looking at us. It didn't chase us, but ran off in another direction.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          Regular Bininj Kunwoknganabbarru

          Get a flat tyre, get a puncture, get a shredded tyre etc.

          • Manbu manbadjdjorryi wanjh makka badjdjorryambahminj dja med kabirribadjdjorrmarlangweybun.

            Manbu muddika wanjh makka dengewarreminj dja med kabirridengemarnbun.

            The car got a flat tyre, we have to fix it (before we drive on it).

            (Jill Nganjmirra )

          Regular Bininj Kunwokdengewarremen

          Drum (metal container).

          • Manbu mannjam makka mankuyeng birridjirridjbuni kore kurrula birridjobdjobkeyi birrikinjeyi kore banikkin nakimuk badjdjukkali.

            The intestines (of the sea turtle) are very long, people used to wash them in the salt water, then chop them up and cook them in a large drum.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

          Basket. This word usually refers to a non-traditional basket, such as coiled baskets. The coiling technique was introduced to Arnhem Land by missionary Greta Matthews in the 1920s, but was traditionally used by southern Aboriginal people along the Murray River.

          • Ngaye ngahni Mamardawerre kaluk ngarrurrkmirri kunngobarn bu ngamarnbun, dja mak ngarriwen nawu ngarrimarnbun manbu badjkid nawu ngaye ngarridanginj.

            I live at Mamardawerre and I work making things out of pandanus, there are lots of us here making baskets, me and my sisters.

            (Jill Nganjmirra, quoted in Hamby, Louise (ed.), Twined Together: Kunmadj Njalehnjaleken, Injalak Arts and Crafts, Gunbalanya, 2005, p. xiii)

          Etymologyfrom English ‘basket’

          Shirt.

          • Nawu kunmadj ngarringeybun badjubadju nawu kaddumkah kabirridjongburren.

            The piece of clothing that we call 'badjubadju' (a shirt) is something people wear on their upper body.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          LanguageKuninjku

          Etymologyfrom Makassarese bajubaju, 'men's short-sleeved shirt, jacket.'

          Name of a yirridjdja moiety patriclan.

          • Weyakweyak bakurlbakani kurlba barey. Bayimi 'yuy yuy' bakayhmi bayuyhmirey, that kurlba bakadjungi line up anekke kunwardde line kadjale bayibmeng konda, kalkberd, nakkan Nawarray-beh barrolkang dabborrabbolk nuye bu Nangukwirridj nakohbanj na-Badmardi, ya Bangardi nawu. Na-Badmardini, nangamed nuye Nayombolmi nuye kornkumo barroweng makka nungka beywurd Nayombolmi.

            Black-faced cuckoo shrike fi:(Coracina_novaehollandiae) followed the trail of blood. He groaned 'yuy yuy', and went along calling out 'yuy' and he followed the blood and these rocks are all lined up [indicating the route the kangaroo took] and he keeps going and sank here, that male euro who came from Nawarray. It belonged (the dreaming) to that old Badmardi clansman Nangukwirridj, yeah

            (LBN, Badmardi/Worrkorl site survey)

          1Break something.

          • Bu kunboy karribakke wanjh karrinan nawu djak kabebmerren kore kuboybeh.

            If we break a termite mound, we see the white ants coming out from inside the mound.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          2Break (a law), transgress.

          • Yimarnebakke mankarre ngundukkan, nawu Balanda.

            If you break their law they'll put you in handcuffs, the white people.

            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006. Kunkarre changed to mankarre. )

          4Compose a song about a person or incident, be able to perform (orally) or recite something.

          • Djimarr benbakkeng yawurrinj mandule bedberre.

            Djimarr created a song for/about the young men.

          Kunbalak-murridjke, (variant > murridjdje)

          GrammarThis construction is of the form SUBJ/OBJ-break.

          Tobacco.

          • Bu yibawon bakki kamak wanjh.

            It would be good if you gave up smoking.

          Kunbalakkundjule

          Break.

          • Yuwn yikilekme wardi kabakme.

            Don't touch it or it might break.

          Kunbalak-murridjme, redup.= -murrimurridjme

          1Trajectory in space away from a static speaker and/or hearer or, in third-person-based narrative, on the protagonist's current position.

          • Yibalderrehmen!

            Move over! [so there’s room for me to squeeze in].

          • Nungka balwam kore mankabo bu dungyibmiyibmi darnki.

            He went out to the river when it was almost sunset.

          2Recurring or continuing movement along.

          • Yibalre / Yibale!

            Keep going!

          • Kundulk makkah kabalhdulkdarlkan.

            That stick is floating along down the river.

          • Ngabirlidombom ngarohrokmeng dja baldjalwurlhmeng.

            I tried to put the fire out, but it kept starting up again.

          Sleeping platform, table, bed.

          • Balabbala kanjdji.

            Under the table.

          Etymologyfrom Makassarese balla?-balla? 'cottage, small house; couch'.

          See alsokukbalabbala

          Flat, smooth.

          Synonymskukbalabala

          • Wirndilk kaworrbalabala.

            The Haemodorum coccineum plant has flat leaves.

            (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal, Russel, Jeremy & Garde, Murray, ‘A Preliminary List of Kundedjnjenghmi Plant Names’, NLC, Kabulwarnamyo, 2003 )

          GrammarNormally appears in noun or verb constructs, e.g. 'mandulkbalabala', 'a flat piece of wood'.

          Leech.

          • Baladj ngakengeme wardi ngankurlbayakwon.

            I'm frightened of leeches, they might finish up my blood.

          Bag, string bag or cloth bag.

          • Kunkare Ngalngarridj wam kunngobarn mangihmangi, kani baladjdji dja manmarli.

            One day Ngalngarridj went gathering pandanus, carrying a bag and a hooked stick.

            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

          Etymologyfrom Makassarese balase 'sack, bag'

          Give daughter in marriage.

          Synonymsberrebbun

          • Ngalkurrng nganbalakbun. 'Ngayi won daluk,' kayime.

            (My) cousin (MMBDD) will give me her daughter in marriage. She'll say, 'I'll give the girl to you.'

          Person of non-Aboriginal descent.

          Synonymskukbele

          • Barrk ngarringeybun nawu ngad bininj ngarriwinjku ngarrikukburlerri dja birrikukbele balanda kabirringeybun 'black wallaroo'.

            Us Kunwinjku Aboriginal people say 'barrk', but non-indigenous people, white people, call it a 'black wallaroo'.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

          LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kune

          Etymologyfrom Macassarese, Hollander

          Male subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

          • Barrk djukerre. Nakka duwa Balang. Balang Belinj.

            The black wallaroos are of the duwa moiety and the male is Balang subsection and the female is Belinj.

          LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

          Far, a long way.

          Synonymsdjarre

          • Ngalburlanj wam kore kubolkbalay.

            Ngalburlanj went to a place very far away.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          • La name nawaran yingeybun wardi kangeybekkan bonj ngunbawon kare kelekele. Namekke. Kukkelekele namekke. Nawaran. Ngunbekkan. Kunwok kabekkan. Yiman bininj nakka, kunwok kakarrme. Kangeybekkan nawu balay kangimen nawu kururrk cave munguyhmunguyh marrek mak ngarrngalke.

            If you utter the name of the Oenpelli python [when hunting it] then it will be too late and it will leave you behind and go off in fear. That's it. It is a very timid animal the Oenpelli python. It can hear your speech. It is like a human and has its own language. It can hear its name and will take off a long way and go inside a cave and you'll never find it.

            (Jimmy Kalarriya, in file ‘Kalarriya Nawaran’ recorded by Murray Garde.)

          LanguageKune, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

          1Where.

          • Ngudda baleh yihdi?

            Where have you been?

          • Baleh yihbabang?

            Where does it hurt?

          2What.

          • Maladj, baleh ngundihmarneyimeng? Oh ngandihkaybom ngamarrewedowen ngarrowen .

            Maladj, what did they say to you? Oh, they refused to give me any [food]. Now I'm really starving.

          • Bale kayime?

            What's (s)he saying?

          • Minj baleh karriyime.

            There's nothing we can do. [or] What can we possibly do/say?

          3How.

          • Bale ngayimiwon?

            How do I do this?

          LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kune

          When.

          • Bu balekeno yimdurndeng?

            When are you coming back?

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          Close or block off.

          • Kunngol mimbalhmeng dird.

            The clouds have blocked the moon.

          Kunbalak-balhbonghme

          -dangbalhme

            Close door or block off an entrance.

          Keep going, continue moving, go (in a direction away from the speaker).

          • Yibalay djarreh.

            Keep on going for a long way.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          • Kare kaddum wanjh Duleburreni Ngaldaddubbe Djabidj Bakoluy kare konda kabalhdurndeng kaddum kabale mani anbolh kadumeyoken ngaleng bono.

            It goes upstream to the places Duleburreni Ngaldaddubbe and Djabidj Bakoluy and here it keeps going back up to where the river meanders into a wide outer bank.

            (Lofty Bardayal Nadjamerrek (Kundedjnjenghmi))

          • Yibaldjalay munguyh.

            Just go away for good.

            (Jill Nganjmirra )

          GrammarComposed of bal + re, but usually shortened to 'bale' in casual speech.

          Type of black termite mound, usually found on the side of trees and favoured for use in ground ovens.

          • Bambam ngalengman kore kundulk kabelebelbme, manboykerlk.

            'Bambam', black termite mounds, can be found stuck against the base of trees. They are a relatively soft type of termite mound.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          • Birriboymangi manbu kunboy manboyburlerri kangeyyo bambam wanjh birriwilkdengi.

            They would gather bits of black termite mound, called 'bambam', and use it to cook them (the olive pythons).

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

          See alsodjibdjib

          Dead end valley or narrow gully which are the sites chosen for fire drives to trap kangaroos which become trapped and injured by fire and can then be easily speared.

          • Makka ngarridi manekke kunj yiman ba kahre manbambarr kabidbun, yah ngarriyame.

            We stand there in them (the gullies) and if the kangaroos go up the narrow gully then we spear them.

          GrammarThe prefix fv:(m)an- is optional

          Shine, glisten, be bright or brilliant in colour (either in terms of lightness or in hue), be vivid.

          • Djadberlhberl nawu kakarlangbarme.

            That red-shouldered parrot, the one with the brightly coloured shoulder.

          • Ngudda yingurlme yire, ngayi ngabarme ngare, ngayi yiman mankalarr.

            You move as a dark form, I go with a bright shining body, I am like the ghost gum (a Kuninjku kunborrk genre song text).

          -mimbame

            Be dazzled.

          A duwa moiety Jawoyn clan (or in Bininj Kunwok spelling Djawonj) in the South Alligator River valley and surrounding parallel valleys, ridges and hills. A synonym for this clan is Marrkarala and the clan is sometimes referred to both both names 'Bamkiya-Marrkarala'.

          • Bamkiya duwa, kunred kuhri walem nawu bedberreni dabborrabbolk kunred wanjh birriyakminj dja nahni nawu birrikerrnge kabirrihdi.

            Bamkiya is a Duwa moiety clan. The country of their ancestors is down there in the south, but the old people have passed away and it is just the new generation now.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          1Dangerous, wild, violent.

          • Birrihbang.

            Wild people (violent or quick to anger).

          • Kundjikurdubuk djang kundjak nabang.

            The sickness dreaming site at Kundjikurdubuk is dangerous.

          2Food that is either poisonous or 'cheeky', i.e. leaves a burning sensation in the mouth or is very strong in taste (salty, bitter, too sweet, too much chilli etc).

          • Manu kari yikurrmeng manbang ngandjenbom.

            This curry powder you put [in the food] is so powerful it has burnt my tongue.

          -kunbang

            Alcohol, alcoholic beverage, grog.

          -ngudjbang

            Powerful, fast (of animals etc).

          Male subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

          • Aa Bangardi bimbom bu ngabbard nganbimbukkang Bangardi ngayiken nadjorrorlam

            There are paintings by a man of Bangardi subsection which my father showed me, Bangardi, a man related to me of Djorrorlom clan.

            (JK)

          LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

          Female subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

          • Manbulu Karri ngalengarre Bangardidjan ngal-Marrirn.

            Manbulu Karri (a place) belongs to her, Bangardidjan of the Marrirn clan.

            (Kevin Buluwana)

          LanguageKuninjku

          Late wet season, the last rains of the wet season (April-May), 'knockemdowns' (late storms which 'knock down' the tall spear grass.

          • Daluhdaluk kabirrire kabirrimang mankodjbang bu bangkerreng kayimerran.

            Women go and get water peanuts in the late wet season.

            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          Person of mixed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal descent.

            EtymologyFrom: from Makassarese kayo bangko 'mangrove sp., whose bark is used to boil trepang to give a red colour'.

            Not yet.

            • Yuwn yibangmeyarlkilekme.

              Don't touch the (fishing) line yet.

            • Ngadjadj, bu ngarrbalre kore kakkak, yuwn kanbangmemulewan, yidjalbawo kaluk ngalengman kadjawayhme.

              Uncle, when we go to see grandma, don't introduce me to her straight away, leave it and let her ask.

              (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Nabulanj Namandjulngunj et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

            Grammaran aspectual prefix on verbs with the sense of 'before time in topic frame'

            Become wild, aggressive, violent.

            • Kunbang birribonguneng birribangminj wanjh.

              They drank alcohol and then they become violent.

            Kunbalak-marimen

            Enamel metal cup or mug, pannikin.

            • Djakku kakan banikin bele, kabiwon Nabulanj.

              Lefty [nickname] is carrying a white pannikin, he’s going to give it to Nabulanj.

              (‘Lesson 13: Djurra ‘L’’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

            Etymologyfrom English ‘pannikin’

            Smelly, smelling of something, odorous (pleasant or malodorous).

            • Kanudbanj.

              It's smells rotten.

            Cross cousin who is considered an affine e.g. brother-in-law, sister-in-law, MBD, MBS, MMBDS, MMBDD. Borrowed from Kriol, which in turn is likely borrowed from another Top End language. Used as term of reference and address.

            Synonymskanjok

              Name of a duwa moiety Kune and Dangbon speaking patriclan from central Arnhem Land.

              • Konda bedman na-Barabba, Kurrkdjurle, kunred nuye Wamud na-Barabba, nawernwarre ngarduk Kurrkdjurle. Kunred nuye Mimburrng.

                This [land] here belongs to the Barabba clan, this place Kurrkdjurle was for Wamud of the Barabba clan who was my eldest brother, Kurrkdjurle [was his place]. His country was Mimburrng [an estate name].

              A duwa moiety Jawoyn speaking patriclan on the southern Arnhem Land plateau in the upper Mann River region.

                Egg white, albumen.

                • Bu darnkih bangkerreng kahyimerran, wanjh manimunak kawirlarrkkurrme. Nawu wirlarrk kakarrme bard dja koyhbe, bu kahkerlk wanjh ngarringun. Kaluk yerrikah bu bard karayekmen, wanjh kunukka minj ngarringun dja koyhbewi ngarridjalngun.

                  When the late wet season approaches, the magpie geese lay their eggs. The eggs have a white and a yolk, which we eat as long as they're still liquid. Later when the egg white hardens, we don't eat it, only the yolk.

                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                See alsokoyhbe

                ‘Almost’, ‘nearly happened but didn’t’, ‘be about to’. When prefixed to the verb to get barlanhmang the meaning is ‘let go of, lose control of, fail to take hold of’. In Kune it can appear as a free form.

                • Ngalkudji bikebbadjdji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

                  He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He hit the other woman, but he didn't manage to hit her hard, and she just fainted.

                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                • Ngad ngarrikarrme mankare mankarre kerrngekenh wanjh ngarribarlanhmang.

                  We have the old law from the very beginning but we are letting it go [losing it].

                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 260)

                • Nganbarlankebdoy.

                  He nearly punched me.

                -barlanhmang

                  Let go of something, lose something, not hold something properly.

                Crooked, twisted, skewed, bent, bandy (legged).

                • Kukbarli.

                  Crooked body/crippled/object out of shape.

                • Mimbarli.

                  Cross-eyed/having an off-centred iris.

                • Wanjh kumwam, ngandjawam ngadberre nawu ngarridanjbik ngarrihdi: Ngalngarridj June, ngaye, Ngaldengebarli Ngalkodjok.

                  Then he came and asked the three of us who were there, June, myself, and that Ngalkodjok with the bandy legs.

                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                -barlidan

                  Become crooked.

                Become crooked or twisted.

                • Yibiwkeng, bonj barlidanj.

                  You've bent it, it's crooked now.

                Kunbalakbarlibonghme

                Fill up a container to capacity.

                • Benebokenh kohbakohbanj benewam benehmangi mandem. Benemey benebarlkeng, ngalkudji yimeng, "yimray ngarrdokme ngabarlkeng ngayembu".

                  Two old women were gathering waterlily roots. They filled up their bags, and one of them said "Come here, let's go, mine is full already".

                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                Sacred boomerangs used in pairs as musical instruments in various ceremonial contexts.

                Synonymsbirrkala

                • Malalam yiman kayime yibengkan mandjoh yiman kayime manu, kabirrimarnbun njamed, barlkkan.

                  In dry hill country where you can find Acacia difficilis, they use that timber to make boomerangs.

                Be filled to capacity.

                • Karriborrahkendong rowk wanjh barlmeng karriyirrurndeng.

                  Let's fill up all the containers with water and then take them back full.

                Kunbalakbarlbonghme

                Change course, turn and travel in another direction, turn off a track.

                • Kabolhbarlungme.

                  The track curves around.

                • Kukbarlungmeng.

                  It has twisted around [e.g. a crocodile swerving to catch a fish].

                • Mahni karribarlungmen!

                  We turn off here!

                A tree hideout, from which people wait to spear animals such as emus.

                • Bu korroko dabborrabbolk birribarndi kore kurrulk birriyimi barnambalh bu birrikokkokkirri mayh nuye. Bu birrinani kumrey nawu mayh, wanjh birriyami.

                  In the old days, our ancestors would sit up in trees, which they called 'barnambalh', keeping a lookout for animals. When they saw one coming, they would spear it.

                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                • Dja ankurndalh barribidbuni, ankurndalh birribidbuni birribarurreni birrimadbuni, barnambalh birrimadbuni birridjalmadbuni marrek djarre birriyami yiman mani kaddum, karlangno, kumekke babarndi delek dorrengh malano malakarrmi bamalabakbakkeyi bonj.

                  People also used to climb up black plum trees and cover themselves in white clay and stay and wait. When the emu came in to eat the fruit, from not far away, they would spear them from above, from a fork in the tree they would stand up there covered in white clay holding a branch of camouflage they had broken off. That’s what they did.

                  (George Djandjomer, quoted in Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus: Indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 85 (Kundedjnjenghmi))

                In the daytime.

                • Barnangarra kakeyo kaluk kukak kayawan nawu djenj dja kordbolbok dja nawern nawu mayh kilekilelh.

                  It sleeps in the daytime, then in the nighttime it looks for fish and frogs and many other small animals.

                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation, Bokorn (spangled grunter) story.)

                Stone axe with wooden haft.

                Synonymskarramalk

                  Be high up, be situated in a high place.

                  • Ngurribarndin!

                    Stay up there!

                  • Ngadedjbarndi manih.

                    I'll sit up on this [chair].

                  Kunbalakkalawhmiken

                  GrammarNominal subjects can be incorporated.

                  1Take someone by the arm.

                    2Get someone, ‘pick someone up’ to take them somewhere.

                    • “Ngudda baleh yihdjarrbelme? Kanngulhbu, ngamdokan barndjamodme wanjh yiwarnduyhme kumelworn.”

                      “Ngudda baleh yihdi? Kanmadbu, ngamre berlmang wanjh durndiwe kured.”

                      “Where are you? Wait for me, I’ll come and get you and take you home.”

                      (Jill Nganjmirra )

                    3Arrest someone.

                      Regular Bininj Kunwokberlmang

                      Carpet python.

                      Scientific nameMorelia spilota variegata

                      • Barndol kukdahdadjmiken.

                        The carpet python has striped blocks of colour.

                      • Ngalbu barndol ngalkka kabirringun kore kubolkbubuyika.

                        In other places, the people eat carpet pythons.

                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                      LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                      Place in a high position, hang up.

                      • Yibarnnamen wardi duruk kangun.

                        Put it up high otherwise the dogs might eat it.

                      Kunbalakkalawhke

                      Wet season wind, north-west monsoons.

                      • Bu Kurnumeleng kayimerran mandjewk kadjakdung, wanjh barra kankarrme kadberre. Kunmayorrk kaworlhme kakbibeh dja walembeh. Wanjh ngarriyime barra dedjdjingmey.

                        In the early wet season, the rains start falling and the monsoon winds start. The wind blows from the north and the south, and we say that the 'barra' winds have begun.

                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                      Etymologyfrom Makassarese ba:ra? 'west wind, rainwind'

                      Name of a yirridjdja moiety patriclan on the Arnhem Land plateau.

                      • Duwa, bedberre Worrkorl Warddjak. Kaddum wam wanjh bebmeng bu Barradj, kubuldjdjarn. Kadjale kaddum Kayerrngwe kaddum badjalwam duwa.

                        That's the duwa moiety area for the Worrkorl and Warddjak clans. It goes upstream and becomes Barradj in the middle [of the East Alligator river]. It goes all the way to Kayerrngwe and belongs to duwa moiety upstream [from there].

                      Long wooden-headed 'shovel-spear', with bamboo shaft and head having an exceptionally long (>320mm) broad, leaf-shaped blade of ironwood (Erythrophleum chlorostachys) although today the points are typically fashioned from hammered steel.

                        Kunbalakdjerrkudmiken

                        Name of a yirridjdja moiety patriclan in the lower Liverpool River region.

                        • Mani kunwardde Marrirn ... Barrbinj kure kakbi, Marrirn koyek.

                          This rock is Marrirn [clan country] ... and Barrbinj is to the north, Marrirn clan is east of that.

                        • Yirridjdja rowk nanu wanjh Kumarrirnbang-beh kare bolk kunengkunu bolk-Barrbinj kadjale kanjdji kabolkbuyika kure nabuyika Marrirn.

                          It's all yirridjdja moiety country from here at Kumarrirnbang to that Barrbinj country there and it goes right downstream to another [discontiguous] Marrirn estate.

                        The sprouting seeds of the waterlily, edible raw or cooked.

                        • Bu benebebmeng kured wanjh beneworrhmeng benewilkdi nawu kalawan dja mandem dja manu barrdjungka benekinjeng kore kuyirrke dja nawu mankung benedelengbarnnameng kore balabbala.

                          When they got back to camp they made a fire and cooked the goanna in the ashes and the water lily seeds on the coals and put the honey they had gathered up in the roof of the shelter.

                        Hit, clap, swat.

                        • Mandubang kunmalaworr kabirrimalaworrhkinje wanjh kabindikukbarrhbarrhmang nawu bininj kundolng dorrengh.

                          They burn ironwood branches and swat people with the smoking branches.

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        • Kabirribobarrhbarrhmang.

                          They hit the water (so it splashes up).

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        • Yibarrhbarrhma.

                          Hit it [ritually hit the sacred site with the branch].

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        -bidbarrhbarrhmarren

                          Clap one's hands together

                        -kurlahbarrhbarrhmarren

                          Make a clapping sound by hitting one part of the body against another.

                        1Sunrise, the appearance of the sun at dawn.

                        • Ngurridolkka barrhbom!

                          Get up you mob, the sun's up!

                        2Cover over, wrap up.

                        • 'Kanwo', bimarneyimeng ngalu ngalbadjan 'kanwo kunkod ba ngabarrhburren.' Barrhburrinj wanjh yonginj ngaleng.

                          'Give me some', said the mother, 'give me paperbark so I can cover myself [to use as a blanket]. She covered herself over and she slept.

                        Kunbalakkumbehmerren.

                        -barrhburren

                          Cover self, be a canopy of vegetation.

                        Crack or split open an OBJ, burst.

                        • Mibbarr nungkah kabun nawu dabuno kangun karrowkke, kabarrhke 'dek' kukebyih.

                          The white bellied sea eagle breaks the [emu] egg to eat it, 'crack' it smashes it open with its beak.

                        Shatter, crack or split, burst open.

                        • Milhbarrhmeng namekke murrika.

                          That car has a smashed windscreen.

                        • Ngardbakan nakka karohrok yiman karnubirr. Bu ngarridjare kuk ngarringun wanjh kunwardde ngarridong kabarrhme wanjh ngarringun

                          Saltwater mussels are similar to freshwater mussels. If we want to just eat them raw, we hit them with a rock, they split open and we can eat them like that.

                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                        Kunbalak-barrhyamidokan

                        Place name in the upper Tomkinson River district, yirridjdja moiety, also site of an outstation and a nearby yawkyawk 'mermaid' totemic centre. Literally means ‘they crossed over', which refers to the journey of totemic female water spirits who travelled through this site.

                        • Barrihdjowkkeng yirridjdja bedberre, nawu Darnkolo kunnguya.

                          Barrihdjowkkeng is a yirridjdja moiety place belonging to the Darnkolo clan.

                          (John Mawurndjul)

                        Male black rock wallaroo.

                        Scientific nameMacropus bernadus

                        • Nakidjkidj kakarrme barrk kelebuk nuye.

                          Nakidjkidj spirits keep black wallaroos as pets.

                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                        LanguageKune, Kunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi

                        Smear, paint, cover a surface with a wet or viscous substance. This word can be contrasted with bimbun, which means to paint a picture, draw or write.

                        • Kunrodjbe kabirribarung wanjh delek kabirribimbun kore dolobbo nawu mayh njale nawu kunj djenj dja nawern.

                          They prepare the surface of the bark with red ochre, then they paint an animal (silhouette) in white ochre, for example a kangaroo or fish or lots of different things.

                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                        Kunbalakbanjinhme

                        -barurren

                          Smear oneself with ochre or other substance.

                        Paint or smear oneself with ochre, paint each other with ochre, 'paint up' for ceremony or performance.

                        • Karribarurren delek wanjh karrimelme.

                          Let's paint ourselves with pipe clay and dance.

                        • Bu kunborrk kabirriborrkke manbu manyardi wanjh kabirribarurren delek, yiman mak bu kabirrikodyiyo kore kudjurle nawu nangale kayakmen, wanjh nawu namud nuye kabirribarurren delek ba bu kabindiburrbun nungka nuye namud.

                          When people do dances, they paint themselves with white ochre. Or when people are gathered in a traditional shade for someone who has passed away, that person's family will paint themselves with white ochre so people know who they are.

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        Be quiet!, shush!

                        • Yoh yoh bonj bonj karrikaybun, karrikaybun baw!

                          Yes, yes, that's it, that's what we shall do, let's not give any to her, we'll refuse to give any, quiet now [she's coming]!

                        • Wurdurd bawh, wokyak!

                          Hey kids, shush, be quiet!

                        • Bawh, ngurringurdmen! Bulanj kabiwokmang Balang!

                          Shush, be quiet all of you! Bulanj is making a voice recording of Balang!

                        1Leave alone, leave untouched.

                        • Yuwn ngurrikilekme, ngurribawo!

                          Don't touch it, leave it alone!

                        2Abandon.

                        • Ngandibawong.

                          They left me.

                        3Part contact with OBJ.

                        • Nakimuk nganbawon.

                          They [the trousers] are too big, they're falling down off me.

                        4Give up a previous habitual activity, stop.

                        • Bakki ngabawong.

                          I've given up smoking.

                        Kunbalak-warnmorrhme

                        -baworren

                          Divorce each other.

                        --yibawon

                          Leave something to someone, pass something on to someone.

                        Chicken, fowl.

                        • Nanikud ngarrikarrmi and bawurl ngarrikarrmi nawern.

                          We had goats, and lots of chickens too.

                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                        Etymologyfrom English ‘fowl’

                        Purchase, buy.

                        • Manme nganebayahme karrewoneng.

                          We'll buy some food for ourselves.

                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                        Etymologyfrom English 'buy'

                        Inside, within, deep down.

                        • Wanjh bikodjbayeng biyibkeng kanjdji wanjh bikani kanjdji bidjalngani [bidjalkani] kurorre baybay.

                          Then it [the rainbow serpent] swallowed her head first and took her deep down into the earth.

                          (The example phrase comes from some texts Peter Carroll has deposited with AIATSIS. )

                        • Daluk baybayken.

                          Women’s internal reproductive organs.

                        • Ngalengman baybaywi djahdjalburrbuni.

                          She knew within herself, was convinced of it.

                          (Nawirridj, Grace & Rowe, Meryl (eds), 'Karriburlume God: Kunwinjku Song Book', Gunbalanya, 1985, p. 7.)

                        -baybaywi

                          Inside, internally, within oneself.

                        1Bite.

                        • Nganbidbaye.

                          It's biting my finger.

                        • Birribayerrinj duruk.

                          The dogs were fighting (biting each other).

                        2Cause an illness, cause pain, cause fright etc.

                        • Njale ngunbayeng?

                          What's the matter? What’s happened? [lit. “What’s bitten you?”]

                        Kunbalak-lawme

                        Each, individually, separately.

                        • Birribebbehwam.

                          They each went on their own.

                        • Ngarrbenbebbewon.

                          Let's give to each of them.

                        • Mankung nawu yiman kayime kabebbengeybuyika nawu mankung kardderre lorlbban nabiwo njalenjale.

                          The varieties of honey for example each have a different name, such as kardderre, lorlbban, nabiwo and so on.

                        GrammarThis verbal prefix has a distributive function which can include spatial separation. The 'distributive share' (see Evans 2003:497) can be focused on an intransitive or transitive subject but in some cases for the latter, also on the object and verb.

                        1Take out, bring out, reveal, cause to appear.

                        • Yibebkemen bakki nguddangke ngawungme!

                          Take out your tobacco and I'll have a smoke!

                        2Produce children.

                        • Wamuddjan nganemarren ngarridj la ngarridjdjan ngabebke.

                          I'll get married to a woman of wamuddjan subsection and I'll have (produce) children of ngarridj and ngarridjdjan subsection.

                        Kunbalak-worrbayhke

                        1Appear, arrive.

                        • Birrbebmeng.

                          They're here (they have arrived).

                        • Dungbebmeng.

                          The sun is up.

                        2Go/come out of an enclosure or dwelling.

                        • Yibebmen!

                          Go outside!

                        Kunbalakworrbayhme

                        1Theirs, of theirs.

                        • Dabborrabbolk kunwok bedberre.

                          The language of the ancestors.

                        2For them, to them.

                        • Ngadmanwali karrikan bedberre.

                          It's our turn to take it for them.

                        • Wardi yiyolyolme bedberre Balanda.

                          Explain it for those non-Aboriginal people.

                        Grammarcan express a benefactive function when there is no benefactive applicative [i.e.-marne-] in the verb complex. The first sense expresses basic possession of a noun

                        They, them

                        • Bedda Nakorrkko benekabokurrmeng.

                          The Nakorrkko [ancestral father and son heroes] placed the creek there.

                        • Kunekke kabirriyime bedda.

                          That's the kind of thing they [those people] do.

                        Apply paint to a surface, flick a liquid or viscous substance. Also used for the process of applying paint during screen printing (e.g. at Injalak Arts and Crafts in Gunbalanya).

                        • Karribedjekmerren delek karriborrkke.

                          Let's flick ourselves with white ochre and dance.

                        Themselves, by themselves.

                        • Nawu Mimih nakka yiman ngad bininj djaying, dja bedman djal kuwarde kuwarderurrk kabirriyo.

                          It's said that Mimih spirits are similar to us people, but they live by themselves in rocky country in caves.

                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                        • Nakka bukka bedberre bedman na-Buyhmi.

                          That [land] there belongs exclusively to the Buyhmi clan themselves.

                        GrammarThis is a pronoun of the emphatic series (there being three kinds of free-standing pronouns: direct, oblique and emphatic). Evans

                        1From.

                        • Birrimwam Manawukan beh.

                          They came from Maningrida.

                        2Away a bit further.

                        • Beh karrire.

                          Let's just go over there.

                        3Demonstrative with gender prefix indicating both referential and locational immediacy 'that one who has just been mentioned, just over there'.

                        • Nabeh kahdi.

                          Him (the person just mentioned), he's just over there.

                        • A: Kamarrang kahdi? B: Nabeh.

                          A: Is Kamarrang here? B: He's just over there.

                        LanguageKune, Kuninjku

                        See alsoSee also -bewh (W)

                        GrammarIn the sense of "him/her just over there", prefixed with na-, ngal-, man- etc.

                        1Ritually cleanse a place or person by swatting with smoking ironwood leaves, for example after witnessing a sacred ceremony.

                        • Minj kangun djenj, la birriberhkeng wanjh bonj nguneng.

                          He wasn't allowed to eat fish and then they lifted the restriction (by smoking him) and it was OK for him to eat it then.

                        2Perform increase ritual which involves swatting a particular site with a branch of ironwood leaves, and asking for plentiful game, fish etc.

                        • Kunmalaworr mandubang kabirrimang wanjh kabirridjangberhke kabirribolkngeyhngeybun. Wanjh kadjangyalarrme.

                          People get an ironwood branch and swat the sacred site with it, calling out the names of places (where they want to find plentiful game). Then the djang spreads out from there (and goes to those places, increasing the animals/fish etc).

                        • Delek birriburriwemeninj dja kunmalaworr birriberhberhkemeninj kuwukku, o kure djenj kabimdi djenjken.

                          They would throw white clay (into the water) and thrash the place with leaves in the water or similarly at the fish increase site they would strike the paintings of fish with leaves.

                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                        3Lift ceremonial restrictions on food.

                        • Minj kangun djenj, la birriberhkeng wanjh bonj nguneng.

                          He wasn't allowed to eat fish and then they lifted the restriction and it was okay for him to eat it then.

                        Death adder.

                        Scientific nameAcanthiphis praelongus

                          LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                          Kunbalakngalwirnyi

                          Arafura file snake.

                          Scientific nameAcrochordus arafurae

                            LanguageKuninjku

                            Kunbalak1. ngaldjangarabunebune 2. ngaldjangarakerlkkerlk

                            1Listen, hear.

                            • Bukbuk karribekkan kawokdi kayime bukbuk bukbuk bukbuk.

                              We hear the pheasant coucal calling out “book-book, book-book, book-book”.

                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                            • Yibekka wanjh.

                              Listen to him/her.

                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                            2Feel, touch

                            • Bekkarrinj nungan kunkurlah nuye kahbuyikahmen wanjh yimerranj madj.

                              He felt his skin becoming different and he became an octopus.

                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                            See alsomanjbekkan

                            Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                            Consider, think about before making a decision.

                              Kunbalakmarrngalahmerren.

                              Stick together (as in one surface to another).

                              • Nganbelbme.

                                It's sticking to me.

                              • Belbminj.

                                Stuck together.

                              1White.

                              • Kukbele.

                                White skinned person.

                              • Kunngolbele.

                                White clouds.

                              2 Clean, clear.

                              • Manbobele.

                                Clear water.

                              -belemen

                                Become white or brighter in colour.

                              Numbness, pins and needles, cramp.

                              • Bele ngandengekarrme.

                                I've got a cramp in my leg.

                              1Lick.

                              • Duruk kumwam benmenebelenghmeng, dja yakminj.

                                A dog came and licked them, then disappeared.

                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                              2Drink leaking or dripping fluid, lick up.

                                Generic name for most geckos.

                                Scientific nameDiplodactylus spp.

                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                                  1Make something white, whiten.

                                    2Make something clean or clear, remove dirt from something.

                                    • Mak bu kadjalbuleyo munguyh, wanjh kunmayorrk kamre mankimuk, kabuleworlhme rowk bu kabolkbelewon.

                                      When there's ash lying on the ground for a while, a big wind will come and blow it away and clean up the area.

                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                    1Make something white, whiten.

                                      2Make something clean or clear, remove dirt from something.

                                      • Mak bu kadjalbuleyo munguyh, wanjh kunmayorrk kamre mankimuk, kabuleworlhme rowk bu kabolkbelewon.

                                        When there's ash lying on the ground for a while, a big wind will come and blow it away and clean up the area.

                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                      Become numb, become stiff.

                                      • Kabirriwunghme, everywhere kare manekke kundolng. Kabenkinjekinje wanjh rerrih kabirribekkan kabirribeleyerrkan yiman. Bele kabenmang.

                                        Yes, when they inhale [marijuana], that smoke goes everywhere inside. It makes them hot and then they feel like they are getting numb all over. It makes them numb.

                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                      Female subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

                                      • Barrk djukerre. Nakka duwa Balang. Balang Belinj.

                                        The black wallaroos are of the duwa moiety and the male is Balang subsection and the female is Belinj.

                                      LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                      1Subsiding of a swelling, go down.

                                      • Ngamokbelngdanj.

                                        The swelling on my sore has gone down.

                                      • Kandiddjawa yiwilkdeng karung kalurlme. Kaluk karriwilkmang kabuhme kabelngdan wanjh.

                                        You put a damper in the coals and it cooks and swells up. We get it out and it when it's cooled the swelling subsides.

                                      2Deflate, go flat (tyre).

                                        Moon.

                                        Synonymsberrebabi

                                        • Bendarr nawu nungan kadjarrbelme muna bu kawayalhbonghme.

                                          Dird nawu nungan kadi kukak bu kawolkan.

                                          The moon is there at night and gives light.

                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                        Regular Bininj Kunwokdird

                                        1Make distracting noise, annoy, disturb.

                                        • Marrek bekkan, wurdurd kandibengbun.

                                          I can't hear you, those kids are making too much noise.

                                        2Offend or say something improper to somebody, particularly to talk with a man about his sister or to a woman about her brother.

                                        • Ey, kanbengbun!

                                          Hey, you're offending me (i.e. Don't talk to me about my sister).

                                        Notify, let someone know, remind.

                                        • Yimray kanbengdayhke.

                                          Come and let me know.

                                        Remember something, be reminded of, realise.

                                        • Ngudda ‘young people’ wanjh ngudda bu ngurribengdayhmen wanjh ngurribolknahnan. Ba bu ngarridowerren, ngarriyakmen, wanjh ngudda ngurribolknahnan.

                                          You young people, you should realise you can look after the place. So then when we die, when we’ve gone, you’ll be able to look after the place.”

                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                        1Know, understand.

                                        • Yibengkan konda Kurrurldul yibengkan kahyo Balang, la kaddum djang kahdi.

                                          You know here at Kurrurldul where Balang lives, well upstream from there is that sacred site.

                                        • Nakohbanj Tommy yimeng kabibengkan namekke skipper kore kabbala, kangeyyo Burray.

                                          Old Tommy said he remembers the skipper of the boat, his name is Burray.

                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                        2Know how to, be able to.

                                        • Bolkkime minj nangale kabengkan bu kamarnbun manbu bokko larrk.

                                          These days nobody knows how to make barbed spears.

                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                        3Think.

                                        • Med kabengkan.

                                          Wait, she'll think about it.

                                        See alsowernhbengkan

                                        Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                                        Be confused, lose one's way, lose one's mind, be drunk.

                                        • Nawamud benmarneyimeng nawu daluhdaluk "Yuwn wurdurd kabirrire kunih bu wardi kabirribengkokan dja kungarrewern".

                                          Nawamud told the women "The children shouldn't go there, they'll get lost, there's lots of thick jungle".

                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                        • Ngalbulanj bimarneyimeng Ngalkodjok "Nawu nakudji duruk bengkokang, wam nuk baleh".

                                          Ngalbulanj told Ngalkodjok "One of the dogs must have gotten lost, I don't know where it went".

                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                        • Yibengkokan bu kanhmarneyime!

                                          You must be out of your mind, talking to me like that!

                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                        See alsomayahme

                                        Confuse someone.

                                        • Dulkelorrkkelorrken benbengmayahkeng birribengwabom birrimayahmeng.

                                          Dulkelorrkkelorrken (the Tree Spirit) has made them confused and disoriented and they’ve gotten lost.

                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                        Be confused, unable to think clearly.

                                        • Dja nawu yika ngad ngarriyime birrimayalidjad dja mak birrikodjkuludjad, dja yika mak nawu yiman birrimayaliwarre minj kabirriwernhburrbun, yiman kabirrihdjalbengmayahme.

                                          With some people we can say they think well, they are clever, and with others, its like they can’t think well, they don’t know much, it’s as if they get confused.

                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                        See alsomayahme

                                        Forget something.

                                        Synonymskodjmukmeng

                                        • Dja ngabengmidjdanj, ngaye ngayahwurdni.

                                          But I've forgotten, I was very young at the time.

                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                        1Deaf, hearing impaired.

                                          2Heedless person, one who doesn’t pay attention or take sensible advice, stupid person, unable to learn.

                                          • A: Nangale? B. Nawu nanih bengwarr.

                                            A: Who? B. This one here, the stupid one.

                                            (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. 252)

                                          Kunbalakkunmardorrhyambah

                                          Send mad, distract, annoy (due to disturbance, noise, irritation etc).

                                          • Kanhbengwarrewong, arribengwarreminj arridjalni arriburrbun Balandakenh.

                                            It has destroyed our well-being, we have gone crazy just sitting in one place only knowing non-Aboriginal culture.

                                          Become annoyed or seriously irritated, develop dementia, become mad or insane, start to do stupid things.

                                          • Kanhbengwarrewong, arribengwarreminj arridjalni arriburrbun Balandakenh.

                                            It has destroyed our well-being, we have gone crazy just sitting in one place only knowing non-Aboriginal culture.

                                          Australian bustard or plains turkey, often referred to as a ‘bush turkey’.

                                          Scientific nameArdeotis australis

                                          • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk minj ngandiwoyinj ngalbu benuk bu ngarringuyinj. Ngandimarneyimi ngahli mayh benuk minj ngurringun ngaldjamun. Benuk kakarrekan ceremony manbu Mardayin.

                                            In the past, the Old People didn't give us any bush turkey to eat though. They used to tell us we don't eat this bird, it's taboo because it's part of the Mardayin ceremony.

                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                          Name of a patriclan with territory on the Arnhem Land plateau.

                                          • Nayuhyungki nawu nungan bangehngeybuni bu bahdjangweyi. Ngabbard barridjangweyi, na-Mok na-Berdberd. Ngayi mak bolkki ngamidjbun. Bad marrek kandimidjbun ngandiburrknan nawu kunred ngare.

                                            The first ancestors called their names and performed increase rituals for them [nectar-bearing flowering trees]. My father [and his brothers] performed increase rituals, they were of Mok and Berdberd clans. Today I don't recognise some [of the places]. But they [the ancestors] still recognise me as I go about the country.

                                          Circumcise. This is a less polite word than the synonym lakkayenwon.

                                          Synonymsberddadjke, lakkayenwon

                                          • Kabindihberddjobke bukka, dja konda larrk.

                                            They practice circumcision over there [in the east], but not here.

                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 123)

                                          Perform increase ritual. This involves swatting a particular site with a branch of ironwood leaves, and asking for plentiful game, fish etc.

                                          • Nawu nakahbonj kabenyirrokan wurrngahwurrngalk. Kabenbuyukme bu kabirriberdedjbonghke nawu djang molarrinj nadjinem ba bu nawiribbu mandjil wanjh kakorrongkomen.

                                            Nawu nakohbanj kabenkan yawuhyawurrinj. Kabenbukkan bu kabirribehke djang nawu kunj nadjinem ba bu nabuyika mandjewk wanjh kawernmerren.

                                            The old man is taking the young men out. He's showing them how to do an increase ritual at the Black Wallaroo sacred site, so that next year there will be lots of wallaroos.

                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                          Regular Bininj Kunwokbehke

                                          Aunty, FZ.

                                            Carry by handle over the shoulder.

                                            • Ngalkudji ngalkohbanj bernelkani baladjdji kore kukarlang.

                                              An old woman was carrying a bag over her shoulder.

                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                            • Kunyirrk kabernalkan.

                                              She's carrying a dilly bag on her shoulder.

                                            See alsoNakodjok Kayirrkberneldjerrkdi

                                            Pick up a bag and put it over one's shoulder, sling the handle or string of a bag etc. over one's shoulder.

                                            • Yirrkbernelmey dolkkang wam.

                                              He slung his string bag over his shoulder, got up and set off.

                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                            See alsoNakodjok Kayirrkberneldjerrkdi

                                            GrammarThe root 'bernel' refers to the handle of a bag, traditionally made from string, though normally this is incorporated into other words such as bernelkan, bernelmang, kunyarlbernel, etc.

                                            Masked lapwing, also known as the masked plover or spur-winged plover.

                                            Scientific nameVanellus miles

                                            • Name kanmulewan berrebberreb bu ngarriwarlbun.

                                              That masked plover sings out and lets animals know that we are approaching when we go hunting.

                                            • Berrebberreb ngad duwa.

                                              The masked lapwing is for us duwa moiety people.

                                            1Claim ownership over.

                                            • Nakka duruk yaw ngardduk. Ngayi werrk ngaberrebburrinj.

                                              That puppy is mine. I was first to claim it.

                                            • Kanyingkihberrebbom.

                                              He claimed us from the start.

                                            2Promise (object to indirect object).

                                            • Nganberrebbom manme.

                                              He promised to give me food.

                                            3Promise to give a woman or girl in marriage.

                                            • Kumekke nganemarrinj ngalbu ngandiberrebbom Mary Lilinjdji.

                                              That's where we got married, me and Mary Lilinjdji, who had been promised to me.

                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                            Rainbow bee-eater.

                                            Scientific nameMerops ornatus

                                            • Berrerdberrerd karrinan kabarndi kore kundulk manyende yika karrolkan kare kubuyika mayh kayawan.

                                              We see Rainbow Bee Eaters sitting on tree branches, or flying off somewhere else to look for insects.

                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentaton)

                                            Them (2), theirs (2).

                                              Further, further along.

                                              • Kondah kore karrihni dja borledmikenh kore Nimbabbirr dja bewh kurredjdubbe kabbal kabolkngeyyo Wurrmarninj.

                                                On the other side of Nimbabbirr from where we are here, and further down to the very end of the floodplain, that place is called Wurrmarninj.

                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                              Ancestral being, said to be the progenitor of mako 'didjeridu'.

                                                Baby

                                                • Ngalbu ngalyawkyawk kayawkan wanjh ngarrimarneyime bibbidj minj ngarringeybun, warddi kabikebkadjung bu kabenekebrohrok. Dja bibbidj ngarrimarneyime ba kornkumo kabikebkadjung bu kabenekebrohrok.

                                                  When a girl has a child, we call it 'bibbidj', we don't use it's name, otherwise it will end up looking like its mother. We call it 'bibbidj' so it will look like its father. (In Kunwinjku culture it is considered preferable that a child takes after its father in terms of looks).

                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                1Climb, climb up.

                                                • Nani yina bobbidj, la ngabidbun wanjh ngarradje.

                                                  Look at that wild honey, alright I'll climb up and cut it out.

                                                • Birribidbuni kundulk kore kurrula darnkih.

                                                  They used to climb a tree close to the river.

                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                2 Get into or onto a raised object, e.g. a vehicle.

                                                • Korroko muddikayakni… Dja bolkkime muddika kabirribidbun.

                                                  There were no cars in the old days… Nowadays they can all get in vehicles.

                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                3Rise, rise up. Can refer to the action of many things that rise, such as blistering.

                                                • Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                                  When the tide comes up, we don't see any mud crabs.

                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                • Nganbidbom, ngakurlahlurlmeng.

                                                  It caused a blister on my hand, my skin was swollen.

                                                  (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                4Leave camp to enter a ceremonial place.

                                                • Bu kunwok Kunwinjku ngarriyime mayh ngarriwarlbun. Dja bu ngarriyime mayh ngarrire ngarribidbun karrkad wanjh nakka kore ceremony yiman Kunabibi mandjamun manbu bininj ngadberre.

                                                  In the Kunwinjku language, we say that we hunt mayh (animals). But when we say we’re going up to a mayh, in that case it means we’re going up to a ceremony, like Kunabibi or another sacred event of ours.

                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                1Lift something up.

                                                Synonyms-wayhke

                                                • Bu kinga birridulubom doweng wanjh birrikukbidbuyhweng kore kurlabbarlbeh.

                                                  When they had shot the crocodiles, they lifted the dead animals out of the billabong.

                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                2Give someone a lift (in a car etc).

                                                • Muddika kabindibidbuyhwe kabirridjarrkre.

                                                  They give them a lift in the car, and they all go together.

                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                2Send someone to ceremony.

                                                • Ngarrbenbidbuyhwe kore mayh.

                                                  We send them to ceremony.

                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                Push with finger, poke, press.

                                                Synonymsdjuyme

                                                • Bininj nawu biddjuyimeng wanjh wurlhmeng manbu kabolkwolkan.

                                                  The man pressed the button and turned on the torch.

                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                Generic term for two dolphin species; 1. Australian snubfin dolphin, 2. Australian humpback dolphin.

                                                Scientific nameOrcaella heinsohni (Australian snubfin dolphin), Sousa chinensis (Australian humpback dolphin).

                                                • Biddurangkan kabobuhme.

                                                  Dolphins blow water [from their blow-holes].

                                                Turn, spin, rotate etc. Manipulate with the hands in a circular motion eg. stir, mix (with an implement), fasten a bolt, screw on a lid. etc.

                                                • Bidjurdu kabidjibbidjibme karrinan.

                                                  We can see a whirlwind spinning around

                                                Manually skilled, dexterous or clever.

                                                  Help, assist.

                                                  • Kanbidyikarrme ngarrwayhke nanih.

                                                    Help me lift this up.

                                                  • Karribidyikarrmerrimen.

                                                    Let's help one another.

                                                  • Kabindibidyikarrme daluhdaluk bu kabirriyawmang.

                                                    They are midwives.

                                                  Feral pig.

                                                  • Bik kabolkarung kabolkwarrehwarrewon.

                                                    Pigs dig up the ground and damage the country.

                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                  Etymologyfrom English 'pig'

                                                  Thin, skinny (of things).

                                                  • Manmalaworrbik.

                                                    Long thin leaves [as opposed to round shaped leaves].

                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                  • Manbu mandudjmi bu kawarrawarrhme, kaluk karung kundung, wanjh manbik kayimerran.

                                                    When green plums fall to the ground, they cook in the sun and they become [dried and] skinny.

                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                  See alsomobik

                                                  Spotted tree monitor.

                                                  Scientific nameVaranus scalaris

                                                    LanguageKuninjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                    Eel-tailed Catfishes (black ones only).

                                                    Scientific nameNeosilurus spp., egs. Neosilurus ater, Neosilurus argenteus, Neosilurus hyrtlii, but also Cinetodus froggatti, Anodontiglanis dahli.

                                                    • Kondah djenj karrurndeng, kamre konda konda kamre kondah karrurndeng, minj kabidbun kurih, only dunbuhmanj kabidbun en ngardderrhwo modjarrkki kabidbun kaddum bad konda djenj karrurndeng namarnkol barrhmanj, njarlkan, karlerrh, bikkurr karrurndeng konda kumekke djal bonj karrurndeng.

                                                      This is where the fish go back - they come up to here and then go back. They can't climb up [the bar of boulders at the waterfall], only sooty grunter can, short neck turtles, fresh water crocodiles can climb up to the higher area but here the fish go back: barramundi, saratoga, archer fish, long toms, black eel-tailed catfishes, there's nothing they can do, they just go back.

                                                    LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku

                                                    Kunbalaknakeryi

                                                    Take a splinter out.

                                                    • Ngabidbikmarren.

                                                      I’m taking the splinter out of my hand.

                                                    • Djirndih dja Korlobok benemarnebikmangi kore kurrenge nuye Wirrihwirriyak.

                                                      The Quail and the Dove were trying to get the splinter out of Wirrihwirriyak's foot.

                                                      (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 10)

                                                    To dry out and shrivel, esp. fruit, to become thin (of things).

                                                    • Manbu mandudjmi bu kawarrawarrhme, kadjalbikmen.

                                                      When the green plums fall to the ground, they [dry out and] become skinny and shrivelled.

                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                    • Makkan bonj yibawo korroko bikminj.

                                                      Leave that one [Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit], it's already shrivelled.

                                                    LanguageKunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                    Pillow, cushion.

                                                    • Kodjbila ngarrikodjdahkendi bu ngarrikeyo.

                                                      We put our heads on a pillow when we sleep.

                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                    Etymologyfrom English ‘pillow’.

                                                    Bark canoe made from stitching together a folded piece of Eucalyptus tetrodonta bark.

                                                    • Djabayéna Kawarréya mankuken mani manbolh. Bilem ngarribidbuni.

                                                      Here at Djabayéna Kawarréya it is an important place. We used to pull our bark canoes up [out of the river here].

                                                    LanguageKuninjku

                                                    1Painting, drawing, image, picture.

                                                    • Birribimbuni bim kurdukadji kore kunburrk bedberre.

                                                      They painted pictures of emus on their bodies.

                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    2Written letter, word or character.

                                                      3Cat's cradle string game.

                                                        LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                        See alsobimbun

                                                        -bimdi

                                                          There is an image, word etc, to be (of images, words etc).

                                                        1Draw, paint or otherwise use markings to create a picture.

                                                        • Kabirribimbun mayh mimih djenj dja nawern.

                                                          They paint animals, Mimih spirits, fish and lots of different things.

                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        • Yibengkan Kodjok nawu bimbohbimbom?

                                                          Do you know that man of Kodjok skin who used to be an artist ('used to paint')?

                                                        2Write.

                                                        Synonymswokbimbun

                                                        • Yingeybimburren!

                                                          Write your name!

                                                        Kunbalakbimbonghme

                                                        Take photo with camera (still or moving film).

                                                        • Ngandihbimmangi munguyh, ngangudjwarreminj.

                                                          They were always taking pictures of me, I got tired of it.

                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                        1Look at a picture, see an image.

                                                        • Nahni nabarlek karribimnan kabimdi kore kuwardderurrk.

                                                          We see paintings of rock wallabies in rock shelters.

                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        2Read, see written material.

                                                        • Ngarrbenbukkani Kunwinjku ngarrbimbuni djurra. Ngarrimarnbuni, ngarrbihbimbuni wurdwurd birribimnani.

                                                          The two of us used to teach them Kunwinjku, we would write it. We used make books, we used to write them for the kids to read.

                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                        • Minj djurra ngabimnayinj.

                                                          I'd never seen writing on paper before.

                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                        Read aloud, read out (a word, sentence etc).

                                                        • Yibimngeybu.

                                                          Read the sentence out for me.

                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                        • Minj birriwernhbimngeybuyinj. Birribimwakwani.

                                                          They couldn't read out the words properly. They didn't know the letters.

                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                        1Man.

                                                        • Bininj yameng kunj.

                                                          The man speared a kangaroo.

                                                          (Maralngurra, Dolly, 'Bininj Yameng Kunj', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                        2Person/human being.

                                                        • Ngalkudji ngalkohbanj kuni ngalkangila wanjh ngaleng kangeyyo kurdukadji kaluk ngaleng wanjh bininjni korroko wanjh yerre mayh yimerranj.

                                                          There was an old lady whose skin name was Ngalkangila and now we call her emu, a long time ago she was really an old lady. [Wildfire Band song text].

                                                        3Aboriginal person/people.

                                                        • Nawu bininj dja balanda kabirrimang nawu mayh wanjh kabirrikelebukwon kakelebukmen kabirrimarnbun kelebuk mayh bedberre.

                                                          Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people get animals and tame them, and make them into pets.

                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        4Male.

                                                          See alsobinihbininj

                                                          Kunbalakyol

                                                          Narrow, thin, skinny.

                                                          • Kebbinjbinj nungkah.

                                                            He has a long/narrow nose.

                                                          • Benbukkang bininj bu kabirrikurrme mandulkbinjbinj kore kukeb.

                                                            He showed people how to put thin sticks into the centre of the fire [in order to make it easier to light the fire].

                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                          • Bu binjbinj ngarriyime, yiman nawu bininj kukbinjbinj. Mak mayh dja mayhmayh birrikukbinjbinj. Yiman kundalk dja kundulk manbinjbinj, kunmalaworr dja manrakel. Mak manme ngarriyime mankukbinjbinj.

                                                          • We can use the word 'binjbinj' for example to describe skinny people, or also animals and birds. Grass and trees can also be called skinny, or leaves or shoots. We can also say 'a skinny yam'.

                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                          See alsokukbinjbinj

                                                          Quartz, stone tool or point made from quartz.

                                                          • Manbu birddurrk makka wurd manwarddeyahwurd dja manwarddebele.

                                                            Quartz stones are small and white.

                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                          Beeswax.

                                                          • Birdikelk.

                                                            Soft beeswax.

                                                          • Birdirayek.

                                                            Hard beeswax.

                                                          LanguageKuninjku

                                                          1Flame, fire, torch. This term is always incorporated into verbs, e.g. birlikan, 'to carry a fire stick'.

                                                          • Birriwurlhkeyi kunak wanjh nawu djebuyh birlikengemi manbu kunak kumkolungi birribuni birrikani birrikinjeyi birringuni.

                                                            They would light a fire, and the possum would be scared of the flames, so it would come down and they would hit it, then take it to cook and eat.

                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                          • Ngandibukkani how bu ngandiburdebmi - kunak ngarribirlumarnbuni, en ngarrimarnbuni kunrurrk kore ngarriyoy.

                                                            They taught us how to rub sticks to make a flame and how to make shelters to camp in.

                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                          2Light of a fire, an electric light or of lightning.

                                                          • Wolbu kambirlikadjung.

                                                            The bugs are attracted to the light.

                                                          • Mandjewk nganbom ngadberre, ngurdulmeng la birlibirliwern ngarrinang.

                                                            The rain fell on us and there was thunder and we saw lots of lightning.

                                                          LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                          Grammarincorporable

                                                          -birlikan

                                                            Carry a fire stick, torch, light etc.

                                                          Carry fire or light, take a torch.

                                                          • Karribirlikan.

                                                            Let's take torches.

                                                          • Yukkuyukku kabirlihbirlikan.

                                                            The firefly carries light.

                                                          Generic term for Silver Barramundi, adult.

                                                          Scientific nameLates calcarifer

                                                          • Andy bimbom komrdaw, narin la birlmu.

                                                            Andy drew a long-necked turtle, a snake and a barramundi.

                                                            ('Nakimuk Djurra: a Big Book', Marrkolidjban School, 1993)

                                                          LanguageKuninjku

                                                          Grammarsee also mankumirli and wardurrkku

                                                          1Mosquito. There is a djang totemic site for the mosquito near Marrkolidjban.

                                                          • Bu Kudjewk wanjh birringimi kuwarderurrk birriyoy dja mandjewk dja birndu.

                                                            In the wet season they moved into caves to stay, because of the rain and mosquitos.

                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                          2March fly.

                                                            3Glossy ibis (which is black and has a beak like a mosquito proboscis thus the polysemy).

                                                            Scientific namePlegadis falcinellis

                                                            • Ngalbu birndu ngalkka mayhmayh karrinan kore kabbal bu kudjewk dja kurrung karrolkarren karrinan mirndewern.

                                                              We see glossy ibis on the floodplain in the wet season, and we see lots of them flying in the build-up season.

                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                            Kunbalakmernengel

                                                            Splash water, strike water with hands to frighten fish so that they move in a certain direction eg. towards a fish trap or net or to frighten crocodiles before getting into the water to swim.

                                                            • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birriyolyolmi nahni Nawunjawunja nawu namumuyak. Bu kudjewk dja bangkerreng wanjh nawu dabborrabbolk birriyimi "Kaluk karribekkan nawu Nawunjawunja kabirndulhme bu kaborrong kore kurrurla. Wanjh nawu djenj kayalarrme, kare kore kubowinjku dja yika kore kurrula."

                                                              In the old days our ancestors used to tell the story of Nawunjawunja, one of the first people. In the monsoon and late wet seasons, they used to say "We can hear Nawunjawunja making spashing sounds, striking the ocean with his hands. Then the fish scatter in all directions, swimming up into the fresh water and throughout the ocean.

                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                            Rice.

                                                            • Birradjdja ngarringuni… ngarrikurrmi, ngarribuni wanjh yoy. Manwerrk manu rey warreka.

                                                              We used to eat rice… we used to put it there and thresh it. The husks would fly off all over the place but the rice would stay where it was.

                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                            Etymologyfrom Makassarese = berasa 'milled rice'

                                                            1Clear the ground of vegetation, make a clear space to sit down or camp, sweep.

                                                              2(Of weather, clouds) clearing of clouds after rain or a storm.

                                                              • Konda kadjakdung, la kuni korroko birrhmeng.

                                                                It's raining here but over there the clouds have already cleared.

                                                              LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi, Kunwinjku

                                                              Riverine savanna area to the east of where the Nabarlek road crosses Birraduk [Birrirddak] Creek and leading southeast to the valley entrance. A creek flows through the area, surrounded by sandstone outliers. It has significance as an Aboriginal walking route (Bininj manbolh) as well as being a camping and fishing area. The topographic map place name of ‘Birraduk Creek’ is derived from Birrirddak.

                                                              • …en Kabo Kaworrkdjubmirri, kahre ngamed kore Djimerre ya. Kuredkuken arriyongoyoy. Ngalengman kanjdji kadjale. Koreh bukka manberrk manekke kaberrkyirriyo makka Birrirddak, konda kakarri, kawukkarri nanu Birrirddak.

                                                                …and Kabo Kaworrkdjubmirri which goes on to Djimerre, yeah. We camped in these important camping places. Downstream the sites continue. But in the open savanna area, where all the savanna forest is located, that’s Birrirddak, to the west (of the previously mentioned sites). Birrirddak is to the west (of Kabo Kaworrkdjubmirri and Djimerre).

                                                                (Kundedjnjenghmi)

                                                              Sacred boomerangs used in pairs as musical instruments in various ceremonial contexts. Not used for hunting in West Arnhem Land.

                                                              Synonymsbarlkkan

                                                              • Birrkala kabirrimarnbun kore kundulk mandubang.

                                                                Ceremonial boomerangs are made from ironwood.

                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                              Place finger or hand into something.

                                                              • Kakebbirrkarren.

                                                                He's sticking his finger up his nose.

                                                              • Bu korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey birridjuhmi kore kuronj birribobirrkani birriyawani kedjebe.

                                                                In the old days, people would go into the water, then poke around in the water with their hands looking for file snakes.

                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                              Throw something at someone, an animal etc. This word refers specifically to throwing blunt projectiles such as sticks, rocks or boomerangs.

                                                              • Kumekke kaddum benehdjalbarndi, benmenebirrkukuhmeng benmenedjalbirrkukuhmeng. Ngalkudji bikebbaddji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanhbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

                                                                The two of them were up in the tree, and he threw sticks at them. He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He almost hit the other one, but she fainted with fright and fell down.

                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                              • Ngalkohbanj bimarneyimeng ngalbu wurdyaw "Yimka ngardduk manbu kundjabarrk wardi kundulk ngamang birrkukuhme."

                                                                The old woman said to the child "Bring my bag here, or I'll get a stick and chuck it at you".

                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                              • Nawu Nakorrkko benebokenh benedjalbirrkukuhmeng manbu barlkkan bu benemarnbom manbolh kuri kore walem.

                                                                The two Nakorrkko ancestors threw boomerangs to make a path, down there in the south.

                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                              1Green pygmy-goose.

                                                              Scientific nameNettapus pulchellus

                                                              • Biwudj namak bu ngarringun bu ngarrire ngarriwarlbun manimunak djilikuybi ngarriyawan.

                                                                The green pygmy goose is good eating, when we go hunting magpie geese or whistle ducks we look for pygmy geese as well.

                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                              2Some speakers also refer to the pink-eared duck as biwudj.

                                                              Scientific nameMelacorhynchus membranaceus

                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                Water or other liquids. Incorporated form of the word water, which appears when it forms part of other words.

                                                                • Kaboyo.

                                                                  Water lies there / there is water.

                                                                • Manbomak.

                                                                  good drinking water.

                                                                • Minj kabirrire kabirribongun kunbang.

                                                                  They don't go and drink alcohol.

                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                Grammarincorporable

                                                                Kind of wild honey or 'sugar bag' which is found in tree hollows and has a crumbling cerumen or brown resinous wax which is not favoured for tool and artifact production. The honey of this bee is much relished. The base of the hive, called ngeyhno is made from a harder cerumen which can be used for material culture production although other honey type hives are preferred.

                                                                Synonymskarderre

                                                                Scientific nameAustroplebeia magna

                                                                  LanguageKune, Rembarrnga= yurduh

                                                                  Kunbalaknamawul

                                                                  Cook, burn.

                                                                  • Morlarrinj kabobekke.

                                                                    Kunj kakinje.

                                                                    She's cooking the kangaroo.

                                                                  • Nangomi dakalhmeng, "Kab ngarrokan ngabobekke ngarrku".

                                                                    Nakudji yimeng, "Kab ngare ngakinje ngarrku."

                                                                    One of them said "How about I go and cook this for us?".

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 64-67)

                                                                  Regular Bininj Kunwokkinje

                                                                  1Tide come in.

                                                                  • Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                                                    At high tide, we don't see any mud crabs.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  2Water rise up (e.g. flood, start of wet season).

                                                                  • Kabobidbun wanjh kankebngun.

                                                                    The water rises up and drowns us.

                                                                  Good-bye.

                                                                  • Ma bonj bobo.

                                                                    OK, that’s all, bye.

                                                                  • Yikah mak kabbal ngarrirey bu ngarribuni kalawan, ngarrimarmeyimi, "Bobo!". Kalawan, kunekke ngurriyimen "Bobo" wanjh kakurrmerren kalawan. Ngurrire ngurribun.

                                                                    Or, sometimes, we would be go out on the floodplains getting goanna, and we would say to the goannas “Goodbye!”. If you say goodbye, the goanna will just stay still for you, then you can go and kill it.

                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                  1Fly (insect).

                                                                  • Mandudjmi karung wanjh bod kawernmen.

                                                                    When the green plums are ripe, it is the time when there are many flies.

                                                                  2Native honey bees of the Tetragonula (previously Trigona) and Austroplebeia genera.

                                                                  Scientific nameTetragonula mellipes, Austroplebeia magna, Austroplebeia essingtoni

                                                                  • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey manberrk birriyawani birridulknani kaddum birrinani mankung bod kahboddolkan wanjh birridulkrderdmi birriwodjburriweyi birrimonbuhmi, wanjh birrimangi nawu yiwk dja mandabu birrirawoni birridahkendongi kore billycan.

                                                                    In the old days, people would go into the forest searching [for honey], looking up at the trees. When they saw honey bees flying around they would chop down the tree and open it up, then they would get the liquid honey and pollen sacs and put them all together in a billy can.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  Kunbalakmuk

                                                                  Crouch down, hunch over, bend down.

                                                                  • Munguyh benehdjalkarungi kaluk wanjh kukku kumbobebmeng benebiddjuhmeng kunbid berrewoneng kore benekaruy wanjh beneboddanj benebonguyinj.

                                                                    They just kept on digging, and when they reached water they washed their hands from all the digging, then they crouched down and drank the water.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  Recede (of water in a water body), dry out.

                                                                  • Karrinan bu kabukmen kabodowen kore kabbal bu Kurrung duninjh kayimerran.

                                                                    When the real build-up season starts, we see the floodplain drying up and the water receding.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                  • Kabodowerren rowk manbu kukku kukudji kukku karribongun kore manlabbarlkimuk dja kore njilhmi kaboyo kore ngarribobengkan korroko dabborrabbolk ngandibolkbukkang.

                                                                    All the water dries up [in the dry season], we can only drink water from large billabongs and springs, places we know to find water that the old people showed us in the past.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  Erase tracks, wash away tracks.

                                                                  • Mandjewk djakduy nakimuk wanjh bokbularrbom manbu muddikka.

                                                                    A big rain fell and washed away the tracks of the car.

                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                  Spin or plait string. This often involves rubbing fibres from the inner bark of trees on the upper thigh, then rolling two strands of string together to make two-ply twine.

                                                                  Synonymsborolhme

                                                                  • Manbu mandjabu korroko dabborrabbolk birrimangi kunyarl kore manbornde mandedjmad kunyarl dja kore kundulk manbudbud kunyarl. Wanjh birribokdengi kunyarl birrimarnbuni wanjh mandjabu birrimarnbuni.

                                                                    In the old days, our ancestors would make fish traps by getting fibre from banyan roots or kurrajong bark. They would roll the fibre into string, then make fish traps from it.

                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                  Two.

                                                                  • Daluk bokenh wakkidj benehweyi.

                                                                    Two women were fishing.

                                                                    (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                  • Ngunebokenh.

                                                                    You two.

                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                  Kunbalakburlalh

                                                                  Boil water, heat up water.

                                                                    Kunbalakdjurlkkinj-bobekke

                                                                    Follow tracks.

                                                                    Synonymsbokkadjung

                                                                    • Yika mak bu nganabarru karribokkan wanjh karribokkadjung karribekkan ngarradj kawokdi kabimulewan namekke nganabarru.

                                                                      Sometimes when we're tracking a buffalo, we follow its tracks and we hear a cockatoo calling out, which gives away the buffalo's position.

                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                    Spear type with many barbs running along the shaft.

                                                                    • Bokko birrimarnbuni manbu kunyidkenh bu birridurreni.

                                                                      People used to make barbed spears for fighting.

                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                    LanguageKuninjku= bardangarr

                                                                    Dancing belt which has feathered tassles and traditionally made from human hair.

                                                                    • Bokngarru kabirridjongburren kunborrkkenh.

                                                                      They dress in dancing belts for dances.

                                                                    • Bokngarru birringardmodukarreni wanjh birriyiborrkkeyi bu mamurrng bindimarnekurrmi.

                                                                      They would tie dancing belts around their hips, and dance with them during the mamurrng ceremony.

                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                    Spangled grunter. These fish form schools and migrate to breed in the early wet season or after the first storms of kunumeleng.

                                                                    Scientific nameLeiopotherapon unicolor

                                                                      LanguageKuninjku= boddowk

                                                                      Black bittern.

                                                                      Scientific nameIxobrychus flavicollis

                                                                      • Kurlabakku kawk bokung nawu kabirrirohrok kabirriyawan djenj kabirrini kore kukadjid yika kabirribarndi kore kundulk kabirrimadbun djenj.

                                                                        The pied heron, the rufous night heron and the black bittern are all similar, in that they all hunt fish by standing on the bank or up in a tree, waiting for the fish to go past.

                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                      LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                      Follow a path or road.

                                                                        Follow after something, come after something.

                                                                        • Bu njale karringun karribawon kore kunrurrk wanjh karrinan nawern djak bu kanome dja kabolkan.

                                                                          If we're eating something and we leave it in the house, then ants will smell it and lots of them will come after it.

                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                        Leave a place, with the connotation of staying away for a long time or for good. Abandon a place.

                                                                        • Ngabolkbawong kunred ngardduk / Dja ngabenbawong bininj ngardduk / Ahwurd ngaye, ahwurd / Ngabolkbawong kunred Ngardayun

                                                                          I have been away from my homeland for so long / And away from my people for so long / I am feeling sad, so sad / I miss my home Ngardayun

                                                                          (Wildflower Band, ‘Galiwin’ku’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                                        1Conduct earthworks, dig tunnels or mine, create environmental damage, destroy a place, create the landscape of a place.

                                                                        • Nabangardi dja Nawamud beneyimeng konda kunred wanjh bolkdoweng ngad ngadberre, bu balanda birrimwam birribolkbom dja birribolkwarrewong.

                                                                          Nabangardi and Nawamud said “This place of ours has been destroyed, when white people came they dug the place up and ruined it”.

                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                        2Make a racket, make a noisy disturbance.

                                                                        • Wurdwurd kabirribolkbun.

                                                                          The children are making a lot of noise.

                                                                        Sacred place, restricted place.

                                                                          1Place become boring with nothing of interest happening.

                                                                          • Bolkdoweng konda.

                                                                            This place is boring.

                                                                          2Destruction of a place (and people).

                                                                          • Nabangardi dja Nawamud beneyimeng konda kunred wanjh bolkdoweng ngad ngadberre, bu balanda birrimwam birribolkbom dja birribolkwarrewong.

                                                                            Nabangardi and Nawamud said “This place of ours has been destroyed, when white people came they dug the place up and ruined it”.

                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                          • Bu kabirribolkbun kunred karrowen, kunred bu karribolkdowen namekke story nuye ngadberre ngad, nawu kumekke tribe namekke tribe nawu Mirarr namekke.

                                                                            If they damage the place, the country there will die, the country and us with it and the story will die, that is the tribe called the Mirarr people.

                                                                          1Now.

                                                                          • Yoh bolkkime kamkan.

                                                                            Yes, he's bringing it now.

                                                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                                          2Nowadays, these days, now.

                                                                          • Dja bolkkime larrk minj nangale kadjuhme kinga nawern kahyo kore manlabbarlkimuk kahboyo wardi kanbaye kanbun.

                                                                            But nowadays no-one gets into the water at the big billabong, there are lots of crocodiles and they would bite and kill us.

                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                          3Today.

                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                            Kunbalakkolhkol

                                                                            Stay at home, stay at a place, refuse to come when called.

                                                                            • A: Baleh kabirrini? B: Ngabenkayhmeng korroko, bonj birribolkmaddi.

                                                                              A: Where are they? B: I've already called them but they're staying where they are.

                                                                            • Ngalkudji wurdyaw Ngaldjawonj / bolkbawong kunred ngalengarre / Bolkmaddi kore Manginburru bedberre

                                                                              There is a little girl from a Jawoyn clan / who left her country / And who has stayed for a long time on Manginburru land

                                                                              (Wildflower Band, ‘Ngaldjawonj ‘The Jawoyn Girl’’, from the Album ‘Maningburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                                            Reach a place, get to a place.

                                                                            • Bu ngabolkmang kured ngambun ke.

                                                                              When I get home, I'll call you.

                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                            • Bu benebolkmey kumekke kunred Nitmiluk beneyibmeng kanjdji kurorre dja benebawong manbu manlabbarl kahlabbarlyo kore kanjdji kabenehyo kumekke wanjh ngalbu Ngalyod bokenh kabenehyo munguyh kore manlabbarl.

                                                                              When they reached Nitmiluk, they sank down into the earth and left behind a waterhole there. They're still there underneath the water, those two Rainbow Serpents are still there in the waterhole.

                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                            1Be on the watch for, look out for.

                                                                              2Care for country, look after a place, caretake a place.

                                                                              • Kaluk wurdurd ngadberre / kabirribolknahnan kondah kunred ngadberre.

                                                                                When we pass away our children / will carry on looking after this land for us.

                                                                                (Wildflower Band, ‘Manginburru’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                              Look at a place, survey surroundings.

                                                                              • Minj kawernhbolknan djarre.

                                                                                He’s short-sighted (he can't see very far).

                                                                                (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                              • Ngaye ngawam ngabidbom kuwardde / Ngabolknang bu dungyibmeng / Wanjh ngabolkkongibom kunred ngadberre.

                                                                                I went to the top of the rock and looked around / When I saw the sun go down I felt sad / Because this is where the people lived a long time ago.

                                                                                (Wildflower Band, ‘Manginburru’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 (Loose English translation from album cover). )

                                                                              • Kondanjh kandimarnekorrkke warde ngurrikorrkke ngurrinan ba ngabolknan ba kamak ngare wanjh ngare ngayame.

                                                                                Look here and try and lance my sore so I can get up and go look at that place and spear it (a kangaroo).

                                                                              Be called (of a place), name of a place is.

                                                                              • Kunred kabolkngeyyo Bobongki, manbowern dja mandjimdjimwern.

                                                                                The place called Bobongki has a lot of water and water pandanus.

                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                              • Ngaye ngabolkngeyyo kunred Maburrinj / Ngadolkkang ngadanginj dja ngabolknang

                                                                              • I am the country Maburrinj / I stood up and looked around at my many places

                                                                                (Wildflower Band, ’Maburrinj (The lonely place called Maburrinj)’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                              See alsongeyyo

                                                                              Having close family or geographical ties, be joined in a kind of unit through traditional or historical connections.

                                                                              Synonymsbolkdjindjinduluburren

                                                                              • Yika ngarriyime kabolkyirrkarrmerren kore kunred kadarnhbolkrohrok. Yiman darnkih kunmokurrkurr dja kunred bedberre.

                                                                                We say that countries have close ties when they are next to each other, when their clans and lands are close.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Danek birribuyika bedberre kunred kore Kukalak. Kaddumkah kore Djalama kabolkrohrok. Mak darnkih kore Djok kunred bedberre nawu duwa, kabolkyirrkarrmerren.

                                                                                The other Danek group's estate is Kukalak, further up close to Djalama country. It's also close to Djok country, with whom they have close ties [a yaw-badjan relationship].

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Name of (at least) three duwa moiety patriclans- one on the central Arnhem Land plateau, one a Jawoyn speaking clan to the south and another on the upper East Alligator River.

                                                                              • Kondanj wanjh Kayerrngwe wanjh Bolmo.

                                                                                Here the place is called Kayerrngwe and then it is Bolmo clan land [neighbouring].

                                                                              • Mamamh nganmarnemurrngkang ngalyikbolmo nani Rarrkal nganeyaw weleng yakminj kumekke kuwardde ngarri-murrngkurrmeng. Namekke kukurlk.

                                                                                My mother's father's sister of the Bolmo clan put those [kangaroo] bones there, Rarrkal and I were her grandchildren but she died and so we put all these bones in the rock there. Those there on the ground.

                                                                              Little black cormorant.

                                                                              Scientific namePhalacrocorax sulcirostris

                                                                              • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh.

                                                                                Cormorants eat small fish.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                              Kill, hit.

                                                                              • Wurrngahwurrngalk birridokang morlarrinj. Birribonghmeng bulalh, wanjh birriwarnduyhmeng kumelworn.

                                                                                Yawuhyawurrinj birriwam kunj. Birribom bokenh, wanjh birriyirrurndi kured.

                                                                                The young men went hunting kangaroos. They shot two, and brought them back home.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Regular Bininj Kunwok-bun

                                                                              Fight one another.

                                                                              • Ngaye ngakurdudmeng yul yirrohyirrodokani kunmuluru kunubewu dokang kabirribonghmerren.

                                                                                Ngaye nganang bininj kanihkani kundulk kunubewu wam kabirriburren.

                                                                                I saw a man walking along carrying a stick, maybe he's gone to fight with some people.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Regular Bininj Kunwokburren.

                                                                              Long-tailed rock monitor, also known as the black-palmed monitor.

                                                                              Scientific nameVaranus glebopalma

                                                                              • Nawu bongka ngarringeybun nawu yiman djanay kakukyime nungan kuwarde kaddum kukorlh kayo.

                                                                                Rock monitors look similar to yellow-spotted monitors, but they live up in rocky country.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                              LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku, Kunwinjku

                                                                              Drink.

                                                                              • Ngarre kab kukku ngarrbongun.

                                                                                Let's go and drink some water.

                                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                              • Birrimey kunbang bedberre wanjh birridjalbonguneng.

                                                                                They got their grog and just kept drinking.

                                                                              Kunbalak-djurlkkinjyakwan

                                                                              1Finish, finished.

                                                                              • Bonj yakminj.

                                                                                Finished, all gone!

                                                                              2The end (used at the end of a story or narrative).

                                                                              • Wanjh birridokmeng kured. Bonj.

                                                                                Then they went home. The End.

                                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                              3 That's all, just, just like that, it's OK just like that. Marker used to delineate or limit.

                                                                              • A: Yidjare marnekan? B: Bonj, kamak, ngakan.

                                                                                A: Do you want me to take it for you? B: No, it's OK, I'll take it.

                                                                              • Kabenengeyboken, bonj kangeyboken.

                                                                                They've got two names, just two names.

                                                                              • "Yuwn yikan mankukyahwurd makka" "Bonj warribo ngadjalkan ngakinje ngangun. Bonj bu mankukyahwurd"

                                                                                "Don't take that yam, it's too small". "Whatever, I'll take it anyway and cook it up and eat it. Doesn't matter if it's small".

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              4Finally, in the end. Marker used to indicate the end of a process.

                                                                              • Wanjh duhkeng, duhkeng. Bonj bohborrolkang.

                                                                                He lanced it and lanced it (an infected wound) and then the fluid burst out.

                                                                              5Marker used to describe the size, shape, extent etc. of something.

                                                                              • Djalmey kundulk yiman bonj kunekke kayime.

                                                                                He just went and got a stick which was about 'there' (demonstrates size), this big !

                                                                              Cold.

                                                                              • Ngabidbonjdjek.

                                                                                My fingers are cold.

                                                                              Kunbalakkurrbele

                                                                              Sniff (a liquid, especially petrol).

                                                                              • Nanih nawu wurdwurd might be kabirridjordmen minj kabirrire kabirribongun kunbang, or petrol kabirribonome or kundalk kabirriwunghme, larrk.

                                                                                So when those kids grow up they probably won't drink, or sniff petrol or smoke grass, no way.

                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                              Flow.

                                                                              • Bu kudjewk mandjewk nawern kadjakdung wanjh kabore kore mankabo.

                                                                                When it rains a lot in the wet season, the water flows in the rivers.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                              1Learn, become familiar with something eg. language, a skill.

                                                                              • Kandibukkan ba ngaborlbme.

                                                                                You show me so I will learn it.

                                                                              2Get used to something or someone.

                                                                              • Ngarriborlbmeng di.

                                                                                We've got used to drinking tea.

                                                                              • Ngudda yiborlbmeng ngarduk.

                                                                                You've got used to me.

                                                                              GrammarTakes possessive pronoun if the object is human.

                                                                              Termite.

                                                                              • Borlborl karrulkngun, kurrambalk kawarrewon.

                                                                                Termites eat wood and destroy houses.

                                                                              Turn over to other side, change.

                                                                              • Ngaborledkeng nawu djenj, wanjh ngayawoyhyerrkang ngamadbom korroko wanjh nganang ruy, wanjh ngawayhkeng.

                                                                                I turned over the fish and sat down again, waited a while, then when I saw that it was cooked I pulled it out (of the hot coals).

                                                                                (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                              • Birrikodjkurluborledkeng.

                                                                                They changed their minds.

                                                                              See alsosee kodjborledke

                                                                              Kunbalakdordedjke

                                                                              1Turn around, rotate, turn over.

                                                                              • Yimborledmen kanmirrkma!

                                                                                Turn facing me!

                                                                                (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                              2Change.

                                                                              • Bolkkime wurdwurd nahni yiman birribuyikaminj, borledmeng kadberre.

                                                                                Nowadays the kids are different, they’ve changed on us.

                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                              See alsokukborledke

                                                                              Kunbalakdordedjme

                                                                              On the other side, behind.

                                                                              • Warde borledmiken yiyawan.

                                                                                Try searching on the other side.

                                                                              Australian Magpie-lark. The word also describes the call of the Magpie-lark, which is said to ‘call its own name’.

                                                                              Scientific nameGrallina cyanoleuca

                                                                              • Borliblib karrinan Kudjewk Kurrung Bangkerreng Wurrkeng Kurnumeleng bu baleh karrire karribekkan kawokdi kangeyburren kayime borliblib borliblib borliblib.

                                                                                We see the Magpie Lark in the wet season, dry season, late wet season, late dry season and build-up season - wherever we go we hear its call, calling out its name “borliblib borliblib borliblib”.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                              Water python and possibly also the freshwater keelback.

                                                                              Scientific nameBothrochilus fuscus (previously known as Liasis fuscus), Amphiesma mairii

                                                                              • Bininj dja daluhdaluk kabirrire kabirriyawan kore kukku kabirribobirrkan kabirrimang borlokko kedjebe ngalmangiyi kore kuronj.

                                                                                Men and women go looking for water pythons in the water, they poke their hands into the water and pull out the pythons, file snakes and long-necked turtles.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                              Post or beam used in house or shade shelter construction. In shelter construction this is typically the horizontal crossbeam, in contrast to the forked sticks it rests between (karlang).

                                                                              • Bu kabirrikodbarrename, wanjh mandulkdjarrkkarlang kabirridadjke, kabirridulkdjabname. Wanjh yerre borlorl kabirriwarnamkurrme. Wanjh kunkod dja dolobbo kabirribarrkbun.

                                                                                When people make a paperbark shelter, they cut forked trees and stick them upright into the ground. Then they place crossbeams across them, and then put bark over the structure.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Name of a duwa moiety patriclan in the lower Liverpool River region.

                                                                              • Nani Born wanjh yoh na-Born, mani kubolkngamed...Mirwi.

                                                                                This [place] belongs to the Born clan, and this here is for whatsit, the Mirwi clan.

                                                                              • Nabangardi nangalayngu nakka kahdi Namokardabu na-Born.

                                                                                Nabangardi the one who is our mother's brother [you being my brother] and who lives at Namokardabu, the man of the Born clan.

                                                                              Father a child.

                                                                              • Nangale ngunbornang?

                                                                                Who is your father?

                                                                              • Beywurd bornarrinj.

                                                                                He fathered a child (for himself).

                                                                              Kunbalakwalebonghme.

                                                                              Spear thrower, woomera.

                                                                              • Bolkmelmeng mankole mey kolhmibom borndok kamak rowk.

                                                                                He placed his foot down, got his spear and tested it with his spear thrower; everything was fine.

                                                                              Kunbalakkarndubbu

                                                                              Wipe, rub.

                                                                              • Balmey kunworr kurlba borndungi.

                                                                                Then he got some leaves and was wiping off the blood with them.

                                                                                (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                                              • Kano manburrba ngaborndurren.

                                                                                Give me the cloth, I'll wipe myself.

                                                                              Spin or plait string (hair or string/rope). This involves rolling two strands of inner bark fibres in one direction over the thighs then rolling back in the opposite direction to twist the two strands together into two-ply string.

                                                                              Synonymsbokdeng

                                                                              • Nawu daluhdaluk manbu kunyarl kabirrimang kore kundulkbeh manbu manbudbud marrabbi manbornde dja mankarralarlhmanj wanjh kabirriborolhme bu kabirrimarnbun djerrh dja walabi.

                                                                                Women get fibre from trees, kurrajong, sand palm, banyan and bush peanut trees, then they rub the fibres on their thigh and roll them together into string to make bags and fish nets.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Kunbalakbordordbokme.

                                                                              Shake off, shake out, shake clean.

                                                                              • Ngalkohbanj mey nawu baladjdji, wanjh melkborrhborrdji.

                                                                                The old woman took the bag, and shook out everything from inside it.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Kuhri koyek duninjh kumekke wanjh kunu Yingarna yakarrbom bininj dedjborrhborrhdji nawu yibarlirr ngalengarre wanjh kumekke kurrmerrinj.

                                                                                Far in the east is where Yingarna shook the last people out of her string bag, then placed herself forever.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Roll down, roll out, tumble.

                                                                              • Kore kungalkwarre manbu muddikka dingihdi, wanjh borrhborrmeng bu mankang kore kurorre.

                                                                                The car was up on top of a steep slope, and tumbled down and crashed to the ground.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Nawu bininj nawernhkimuk duninjh karlobme wanjh yiman kakukborrhborrme bu kangudjkadjung nawu mayh yiman kunj, nganabbarru dja manimunak.

                                                                                When a very fat man is running, his body rolls [up and] down around as he chases animals like kangaroos, buffalo and magpie geese.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Play with, pat or stroke.

                                                                              • Wurdurd yuwn ngurriborrkbun wardi ngunbaye.

                                                                                Kids, don't play with it, it might bite you.

                                                                              Dance.

                                                                              • Korroko birriwayini birriborrkkeyi kore mamurrng dja kore mulil.

                                                                                In the old days, people would sing and dance at Mamurrng ceremonies and public feasts.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                              • Yawkyawk dja yawurrinj kabirrire kabirriborrkke kore disco.

                                                                                Girls and boys go dancing at the disco.

                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                              Kunbalakborrkidjbonghme

                                                                              Dance.

                                                                              Synonymsdirridjarrbelme

                                                                              • Ngad ngarrbenkurdudmi yul dja kardukardu birriborrkkidjbonghmi, nawu birrimdokang kakbibeh.

                                                                                Ngad ngarrbennani bininj dja daluk birriborrkeyi, nawu birrimwam kakbibeh.

                                                                                We saw the men and women dancing, those who had come down from the north.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Regular Bininj Kunwokborrkke

                                                                              Jump around playfully.

                                                                              • Duruk yaw kabirriborrkkirri.

                                                                                The puppies are jumping around playfully.

                                                                              • Nawu nakudji wurdyaw borrkkirri kore kudjurle.

                                                                                The child was playing in the shade.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Mak mayh mayh kabirriborrkkirri bu kunkawoleh kayimerran. Kabirringudjkadjurren, kabirriwohbayerren.

                                                                                Animals also play around, in the late afternoon when the day cools off. They chase each other around and bite each other playfully.

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              See alsodirri

                                                                              Ignore, disregard, not do what someone asks.

                                                                              • Bu baleh kabirriyime, yibendjalwokborrkwa. Yuwn yibalborledme yibenmarneyime wanjh kunekke ngurridurren, o ngurridangwerren.

                                                                                If they say anything, just ignore them. Don’t turn around and speak to them or you'll end up fighting or arguing.

                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                              • Nakudji wurdyaw yimeng "Ngaye borrkwan bu kandjurrkkan yimankek ngaye ngamang njalehnjale ke".

                                                                                The child said "If you ask me to go and get something for you, I won't do it".

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              • Ngalbu daluk bimarneyimeng ngalbuyika daluk "Ngudda kanborrkwam ngaye, minj ngarrrawinj bu djawam".

                                                                                One woman said to another "You ignored me, we didn't go when I asked you".

                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                              Snore.

                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                1Lift and drop somebody onto the ground, throw to the ground.

                                                                                • Kabibowkme.

                                                                                  He drops him down (onto the ground, 'bump').

                                                                                • Nganabbarru kabowkmerren.

                                                                                  The buffalo plops itself down [in the mud and makes itself a little hollow].

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                • Kabenebowkmerren.

                                                                                  The kids are tumbling with each other (throwing each other to the ground).

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                2Bump, bump up and down (as in truck travel).

                                                                                • Kanbowkbowkme.

                                                                                  I'm really getting knocked around by the vehicle [on this bumpy road etc].

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                • Nganbowkme manwelyi wanjh ngarringudjwarreminj.

                                                                                  The aeroplane is bumping us all around, it's wearing us out.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                Lie flat, to lie on one’s stomach.

                                                                                • Kawardeboyboyyo.

                                                                                  There is a rock lying flat.

                                                                                  (Evans, Nick, Mayali vocabulary gathered 1986-1988 from native speakers for Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Gagudju Association)

                                                                                Recently, before, in the recent past, some time ago but with the sense of a more specific point in time and not a time in the very distant past.

                                                                                • Nabulanj wam mankung kore nang boyen.

                                                                                  I guess people assigned a skin name to buffalo in recent times, it's from a different place.

                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                -boyehboyen

                                                                                  In recent times, over the last few months/years with the sense of a recent length of time extended over a continuous period.

                                                                                Northern knob-tailed gecko, prickly knob-tailed gecko.

                                                                                Scientific nameNephrurus sheai, Nephurus asper

                                                                                • Boywek karrinan kore kunrurrk kurrambalk karrihyo karrinan kahbarnbarndi.

                                                                                  We see geckos in the houses where we live, sitting up on things.

                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                1When.

                                                                                • Bu ngayahwurdni.

                                                                                  When I was a child.

                                                                                2About, concerning, in relation to.

                                                                                • Ngayolyolme bu namarrkon djang.

                                                                                  I'll tell a story about lightning dreaming.

                                                                                • Bu ngudda.

                                                                                  That's up to you.

                                                                                3If (conditional sense).

                                                                                • Bu yinan kelebuk yuwn yibun.

                                                                                  If you see a tame animal, don't kill it.

                                                                                Grammarsubordinating conjuction

                                                                                1Blow (esp. wind), fan someone. Reduplicated form of buhme.

                                                                                Synonymsbuhme

                                                                                • Kunmayorrk kawarnambubuhme.

                                                                                  The wind is blowing across [through the car].

                                                                                • Medjek yima kanbubuhme.

                                                                                  Get the feather fan and fan me.

                                                                                2Cool down, cool off (in the open air).

                                                                                • Bu benehni benemadbom runguhruy wilkkihwilkkidi nawu kalawan mak burdbarrk wanjh bu djolengminj wanjh benewayhkeng benekurrmeng bubuhmeng.

                                                                                  They sat there and waited for the goanna and waterlilly corms to cook in the ashes and when they were cooked they lifted them out and left them to cool.

                                                                                  (https://bininjkunwok.org.au/information/dialects/)

                                                                                3Get some fresh air, get some peace and quiet, go and chill out. Generally refers to going off into the bush or somewhere quiet in nature to restore one's mood.

                                                                                • Nakudji nakohbanj mahmeng bu kadjare kare kabubuhme.

                                                                                  One old man said that he wanted to go and get some fresh air to improve his mood.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                Bottle.

                                                                                • Budjdjulung kaburriwe, kabarrhme.

                                                                                  He throws a bottle and it smashes.

                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                Etymologyfrom Makassarese

                                                                                Cat, feral cat.

                                                                                Synonymsbiyawo

                                                                                • Bolkkime nawu budjiked karrikarrme nawern karri kore kurehrered kadberre kore karrihyo.

                                                                                  Nowadays we have lots of cats on our lands where we live.

                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                1Blow.

                                                                                • Kunkurra kabuhme, darnki mandjewk kadjakdung.

                                                                                  The wind is blowing, soon it's going to rain.

                                                                                • Nangale kabuhme mako?

                                                                                  Who's going to play the didjeridoo?

                                                                                22. be blown on.

                                                                                • Med ngaladminj, ngarrbuhme.

                                                                                  Hang on, I'm hot, let's take the breeze.

                                                                                Kunbalakburrhnjudjbonghme.

                                                                                Dry or shallow.

                                                                                • Bukminj rowk kamak karridjowkke.

                                                                                  It's all dry, we can cross OK.

                                                                                • Birndu kangun dumdum dja yehyeng nawu kayo kare kore kukku kukadjid dja kore kubuk.

                                                                                  The glossy ibis eats beetles and all kinds of things that live in the water, the sand and the shallows.

                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                See alsokelebuk

                                                                                -bukmen

                                                                                  Dry out.

                                                                                Pheasant coucal.

                                                                                Scientific nameCentropus phasianinus

                                                                                • Bukbuk karribekkan kawokdi kayime bukbuk bukbuk bukbuk.

                                                                                  We hear the pheasant coucal calling out “book-book, book-book, book-book”.

                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                Dream.

                                                                                  -bukirrinan

                                                                                    see something in a dream.

                                                                                  -bukirriyo

                                                                                    Dream.

                                                                                  Dream of something.

                                                                                  Synonyms(kodj)bukirrire, bukirriyo

                                                                                  • Ngarrnan, marrek ngarrnan, yika yiyo yibukirribun Wakkewakken o ankung.

                                                                                    We see it, not really see it, sometimes when you sleep you will dream and see the Wakkewakken or the honey.

                                                                                  Kunbalakborridjbonghme

                                                                                  That probably, over there probably, might be, thing.

                                                                                  • Yimankek mununminj, bonj, wanjh ngarriwam. Bukka Arrkuluk.

                                                                                    When it was dark enough , that was it, off we went. Over there by Arrkuluk.

                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                  Show, demonstrate, teach, make manifest.

                                                                                  • Kamak kanbukkan?

                                                                                  • Wardi kanbukkan bale kayime.

                                                                                    Try and show me, what do you do?

                                                                                  • Kabukkarren nawu kundjak karrihkarrme kuburrk kadberre.

                                                                                    Symptoms which are manifest when we have physical illness.

                                                                                  Kunbalakbuyukme

                                                                                  Dry up (of bodies of water), dry out (of plants etc), evaporate.

                                                                                  • Kabolkbukmen.

                                                                                    The land is drying up.

                                                                                  • Bu kurrung manbu kabbal kabukmen.

                                                                                    In the dry season, the floodplain dries up.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  • Kabirridakurrme manbu kunngobarn kabukmen wanjh kabirrimarnbun nawu badjkid.

                                                                                    They put the pandanus out in the sun, it dries out and they make baskets from it.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  Kunbalakburnduyhmen

                                                                                  Earthquake; also the name of a Jawoyn ancestral being and concomitant religious cult in which earthquake and subterranean fire feature as part of apocalyptic beliefs.

                                                                                  • Yibekkang kukak bolkrokahrokang? Ngarringeybun bula.

                                                                                    Did you feel the earth shaking last night? We call that bula.

                                                                                  Together, two people doing something together.

                                                                                  • Nawu yul benebulalh ngarrbenbenekurdudmeng benebulaldokani kore manyonj.

                                                                                    Nawu bininj benebokenh ngarrbenbenenang benedjarrkrey kore manbolh.

                                                                                    We saw two men walking together along the road.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Regular Bininj Kunwokdjarrk-

                                                                                  Two.

                                                                                  • Kunbonj kardukardu bulalh benehmorndi kumelworn.

                                                                                    Kunkare yawkyawk bokenh benehni kured.

                                                                                    Once, long ago, two young women were sitting at camp.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 36-39)

                                                                                  • Nawu yul benebulalh ngarrbenbenekurdudmeng benebulaldokani kore manyonj.

                                                                                    Nawu bininj benebokenh ngarrbenbenenang benedjarrkrey kore manbolh.

                                                                                    We saw two men walking together along the road.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Regular Bininj Kunwokboken

                                                                                  GrammarWhen referring to people, 'benebulalh' is often used.

                                                                                  Male subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and mardku matri-moiety.

                                                                                  • Baw, ngurringurdmen! Bulanj kabiwokmang Balang!

                                                                                    ‘Would you people be quiet! Bulanj is recording Balang!’

                                                                                    (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. xiv)

                                                                                  • Kaluk Bulanj bimarnedjareni ngaleng bu yiman birrimarrimeninj namekke. Bulanj nawu walk bikang yibengkan laik ngarrbinmarneyime 'Nani yikan kureh ba bininj yibinmang yibinreydurndeng ba karriyakwon.'

                                                                                    Another man of Bulanj subsection coveted her, (the boy's mother, a woman of Kodjdjan subsection), and wanted to marry her. Bulanj was going to accompany the boy to be circumcised according to the custom, like when we ask 'You take the circumcision candidate (to another group of people in a distant location) so that you will retrun with lots of people to complete the ceremony.'

                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                  Female subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and mardku matri-moiety.

                                                                                  • Bu anyungki, makka djal Bininj duninj bawokyimi like old people

                                                                                    In the beginning, she (emu) was a human being and she talked, she was an old woman, old people, … of the ngal-Kangila subsection and the Wurrbbarn clan.

                                                                                    (Djnj)

                                                                                  • Ngali bininjni ngalu ngurrurdu borledkerrinj nahni birridolkang kungol, ngalih wanjh ngale birribawong kukurlk kawake. Bulanjdjan ngal-Wurrbbarn. Yo. Ngalnguyakimuk Bakkarda (Kardbam), Wurrbbarnbulu, Burnungku, Warrayhngu, Kamal.

                                                                                    This emu was once a human being and... all the people here associated with her changed into animals (points to a painting illustrating

                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                  1Erase, rub out, delete.

                                                                                  • Yimarneyimen kabularrbun.

                                                                                    Tell him to delete it.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  1Finish a task.

                                                                                  • Ngayeh ngayakwon story ngawernhbularrbun, ngare, ngare wanjh kuwadda, ngahdurndeng.

                                                                                    I'm going to finish telling all this information completely and then I'm off, I'm going back home.

                                                                                  Dilly bag tightly woven from light fibres.

                                                                                  Synonymskul-kolborn

                                                                                  • Bolkbawong wam manberrk yawani manme mangi dahkendongi ngalengarre manme kore bulbbe.

                                                                                    She left that place and went into the bush looking for food, which she collected in her dilly bag.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                  1Middle, centre.

                                                                                  • Kubuldjdjarn yikurrmen.

                                                                                    Put it in the middle.

                                                                                  2Deep (of water or substance).

                                                                                  • Kabuldjarn.

                                                                                    It's deep.

                                                                                  -kumurrng buldjdjarn

                                                                                    Very early before sunrise

                                                                                  -Bininj buldjdjarn.

                                                                                    Ethnonymic reference: ‘the people from the middle/central regions’. This is one of several terms of this nature that indicate the place of origin of a person ideally through their matriline.

                                                                                  Cattle, male or female.

                                                                                  • Nahni bininj kukbele kangeyyo Paddy Cahill nawu kumwam kondah Kunbarlanja kondah durrkmirri manme dudjengi dja djarrang dja bulikki benhbukkani bininj ngad nawu birrikukburlerri.

                                                                                    That white man named Paddy Cahill came to Gunbalanya, he was working here planting vegetables and he also showed the people horses and cattle, us Aboriginal people.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  Etymologyfrom English 'bullock'.

                                                                                  Middle, centre.

                                                                                  Synonymsbuldjdjarn

                                                                                  • Beneyimerranj mahni manlabbarl manbardmo karri. Mandulkkimuk kahdi kore bulkayh.

                                                                                    Those two [Yawkyawk spirits] became that billabong, with waterlilies on it. There is a big tree in the middle of it.

                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 172)

                                                                                  Properly, really, seriously.

                                                                                  • Bu bulkkidj duninjh ngurridjare wanjh ngurrimray karridjarrkbidyikarrmerren.

                                                                                    If you really want it, come and let’s all help each other [to make it happen].

                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                  Name of a patriclan on the southern Arnhem Land plateau.

                                                                                  • Kabanibirliyingarrnghmang kabolkbulumo.

                                                                                    Kabanibirliyingarrnghmang is a place belonging to the Bulumo clan.

                                                                                    (LBN)

                                                                                  1Ghost Bat.

                                                                                  Scientific nameMacroderma gigas.

                                                                                  • Bumabuma minj karrinan kore kubolkwarlah kuberrk. Nungan kadjalyo kore kuwarderurrk kaddum kuwarde.

                                                                                    We don't see ghost bats out in the open. They just stay in caves up in the rocks.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  2.Mythical hero ancestor who turned into a bat.

                                                                                  • Daluk bikang biyiwam Bumabuma marnburrinj warlang wanjh.

                                                                                    He took the women, went with her and then turned himself into a bat.

                                                                                  1Give off smoke, mist, etc. Generally this verb is combined with a noun stem, as in dolngbume (smoke rises up) etc.

                                                                                  • Kundolng kadolngbume.

                                                                                    Clouds of smoke are rising up [from the burning country].

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  • Benebokenh Ngalyod benemhwam kore wadjbudbeh benewam Katherine Gorge, Nitmiluk. Bu benehrey benehdjarrkrey darnkih wernkih wanjh benedukkarrinj kunbardmo berrewoneng benebardmodukkarrinj kore kanjdji manbu kukku kahbodjurrhbume kore kunred kabolkngeyyo Marlkawo.

                                                                                    Two Rainbow Serpents came from the sea to Katherine Gorge, Nitmiluk. They travelled together very close to each other, then they entwined their bodies under the waterfall [where the falling water creates mist] at a place called Marlkawo.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  2Have a smoky colour, be greyish or silvery like smoke.

                                                                                  • Manbu kundulk kadulkngeyyo mardderr ngalengman kadjordmen kore kukabohkabo, dja manbu kunmalaworr makka wanjh kamalaworrbume.

                                                                                    The silver-leaved paperbark grows by rivers, its leaves have a greyish colour.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  • Manngohngo manbu kundulk ngalengman kadjordmen kore kuwarddehwarddeh. Kaluk ngalengman kaworrbume. Yiman kadulkrohrok manbelk manbu ngalengman kadjordmen kore mankabokabo, njilhmi dja kabehbeberrk.

                                                                                    Pandanus basedowii is a tree that grows in up in the escarpment. It has greyish leaves. It looks similar to Pandanus spiralis, which grows by rivers, springs and in open woodland.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  1Hit, strike.

                                                                                  • Ngalkudji bikebbadjdji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

                                                                                    He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He almost hit the other one, but she fainted with fright and fell down.

                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                                                  • Kunberl nganmarnebom.

                                                                                    He broke my arm.

                                                                                  2Kill, injure.

                                                                                  • Ngalyod kumwam kanjdjibeh kurorre benbom birriwern bininj nawu birrihyoy kumekke.

                                                                                    The Rainbow Serpent came up from under the earth and killed all the people who were there.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  3Burn.

                                                                                  • Manbang manekke ngandjenbom.

                                                                                    That food's strong, it burnt my tongue.

                                                                                  4Produce.

                                                                                  • Manih kundulk yekke kanguybun.

                                                                                    This tree produces flowers in the dry season.

                                                                                  5Suffer effects of a storm, be rained on.

                                                                                  • Mandjewk nganbom ngadberre.

                                                                                    The storm fell on us.

                                                                                  6Ring on the telephone.

                                                                                  • Kaluk kukak kabirribun delebon birriyimeng.

                                                                                    They said they would ring up by phone tonight.

                                                                                  Kunbalakbonghme

                                                                                  -burren

                                                                                    Fight, fight each other.

                                                                                  Very small ant, generic name for various small ant species.

                                                                                  • Bung nakka mayh nawu kukyahwurd duninj, bu manme kabirrinome wanjh kabirribebme kore kabirrihyo kunred bedberre. Wanjh yika mak kukku kabenreddjuhke, wanjh kunu kabirribebmerren kuberrk. Nawu bung kukbuhbuyika. Yika namak, yika nabang, kanbaye wanjh karrikurlahlukulurlme.

                                                                                    Bung are very small ants, when they smell food they come out (in front of the people who are there on their country). Or when water floods their homes, they all come out into the open. There are different types of ants we call 'bung', some of them will make your skin swell if they bite you.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Trip someone up.

                                                                                  • Yiwayhkemen wardi nganbungkarrkbun ngamankan!

                                                                                    Pick it up, otherwise it'll trip me up and I'll fall over!

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  Genre of dance and music associated with people living to the south-east and east of the Arnhem Land plateau including Rembarrnga, Burarra and all Yolngu groups. Used in opposition to the musical genre called kunborrk in Bininj Kunwok.

                                                                                  • Manbu mankare bungkul, manwern kakarrengeyyo. Yiman nangale karrowen wanjh kabindimarnekayhme nawu bungkul kabirriwayini, bu kabirrire kabirridahdahme.

                                                                                    There are many old songs with different names. For example when someone passes away they go and sing, calling out things relating to their clan while clapping clapsticks.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  EtymologyFrom Eastern languages, e.g. Burarra = bunggul, Yolŋu Matha = buŋgul

                                                                                  A name for two geographically discontiguous clans in Kakadu National Park and north-western Arnhem Land, the latter associated with the Amurdak language and former with the Gaagadju language.

                                                                                  • Birri-Bunidj kunred bedberre yiman kayime Madjikkarra. Nayidjdji nungka na-Bunidj.

                                                                                    The Bunidj people have country such as at Madjikkarra. [Bill] Nayidjdji is a Bunidj clansman.

                                                                                  Term used to refer to a blind person or someone who can't see well, a substitute for using the person’s name.

                                                                                  • Kakukkan djenj… Mamik dja Bunje mak kabenbenewon.

                                                                                    He’s carrying a fish… Maybe he’ll give it to shorty and the blind man.

                                                                                    (‘Lesson 11: Djurra ‘i’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                  Kiss.

                                                                                  • Kabenebunjhmarren.

                                                                                    They are kissing each other.

                                                                                  Merten's Water Monitor.

                                                                                  Scientific nameVeranus mertensi

                                                                                  • Burarr namak mayh bu ngarringun yiman kalawan karohrok.

                                                                                    Water goannas are good to eat, just like other goannas.

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  • Nawu kukku kayo nakka kunngey bokenh bu ngarringeybun burarr dja durrbu dja nayahwurd nakka djerlih.

                                                                                    We have two names for those (goannas) that live in the water, 'burarr' and 'durrbu', and the smaller type we call 'djerlih' (Mitchell's water monitor).

                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                  Kunbalakdedjronj, djingronj

                                                                                  Spangled Grunter.

                                                                                  Synonymsbokorn

                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                    Social category based on ceremonial grouping of the following subsections; ngarridj/ngarridjdjan, bangardi/bangardidjan; kamarrang/kamanj, balang/belinj.

                                                                                      See alsokuyal

                                                                                      Rub quickly back and forwards between the hands such as in the use of fire sticks.

                                                                                      • Korroko kundjakkorl birriburdebmi birrinami wurlhmi manbu kunak.

                                                                                        In the old days, people would rub fire sticks together to start a fire.

                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                      Kunbalakbidjirrbonghme

                                                                                      Name of a patriclan with territory on the Arnhem Land plateau.

                                                                                      • Manih birri-Burdoh bedberre birribidkuykmerrinj.

                                                                                        These hand stencils here were made by people of the Burdoh clan.

                                                                                        (Mick Kubarkku)

                                                                                      Mould or other rotting substances with a greenish hue.

                                                                                      • Kanudbore buriburi.

                                                                                        There is a greenish pus discharge [from an infected wound].

                                                                                      Black.

                                                                                      Synonyms-kurduk

                                                                                      • Kukbulerri.

                                                                                        Black (skinned) person.

                                                                                      See also-bulerriwon

                                                                                      Kunbalakkurlngunj.

                                                                                      -burlerran

                                                                                        Blacken, become black.

                                                                                      1Grub, moth larvae, adult moth; tiny ant sp.

                                                                                        2Boil (infected sore).

                                                                                          GrammarThe semantic connection between the two senses of this word is that the various insects described as ‘burlng’ are believed to bite humans and cause infections such as boils.

                                                                                          Freshwater eels, single gilled eel.

                                                                                          Scientific nameSynbranchus bengalensis, Ophisternon gutturale

                                                                                          • Burlukkurri kayo kore kukku kubak dja kukih.

                                                                                            Eels live in the water, amongst the water weeds and in the mud.

                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                          Praise.

                                                                                          • Kabirriburlume nawu namekbe yawurrinj.

                                                                                            They praise that boy.

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                          -burlumerren

                                                                                            Show off, perform with confidence.

                                                                                          Swell up.

                                                                                          • Mimburlurlhmeng.

                                                                                            Swollen eye.

                                                                                          • Kaburlurlhme yiman kayime balloon.

                                                                                            It swells up like a balloon.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          See alsolurlmeng

                                                                                          Kunbalakburlurlhbonghme

                                                                                          Finish, stop.

                                                                                          • Mayh ngarriyakwong, bonj burnbom.

                                                                                            We completed the ceremony and now it's finished.

                                                                                          • Bonj wanjh, ngurriburnbu wurdwurd. Ngurrikeyo, karrikeyo.

                                                                                            OK that's it, cut it out kids. Go to sleep, let's all go to sleep.

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                          1. Understand, know.

                                                                                          • Daluhdaluk nawu dabborrabbolk kabirriburrbun manbu manrakel mankinjdjek dja karrbarda.

                                                                                            Older women know [how to distinguish] the foliage of long yams and cheeky yams.

                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                          2Think, think about.

                                                                                          • Med, ngaburrbun.

                                                                                            Wait, I'm thinking.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                          Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                                                                                          Fight one another.

                                                                                          • Yawkyawk bokenh beneburrinj.

                                                                                            Two young girls had a fight.

                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                          Throw, chuck, throw away, push down.

                                                                                          • Yimburriwemen!

                                                                                            Chuck it over here to me!

                                                                                          • Bikukburriweng.

                                                                                            She pushed him down.

                                                                                          Kunbalakwarlhke

                                                                                          Deep part, middle area.

                                                                                          • Kaboburrk.

                                                                                            The water is deep.

                                                                                          Recognise, understand (literally, 'see the shape' or 'see the main substance' of something).

                                                                                          • Ngad bininj ngarringun manbu badjdjo... ngarrire ngarrirakelnan ngarrirakelburrknan wanjh ngarrikarung.

                                                                                            We Aboriginal people eat bush radishes... we go and we see the leaves, we recognise the leaves and we dig them up.

                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                          • Ngawernhburrkburrknang manekke English manbu kunwok.

                                                                                            I really understood English.

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                          Kunbalakwalngakurrurdme

                                                                                          1No, nothing.

                                                                                          • Burrkyak, minj ngakarrme.

                                                                                            No, I don't have any.

                                                                                          • Burrkyak, minj korroko ngunnayi, djalbolkkime bu kerrngekkenh duninj ngunkuknan.

                                                                                            No, she's never seen you before, she’s going to see you in person for the first time now.

                                                                                            (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Nabulanj Namandjulngunj et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

                                                                                          2It was no use, nothing happened, to no avail.

                                                                                          • Birriyawam birrikayhmeng burrkyak.

                                                                                            They looked for him and called out, but to no avail.

                                                                                            (Garnarradj, Elaine, ‘Nakudji Wurdyaw Bengwabom’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                          LanguageKuninjku,Kune= kayakki

                                                                                          Without purpose or cause, lacking a motivation, with no specific intent.

                                                                                          • Djal burudjang bibom.

                                                                                            He just hit him for no reason.

                                                                                          Hey, oi. Said to get someone's attention so you can let them know something. The extended version 'booy' is called out when walking in the forest to let dangerous animals know of your presence and scare them away.

                                                                                          • Buyh, bininj kamhre nakka kanbun.

                                                                                            Hey! There's a man coming, he's going to bash us (if we don't get out of here).

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          • Ngarridjorlkmeng. Ngarrihni, wanjh ngandimarneyimeng, “Buyh!” Ngalwakadj yimeng [...] “Karrire".

                                                                                            We ran away (that one time). We were all there, and they said to me, “Hey!”, and Ngalwakadj said “Let’s go.”

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                          • Birribolkkakawoni, "Booy, booy".

                                                                                            They were walking around crying out "Booy" [to scare away the dangerous animals].

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          Name of a duwa moiety patriclan on the southern Arnhem Land plateau.

                                                                                          • Buyhmi kunred bedberre Birndalak kubolkngeykimuk birribolkngeybuni, dja mak kunwok bedberre Kundedjnjenghmi. Kumekke kore mankarndan darnkih kunred Bolmo, kadarnhbolkrohrok.

                                                                                            The Buyhmi clan estate is Birndalak, and their language is Kundedjnjenghmi. They are close to a border with the nearby Bolmo clan country along the watercourse.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          • Buyhmi duwa Djawonj, Birndalak.

                                                                                            The Buyhmi clan is a duwa moiety Jawoyn clan, and Birndalak [is a place in Buyhmi clan estate].

                                                                                          1Other, another.

                                                                                          • Birribadbom nabuyika benuk.

                                                                                            Then they speared another bush turkey.

                                                                                            (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                                          • Kernalk bokenh ngalbu ngalmudbele dja ngalbuyika ngalmudburlerri.

                                                                                            There are two types of ibis, the one with black feathers and another one with white feathers.

                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                          2Different, different kind.

                                                                                          • Nawu karrkkanj nakka mayhmayh yiman marram dja nungan kukbuyika.

                                                                                            The brown falcon is a bird like the whistling kite, but it looks a bit different.

                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                          Faded, dim, indistinct, not bright.

                                                                                          • Nakka banikkin melkbuyu.

                                                                                            The inside of that tin is rusty (not shiny).

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          • Battery karrowen wanjh muddika kamimbuyumen minj kawernhbolkwolkan.

                                                                                            When the battery dies, the car's lights become dim and don't light up the surroundings anymore.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                          -buyungmen

                                                                                            Become faded, indistinct, not bright.

                                                                                          Show, instruct, teach.

                                                                                          • Nawu nakahbonj kabenyirrokan wurrngahwurrngalk. Kabenbuyukme bu kabirriberdedjbonghke nawu djang morlarrinj nadjinem ba bu nawiribbu mandjil wanjh kakorrongkomen.

                                                                                            Nawu nakohbanj kabenkan yawuhyawurrinj. Kabenbukkan bu kabirribehke djang nawu kunj nadjinem ba bu nabuyika mandjewk wanjh kawernmerren.

                                                                                            The old man is taking the young men out. He's showing them how to do an increase ritual at the Black Wallaroo sacred site, so that next year there will be lots of wallaroos.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                          Regular Bininj Kunwokbukkan

                                                                                          In the sun.

                                                                                          • Karrayo.

                                                                                            It's lying in the sun.

                                                                                          LanguageKuninjku= larrhmikurrme, larrhme

                                                                                          -dakurrme

                                                                                            Place out in the sun.

                                                                                          -dayo

                                                                                            Lie in the sun.

                                                                                          1Feather, feather like crest and tail on the rainbow serpent.

                                                                                            2White egret, a name derived from the bird’s plume.

                                                                                            • Kunngey kakarrme danjbik bu ngarringeybun. Komorlo kabakaba dja dabberrk dja ngaldjalkudji ngalbu mayhmayh.

                                                                                              It has three names that we call it by. Komorlo, kabakaba and dabberrk, but they all refer to the same bird.

                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                            3Plume of smoke, can be used as a signal e.g. that someone is on their way.

                                                                                            • Bu kabirriwurlhke djarre wanjh kundolng manekke kamarnburren dabberrk.

                                                                                              If people make a fire a long way away, the smoke forms a plume in the sky.

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                            1Old person, adult, elder, (human) ancestor.

                                                                                            • Manbu karrbarda mandule dja kunborrk bu korroko nakudji nakohbanj dabbolk Nakangila Nabarrbinj marnbom.

                                                                                              An old Nakangila skin man of the Barrbinj clan made the Long Yam song cycle, a long time ago.

                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                            2Friend.

                                                                                            • Kabenedabbolk.

                                                                                              They're friends.

                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                            1Elders, adults, old people.

                                                                                              2Ancestors, the 'Old People'. The human ancestors of present-day people, as opposed to mythological Ancestors.

                                                                                              • Korroko dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dolek.

                                                                                                In the old days, people [our ancestors] used to eat wood grubs.

                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                              See alsodabbolk

                                                                                              Kunbalakkarrabolko

                                                                                              Grammarreduplication of dabbolk

                                                                                              1Press in on, crowd around.

                                                                                              • ‘Oh barrk bolkki ngarduk kunj ngarrabke’ ngarriyime.

                                                                                                'Oh I'm going to close in that black wallaroo there, a kangaroo for me' we say.

                                                                                              • Benedjalwam bu kunred djarre benerrabkeng kumekke.

                                                                                                They kept going to places far away in order to close in on him there.

                                                                                              • Ngalbu makkakkurr ngalka ngalkimuk mayhmayh ngalbu ngalengman kadjalngun djenj... Dabborrabbolk birrirey birridabkeyi kore kurrubbe yiman kayime Mandjaworlbidji wanjh birribuni kundulk birrimangi birrikerribuni wanjh birringuni.

                                                                                                The pelican is a big bird that eats fish. In the old days, people would herd them into a closed-off area like Mandjaworlbidji (the 'Big Waterfall' at Gunbalanya) and kill them, gather wood and cook them in a ground oven.

                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                              2Meet, meet halfway, come across.

                                                                                              • Nabulanj bimarneyimeng Nakangila "yimray kandabke kore manbolh". Wanjh Nakangila yimeng "Ngamre, dabke kore manbolh nan".

                                                                                                Nabulanj said to Nakangila "Come and meet me halfway, on the road". And Nakangila said "I'll head over then and meet you there".

                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                              • Barrk kare kukku kabongun kore kahboyo, wanjh bininj kare kabidabke kore kukku kaboyo wanjh kabiyame.

                                                                                                The black wallaby goes to the waterhole to drink, and the man goes and comes across it there and spears it.

                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                              Egg, of any animal.

                                                                                              • Dabuno karrabukabun.

                                                                                                They sit on the eggs.

                                                                                                (Mick Kubarkku, quoted in Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus : indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 48)

                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                              See also-dabungukdeng

                                                                                              Kunbalakmorrodjornno

                                                                                              King brown snake.

                                                                                              Scientific namePseudechis australis

                                                                                              • Bolkkime karrbennan kalawan dja dadbe kabeneburren wanjh kalawan kakarrme.

                                                                                                Now when we see a goanna and a brown snake fighting, the goanna will always win.

                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                              Kunbalakdarrmayal

                                                                                              Daddubbe spirit, often depicted in paintings with an amputated leg. Said to live in escarpment country and be similar to Mimih spirits, though they are short and stocky, as opposed to Mimih which are tall and very skinny.

                                                                                              • Bininj nawu nakurdang wanjh kabinan nawu Daddubbe bu kabebme kukak kayimerran.

                                                                                                ‘Clever men’ can see Daddubbe spirits when they come out at night.

                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                              • Nawu Daddubbe nakka nungan kahyo kore kuwardderurrk yiman kayime mimih bu kabirriyo kore kuwardderurrk.

                                                                                                The Daddubbe spirit lives in caves, just like Mimih spirits which also live in caves.

                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                              • Mimih nangarradjku, Daddubbe namardku.

                                                                                                The mimih spirits are of nangarradjku moiety but Daddubbe is namardku moiety.

                                                                                              Name of a patriclan located in Kakadu National Park.

                                                                                              • Bunidj mak birriburrbuni en, nakka nawu Kakudju nawu birriwokdi, njamed, ah Murumburr, birrihbengkang, Djindibi, Dadjbaku birriburrbuni nani Kunwinjku nawinjku konda Kunbarlanja Mengerrdji nakka birri-burrbom manekke story.

                                                                                                The Bunidj clan people knew that [story about the knob-tailed gecko dreaming] and the people who used to speak Gaagadju, and also whatsit, the Murumburr clan, they knew and the Djindibi clan, Dadjbaku clan, they knew and the people who spoke Kunwinjku here at Kunbarlanja, and also those such as the Mengerrdji language people, they all knew that story.

                                                                                              1Cut, slice.

                                                                                              • Kabindibukkan bu mako kabirridadjke kabirrimarnbun.

                                                                                                They show them how to cut (trees for) didjeridus and how to make them.

                                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                              2Divide, draw a dividing line.

                                                                                                3Cut off, interrupt.

                                                                                                • Diledadjkerren.

                                                                                                  Abruptly interrupt urination.

                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                See alsodadjme

                                                                                                Kunbalakdilhke

                                                                                                1Be cut.

                                                                                                  2Cease, stop.

                                                                                                  • Mandjewk karradjme wanjh karrimang.

                                                                                                    When it stops raining we can get it.

                                                                                                  Kunbalakdilhme

                                                                                                  Give.

                                                                                                  Synonymswon

                                                                                                  • Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng.

                                                                                                    Give me a (turtle) leg, I'm starving.

                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                  Be inside or within the boundary of something, e.g. a container. Sit, sleep or lie on or in something e.g. a mat, blanket, canoe or car.

                                                                                                  • Baladjdji nang kahdarlkan manbu manme dahkedahkendi mankinjdjek, wanjh yimeng, "Ngurrimray, ngurrinan... Minj mak njale karrahkendi. Manme manu yakminj".

                                                                                                    He saw the dillybag, which had been filled with cheeky yams, floating in the water, and said "Come and have a look... There's nothing in there, the food is gone".

                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 190)

                                                                                                  • "Nahni marebu ngunedahkendi." "Kek", beneyimeng, wanjh benemey benehdahkendi.

                                                                                                    "That mat is for you two to sit on." "Really?" they said, and they took it and sat on it.

                                                                                                    (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                  Place into a container.

                                                                                                  • Yiborrahkendo!

                                                                                                    Fill up the water (container).

                                                                                                  Kunbalakdahkenlorlme

                                                                                                  Block an action, refuse permission, stop someone from doing something.

                                                                                                  • Yimarnek kamrayinj la Ngarridj birrahmeng.

                                                                                                    She was going to come but Ngarridj wouldn't let her.

                                                                                                  Say, do.

                                                                                                  • Nangomi dakalhmeng, "Kab ngarrokan ngabobekke ngarrku".

                                                                                                    Nakudji yimeng, "Kab ngare ngakinje ngarrku."

                                                                                                    One of them said "How about I go and cook this for us?".

                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak: stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 64-67.)

                                                                                                  • Dakalhmeng minj yidokan.

                                                                                                    Yimeng minj yire.

                                                                                                    She said not to go.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  Regular Bininj Kunwokyime

                                                                                                  1

                                                                                                  • Kinga kahbimdi bayeng djenj kahdakarrme kore kundang nuye.

                                                                                                    This is a picture of a crocodile, with a fish held tight in its mouth.

                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                  • Ngandjalberldakarrmeng.

                                                                                                    He kept me handcuffed.

                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                  • Ngalbadjan kayime "Aa nakka wurdyaw njale kahdakarrme kore kudang nuye? Wardi kabikombakke".

                                                                                                    The mother says "Ah, what's that kid got in his mouth? It might choke him".

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  • Mak bu kunmok yikarrme kore kukarre ke, bu yidjuhme kore kukku nawu baladj ngunbelbme dja ngunbaye bu ngundakarrme.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  2Stick into, stick into something and stay there.

                                                                                                  • Drip ngundakarrme.

                                                                                                    You'll get a drip stuck into you (at the hospital).

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  • Nakudji bininj bidulubom mandjawak nawu nabuyika bininj kore kubodme nuye bu bidakarrmi.

                                                                                                    One man stabbed another man in the back with a knife, and the knife stuck in his back.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  Place out in the sun.

                                                                                                  • Kabirridakurrme kore kurrungbang kadayo kabukmen.

                                                                                                    They put it out in the hot sun, it lies there in the sun and it dries out.

                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku= larrhmikurrme

                                                                                                  Dingo. Literally dalk-ken, 'from the grass'.

                                                                                                  Scientific nameCanis lupus dingo

                                                                                                  • Ngahli daluk Ngalyangdoh dja dalkken ngalengarre benewam benehwarlbuni kukak.

                                                                                                    That woman Ngalyangdoh and her dingo went off hunting at night.

                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                  1Woman.

                                                                                                  • Daluk bokenh benewam ngalmangiyi kore kabbal.

                                                                                                    Two women went looking for long-necked turtles on the floodplain.

                                                                                                    (Nabobbob, Rose, ‘Kunbidkudji Kunwok’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                                  2Wife.

                                                                                                  • Daluk kakarrme.

                                                                                                    He's married (he has a wife).

                                                                                                  3Female.

                                                                                                  • Merlbbe daluk ngalkka nabininjkobeng ngalengarre warradjangkal.

                                                                                                    Merlbbe is the female agile wallaby, and her mate is the male agile wallaby, warradjangkal.

                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                  See alsodaluhdaluk

                                                                                                  Kunbalak1.kardukardu 2. ngaldjubdjubken

                                                                                                  Name of a patriclan to the north of the Arnhem Land plateau.

                                                                                                  • Kubomerlem kumekke kadjobme Warddjak. Ngalengman beh Danek. Danek wanjh kayimerran. Kukalak manu.

                                                                                                    The place Kubomerlem is where the Warddjak clan finishes. Then further on its Danek. It becomes Danek land then. That is Kukalak [a regional estate name].

                                                                                                  A glowing water plant or other mystical light phenomenon that appears in water bodies and is associated with the Mardayin ceremony.

                                                                                                  • JM: Njamed dangarrk. Yoh, ka-yo, yiman dayno. KL:Yoh, dangarrk ka-ngerrhmirri, Mardayin. Ka-rung kandji.

                                                                                                    JM: They are whatsit, dangarrk. Yes, they are like round [shapes]. KL: Yes, the dangarrk give off light and are Mardayin [sacred]. They burn under [the water].

                                                                                                    (John Mawurndjul and Kay Lindjuwanga from Maningrida Arts and Culture bark painting documentation, June 1994. Recorded by Murray Garde and on file ‘Mawurndjul Texts’.)

                                                                                                  1Close a door, window or opening, shut one's mouth.

                                                                                                  • Yirrangbalhmen!

                                                                                                    Close the door!

                                                                                                  • Yirrangbalhmerrimen!

                                                                                                    Close your mouth!

                                                                                                    (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                  2Lock someone in, shut someone in.

                                                                                                  • Kumunun wanjh ngandidangbalhmi.

                                                                                                    At night they used to lock us in.

                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                  Name of the northern dialect of Dalabon, once spoken at Korlobidahdah on the Cadell River but in 2007 is considered moribund, if not extinct.

                                                                                                  SynonymsDalabon

                                                                                                  • Nakka kuwardde kahnan kabarriyime Dangbon, yilinkirrkkirr 'manjh kunjno' bayimi. Kabimarneyime o kunj nuye kabimarneyime Dangbon, yo yilinkirrkkirr.

                                                                                                    It looks around in the rocks and in Dangbon it is called yilinkirrkkirr [sandstone shrike thrush] and in Dangbon they say [in Dangbon language] 'the kangaroo's bird' and in Dangbon it's called yilinkirrkkirr.

                                                                                                    (LBN (Kundedjnjenghmi))

                                                                                                  Grammardang 'mouth' bon 'to go [in Dalabon language]'

                                                                                                  1Stand, reach a standing position, come to a standstill.

                                                                                                  • Beneburriweyi madjawarr durndengi djabdangeni kore benedanginj.

                                                                                                    The two of them were throwing spears, but the spears were bouncing back and coming to stand upright in the ground where the two of them were standing.

                                                                                                    (From Evans 2003:379, (9.115))

                                                                                                  • Ngarridanginj wanjh ngarrikoluy.

                                                                                                    We stopped and got down (from the truck).

                                                                                                  2Come to live in a place.

                                                                                                  • Bu korroko ngarranginj, bu mandjewk mandjewk ngadjaldi munguyh.

                                                                                                    I came here to live a long time ago, for many years and I'll stay here always.

                                                                                                    (Margaret from Manmoyi in Gerhalter translation)

                                                                                                  3Be siblings.

                                                                                                  • Mongerrk benbenenang daluk bokenh. Bedda benedanginj.

                                                                                                    One day, Mongerrk saw two women. They were sisters.

                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                  4Was born.

                                                                                                  Synonyms-dolkan

                                                                                                  • Nawamud kumekke kunred danginj wanjh kunuka kaborndokdi.

                                                                                                    Nawamud was born in that place, that’s his birthplace.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                  5Grow, appear, come to be, become. Form of the verb -di ('there is, stand') that implies the process of coming into being, literally 'standing up'.

                                                                                                  • Minj karribukkan bu kayahwurd. Kadjalle kadjawurrkdangen bu kabidbun.

                                                                                                    We won’t teach him when he’s too young. When he grows some whiskers, then he can go up to the ceremony ground.

                                                                                                  • Ngurringeynamerrimen, wanjh ba membership ngurriyimerran, dja ngurringeydangen kore djurra.

                                                                                                    Sign your names, so you'll become members and your name will appear on the list.

                                                                                                    (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015)

                                                                                                  Grammarthis idiomatic sense being a semantic extention of the verb to stand is also only represented by the past perfective form -danginj

                                                                                                  -kukdangen

                                                                                                    Fruit, start fruiting, grow fruit.

                                                                                                  -djawurrkdangen

                                                                                                    Grow a beard.

                                                                                                  -balemdangen

                                                                                                    Grow fat (of game animals).

                                                                                                  Siblings, brothers, sisters.

                                                                                                  • Nganedanginj.

                                                                                                    We are siblings / we are brothers / we are sisters.

                                                                                                  • Birridanginj.

                                                                                                    They are all siblings.

                                                                                                  • Ngarriwen nawu ngarrimarnbun manbu badjkid nawu ngaye ngarridanginj.

                                                                                                    There are lots of us here making baskets, me and my sisters.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra, quoted in Hamby, Louise (ed.), Twined Together: Kunmadj Njalehnjaleken, Injalak Arts and Crafts, Gunbalanya, 2005, p. xiii)

                                                                                                  See alsodangen

                                                                                                  Put something in someone's mouth, feed someone.

                                                                                                  • Ngalbadjan kabimarneyime wurdyaw ngalengarre nawu nayahwurd "Ngaye dangkenwon manme".

                                                                                                    A mother will tell her young child "I'm going to put the food in your mouth".

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  • Ngalbadjan kabidangkenwon kundjikka ngalengarre nawu wurdyaw barrken.

                                                                                                    The mother gives her young child the breast.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  Put something in one's mouth, feed oneself.

                                                                                                  • Yimankek benwoyi dja burrkyakni benkoweyi. Kaluk bu birribalrlobmi darnkih wanjh ngalbu Kurdukadji djaldangkenworreni ngalengman deleng. Wanjh wurd birridurndengi kunmarrwe.

                                                                                                    She pretended she was going to give them some, but she was just teasing them. When they ran up to her, the Emu would just put the food into her mouth, and they went back hungry.

                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 8)

                                                                                                  • Wurdyaw birrimarneyimeng nungan dangkenworrimen manme bu kangun ba kaburrbun.

                                                                                                    They told the child to feed himself, so he could learn how to do it.

                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                  Opening, entrance, mouth, lid (of cave, basket, room, didgeridoo etc).

                                                                                                  • Dulklorrkkelorrkken nakka yiman nayuhyungkih kabirriyo kore kundulk manlohlorrk kore kurrangmaye kundulk kore Ankung Djang.

                                                                                                    Dulklorrkkelorrkken spirits are like creation Ancestors, they live in hollow trees, where the trees have an opening, in Honey Dreaming country.

                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                  -kurrangmaye

                                                                                                    The area just outside of the entrance to a rock-shelter; just beyond the overhang of a rock-shelter, typically a domestic space associated with a rock- shelter.

                                                                                                  Strict, strict person, one who can speak strongly.

                                                                                                    Loudmouth, literally ‘mouth-wide’.

                                                                                                      Argue, discuss with each other.

                                                                                                      • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                        Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us the story.

                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                      Three.

                                                                                                      • Mandengeyi danjbik wam kore Kunnanj.

                                                                                                        Three cars went to Kunnanj.

                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 19’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981.)

                                                                                                      • Wurdwurd birridanjbik birriwam djenj.

                                                                                                        Three children went fishing.

                                                                                                        (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                                      • Birriburdebmi danjbikkah, dja yika kunkarrngbakmeng, wanjh wurlhmi manu kunak.

                                                                                                        They would rub it [the fire stick] back and forth three or four times, and the fire would start.

                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly, ’Korroko Bu Bininj Birrimarnbuni Kunak’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974)

                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                      GrammarIf referring to people, the prefix 'birri-' is often added to make 'birridanjbik', 'the three of them'.

                                                                                                      Kill, spear, especially with a multi-pronged 'fish wire' spear.

                                                                                                      • Nawakadj dja Nabulanj benewam djenj benehdanjbuni kubbunj benehkani.

                                                                                                        Nawakadj and Nabulanj went spearing fish with a canoe.

                                                                                                        (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj Dja Nabulanj Benewam Djenj’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre.)

                                                                                                      Name of a Kuninjku patriclan from the Tomkinson and lower Mann Rivers district.

                                                                                                      • Yiman kayime Mukkamukka, Kubarrakahbul, ... yibekka kadjale Dorddjam, Kukarddak, Nganbelk, kadjale ngamed Mikalkborloh, Kornobolo Kawanjkerri, Miwurlkwurlk, kadjale Midjuyh kaddum Burddjinnguk, Miwakkawilk, Bobuneyi, koyek kadjale Bulubbulu, Kukalal, Walmidji, kadjale Kubarrakahbul manekke barrimraworrinj anbu na-Dankorlo [na-rrankorlo] ngamed konda, Mukkamukka, Nangalakardbam, manekke na-Marrirn.

                                                                                                        Like Mukkamukka, Kubarrakabbul ... it goes on to Dorddjam, Kukarddak, Nganbelk, further to whatsit Mikalkborloh, Kornobolo Kawanjkerri, Miwurlkwurlk, further to Midjuyh up to Burddjinnguk, Miwakkawilk, Bobuneyi, east further to Bulubbulu, Kukalal, Walmidji, then to Kubarrakahbul. That’s where they join together with the Dankorlo and here at Mukkamukka and Nangalakardbam,

                                                                                                      Dry, dried out.

                                                                                                      • Nahni kunj kangeyyo ngorlomorroh, kaluk kadi yiman kayime kore kubolkdarleh.

                                                                                                        That kangaroo is called "ngorlomorroh" (Northern nail-tail wallaby), and it lives in dry areas.

                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                      • Nang kayerrkan kore mandulkdarleh

                                                                                                        He saw there was some [wild honey] in a dead tree

                                                                                                        (Kunwinjku texts collected by Peter Carroll, on file at ASEDA)

                                                                                                      -darlehmen

                                                                                                        Dry out.

                                                                                                      -darlehwon

                                                                                                        Dry something out.

                                                                                                      Dry out.

                                                                                                      • Yirrmeng rowk wanjh mey daweng, dayohdayoy dayonginj rowk darlehminj.

                                                                                                        She split it all [the pandanus leaves] into strips, then put them in the sun to dry. They lay there in the sun and all dried out.

                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                      See alsodarlehwon

                                                                                                      Dry something out.

                                                                                                      • Nahni kundung kamirrhmirrhme… Kunmadj kadarlehwon. Kamarlaworrdarlehwon. Kadalkdarlehwon. Kabolkmirrhmirrhme.

                                                                                                        The sun is blazing… It dries out the clothes. It dries the leaves. It dries the grass. The earth is baking and shimmering in the heat.

                                                                                                        (Galmur, Judy & Brennan, Queenie, ‘Gundung Garri-rung’, Barunga Press, 1993. Spelling changed to reflect current standard orthography.)

                                                                                                      Float.

                                                                                                      • Baladjdji nang kahdarlkan manbu manme dahkedahkendi mankinjdjek.

                                                                                                        He saw the dillybag, which had been filled with cheeky yams, floating [empty] in the water.

                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 190)

                                                                                                      Close up, closely.

                                                                                                      • Karridarnhnan.

                                                                                                        Let's have a close look at it.

                                                                                                      1Close, close up.

                                                                                                      • Nawu kinga kumhdjalwam darnkih kore ngalmekbe daluk kore ningihni.

                                                                                                        The crocodile just came right up close to where that woman was sitting.

                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                      2Soon, nearly, about to.

                                                                                                      • Kordbolbok ngarribekkan kawokdi kukak kamulewan mandjewk bu darnkih kadjakdung.

                                                                                                        When we hear frogs at night, it means that it’s going to rain soon.

                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                      Talk, speak.

                                                                                                      • Aba, nuk kaluk kabenemwarnduyhme. Dja kunubewu kabirridarokdi.

                                                                                                        Aba, nuk kaluk kabenemdurndeng. Dja kunubewu kabirriwokdi.

                                                                                                        Oh, they'll probably be back later. Maybe they're all talking.

                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 60-63)

                                                                                                      Regular Bininj Kunwokwokdi

                                                                                                      Call on the telephone, radio etc.

                                                                                                      • Nawu konjkonj kunyukkah ngarrikurdudmeng darokwirdidjbonghmeng kore namari kamdokan.

                                                                                                        Nawu kukbele ngokko ngarrinang wokngimeng kore djamun kamhre.

                                                                                                        We saw the white guy calling the police, they're on their way.

                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                      Regular Bininj Kunwokwokngimen

                                                                                                      Poke out.

                                                                                                      • Kahkorodarrhme.

                                                                                                        Part of the snake’s body is sticking out of its hole.

                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                      • Kalawan kakebdarrhme kumidjno.

                                                                                                        The goanna's nose is poking out of the burrow.

                                                                                                      • Nawu djenj namardaka dja marrngunj kore kanjdji kukku kabirriyo kudjorlok. Kabirringimen wanjh kabirridjawurrkdakadarrhme.

                                                                                                        Eel tailed catfish live in holes under the water. They go inside and we can see their whiskers sticking out.

                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                      • Bu kunkanj kabirrikerribun wanjh kunkod manu kabirribarrkbun wanjh kunkurlk kabirridudjeng. Kaluk bu kabirrinan kunkod kadarrhme, wanjh kabirriyawoyhdudjeng kunkurlk.

                                                                                                        When people cook meat in ground ovens, they cover it with paperbark and then put soil over the top. If people see a bit of paperbark sticking out, they'll put some more earth on top.

                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                      GrammarPlural form is 'dakadarrhme'.

                                                                                                      In the public domain, non-secret knowledge or a place which is open to general public access.

                                                                                                      • Kubolkdarrinj.

                                                                                                        A non-sacred place, outside the ceremonial area.

                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                      • Narrarrinj bonj kamak daluk kabarriwokbekkan.

                                                                                                        That's non-secret [language], women are allowed to hear those words.

                                                                                                      • A: Morrdjdjanjno kakarrme Wubarr, ngabengkan. Andjamun. Nakudji morrdjdjanjno narrarrinj daluk kabirribekkan. B: Andarrinj makka, mak anbuyika ngakalalameng andjamun manu Wubarr.

                                                                                                        A: The Ubarr ceremony has morrdjdjanjno songs, I know them. They are secret. Only the public morrdjdjanjno songs can be heard by women. B: They are in the public domain, but those other special songs I just sang are from the Ubarr ceremony and are secret.

                                                                                                      LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kune, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                      Become unrestricted after having been taboo, have a curse lifted from.

                                                                                                      • Bu kabirridjamunhme nawu njalehnjaleh, yiman kayime manme, mayh, kunred, muddikka, wanjh kadjaldjamun. Mak yiman bininj, daluk dja wurdyaw kabindikukdjamunhme kore bedberre nawu mawahmawah kabindihyime, kaluk yerrikah wanjh kabindikukbehke mandubang kunmalaworr, wanjh kunu kabirrikukdarrinjmen. Dja mak nawu njalehnjaleh kabirridjamunhme wanjh kadarrinjmen rowk.

                                                                                                        When people put a ceremonial restriction or curse on something, for example food, animals, places, or cars, then it's taboo. For example men, women and children might 'curse' each other [in such a way that nobody can interact with the cursed person], only elder relatives. Only afterwards then people will cleanse that person by smoking them with ironwood leaves, and the curse will be lifted. All different objects can be cursed, and then have the curse lifted.

                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                      1Alive.

                                                                                                      • Kunubewu benedarrkid. Kunubewu benedoweng.

                                                                                                        Maybe the two of them are alive. Maybe they're dead.

                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                      • Nungka karrarrkid.

                                                                                                        He is alive.

                                                                                                      2Actual, in person.

                                                                                                      • Ngarribokkadjuy nganabbarru wanjh ngarribebmeng kure darrkid ngarrinang.

                                                                                                        We followed the buffalo tracks until we arrived and actually saw it (the buffalo).

                                                                                                      To put something out in the sun, dry something in the sun.

                                                                                                      • Yirrmeng rowk wanjh mey daweng, dayohdayoy dayonginj rowk darlehminj.

                                                                                                        She split it all [the pandanus leaves] into strips, then put them in the sun to dry. They lay there in the sun and all dried out.

                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                      Lie in the sun

                                                                                                      • Yirrmeng rowk wanjh mey daweng, dayohdayoy dayonginj rowk darlehminj.

                                                                                                        She split it all [the pandanus leaves] into strips, then put them in the sun to dry. They lay there in the sun and all dried out.

                                                                                                      • Burarr karrinan kakukdayo kore kunwardde kukorlh kore manwodj kahwodjyo kundulk.

                                                                                                        We see water goannas lying in the sun on flat rocks by the river or where there are logs.

                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                      See alsodakurrme

                                                                                                      Red-collared lorikeet. Affiliated with duwa moiety.

                                                                                                      Scientific nameTrichoglossus rubritorquis

                                                                                                      • Dedded kunmud kabirrimudmang kabirrikurrme kore djerrh wongkorr mardayin kunmadj.

                                                                                                        People get lorikeet feathers and weave them into sacred dilly bags for the Mardayin ceremony.

                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                      Black ant.

                                                                                                      • Wanjh kunu Mamik bibayeng deddel.

                                                                                                        And Shorty got bitten by a black ant there.

                                                                                                        (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja nakodjok benekang’ in ‘Kunwinjku Stories’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1982)

                                                                                                      Cut open the guts of a kangaroo during cooking.

                                                                                                      • Birridedjbuni birrinjamduhkeyi birribebkeyi mannjam kundurddu kudiw kunbalem dja njalehnjale rowk kore kunj kunjam.

                                                                                                        They would cut open the kangaroo, make an opening in its belly and pull out the stomach, heart, liver, fat and everything else inside.

                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                      Begin, be ready to start.

                                                                                                      • Ngaleng nalkbom, nalkbom dja dedjdjingmey wayihwayini.

                                                                                                        She cried and cried, then began to sing.

                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                                                                      Short.

                                                                                                      • Ngaldedjdjumbung ngalkka.

                                                                                                        That short woman.

                                                                                                      LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                      1Naked.

                                                                                                      Synonymslahlarrk

                                                                                                        2 Without a base, missing its bottom.

                                                                                                        • Banikkin dedjlarrk.

                                                                                                          A cup without a bottom, a cup with a big hole in the bottom of it.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        3 Empty, with nothing in the bottom (e.g. of a bag), finished down to the last piece.

                                                                                                        • "Kankukwo kunwardde." "Minj ngakarrme kunwardde, dja dedjlahlarrk nawu baladjdji."

                                                                                                          "Give me some money." "I don't have any money, the bag is empty."

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        • Dedjlarrkminj nawu bakki.

                                                                                                          All the tobacco is gone.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                        Kick.

                                                                                                        • Kabirridirri budbol wanjh nakudji nawu kadedjmelme manbu budbol wanjh kadolkayhwe djarreh kare.

                                                                                                          They play football, and someone kicks the ball and sends it flying a long distance.

                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                        See alsomelme

                                                                                                        Shake or shiver.

                                                                                                        • Mamamh ngamngimen dja mandjewk nganhbun ngabonjdjekdoweng ngahdeldelme.

                                                                                                          Grandpa let me come in, I'm getting rained on and I'm freezing and shivering.

                                                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                        White ochre or clay, kaolin, huntite.

                                                                                                        • Manih delek ngukmak, kakukbarme duninj.

                                                                                                          This white clay is 'good shit' (of the rainbow serpent), it really is very bright.

                                                                                                        Kunbalakkabbarrk

                                                                                                        1Contents. Nominal suffix which indicates the idea of contents being held within a container of some kind.

                                                                                                        • Kadjalbodelengkurrme kabongerdkendi wanjh.

                                                                                                          The water goes in until it is full.

                                                                                                          (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal & Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘A Kundedjnjenghmi Wordlist of Eco-zone Terminology’, Northern Land Council Caring for Country Unit, 2007)

                                                                                                        2Only, just, nominal suffix 'exclusive involved participant'. Only me, just each other, all by ourselves etc.

                                                                                                        • Dalukdeleng beneburrinj?

                                                                                                          Was it only the two women [and not men] who were fighting?

                                                                                                        • Wanjh ngadman deleng bu ngarrinahnarren / Minj nangale ngankongibun bu konda kamre, ahwurd, ahwurd.

                                                                                                          We look after ourselves / No one feels sorry for us, no one is staying here, we are sad, we are sad.

                                                                                                          (Wildflower Band, ’Maburrinj (The lonely place called Maburrinj)’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                                                        GrammarFree noun in the form of delengno (with the third person possessor suffix -no only in Kuninjku, Kune and Kundedjnjenghmi dialects) and has the sense of 'contents (of a container)'. In a second sense the word appears as a suffix on core nominals with the sense of 'exclusive involved participant' (see Evans 2003:154). Incorporable in verbs such as delengkan, delengmang, delengkurrme, delengdahkendong

                                                                                                        -delengkan

                                                                                                          Take contents in a container, vehicle etc.

                                                                                                        -delengmang

                                                                                                          Get or pick up a container/bag etc. with contents in it.

                                                                                                        -delengdahkendong

                                                                                                          Put contents in container, put luggage in vehicle etc.

                                                                                                        Splash or spill fluid on something.

                                                                                                        • Bu kabbal karrire wanjh kunkih karrikihmelme wanjh kandelkke kunkih.

                                                                                                          When we go onto the floodplain and step in the mud, the mud splashes us.

                                                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                        Well known hill in the Kunukdi estate, located around 8km south of the Djurlka waterfall just west of a narrow north-south running rocky ridge. Demed is a rounded hill which rises from a forested savanna plain. The outstation resource agency based in Gunbalanya is named after this hill.

                                                                                                        • Nadjurrk nakka bininjni, rengehrey kore borledmikenh Demed mandulum bu korroko. Nungka yerrkang ngudjngehmeng wanjh yimerranj kunwardde.

                                                                                                          Nadjurrk was once a man, he used to travel around on the far side of Demed hill long ago. He sat down to rest there and turned into a rock.

                                                                                                          (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                        Cause an object to stop or slow down, delay someone, stop someone doing something, hinder someone.

                                                                                                        • Kanwohdenghke.

                                                                                                          You're delaying me (i.e. I want to go).

                                                                                                        • Bu yiman wurdwurdbubuyika mak kabirridurren, wanjh karrbendenghke o karrbenmarneyime “Yuwn ngurrimarneyidngalkerren”.

                                                                                                          If other kids start arguing with them, we stop them, or we tell them “Don’t go looking for trouble for yourself.”

                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                        Stop moving (of large objects), be stalled (also figuratively).

                                                                                                        Synonymskukdenghme

                                                                                                        • 'Parachute' kabebme wanjh kakukdenghme manekke.

                                                                                                          The parachute appears and it (the aircraft) comes to a stop.

                                                                                                        • Karridjalkukdenghme munguyh.

                                                                                                          We're stalled, we're not moving forward (no-one is co-operating or taking decisive action).

                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                        Move something away (or if -mderrehke, movement is towards speaker).

                                                                                                        • Yiderrehkemen darnki kodbarre.

                                                                                                          Move it away (and put it) close to the house.

                                                                                                        1Move (a short distance).

                                                                                                        • Yiderrehmen!

                                                                                                          Move away a bit.

                                                                                                        • Yimderrehmen!

                                                                                                          Come closer.

                                                                                                        2Move forward, make progress (towards a plan or goal etc), move on, move away.

                                                                                                        • Karridubberrong yiman bolkkime karridi, karridubbedoy wanjh. Dja bu bewh wurd karribalderrehme.

                                                                                                          We don’t know which way to go at present, as we are now, we're stuck. We need to make progress.

                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                        • Yuwn ngurriwernhre kunrayek kore Balanda. Bokenh ngurrirlobmen. Ngad kadberre mak kunwok ngurrikarrmen rerrih, yuwn ngurriwe, la ngurrire kore kunkukbele, burrkyak. Marndi bewh ngurrihderrehme djarreh ngurrikarrebarlanhmang manbu ngad kadberre.

                                                                                                          Don’t dedicate yourself to the Balanda way of doing things. You must run with both. You must also hold on to our own language as well. Don’t discard it and go to the white language, no. If you move too far away (from our traditions), you'll lose the Law, our law.

                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                        3Make way, make room, move on.

                                                                                                        • Bindimarneyimeng, “Ngurriderrehmen ngudda ngurrikukbele ngurriderrehmen wardi bu ngadman bininjwi.”

                                                                                                          They’ve said to them, “Right, you just move on. You white people move on, its our turn" (to get the jobs, etc).

                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                        Kunbalakderrehbonghme

                                                                                                        1Stand.

                                                                                                        • Med yirrin!

                                                                                                          Stay there, wait. (lit. you sing. stand imper.)

                                                                                                        • Dingihdi.

                                                                                                          He stood there for some time.

                                                                                                        2Be present (especially temporarily or in a phase).

                                                                                                        • Minj diwirrinj.

                                                                                                          She wasn't there.

                                                                                                        • Ngudda bale yihrri?

                                                                                                          Where have you been?

                                                                                                        • Yekke kabalemdi [kunj], yekke nakka bonj.

                                                                                                          In yekke season [kangaroos] are fat, certainly in yekke season.

                                                                                                        3Be in affinal relationship with someone.

                                                                                                        • Bale yiyime kela? Ngunehdi?

                                                                                                          What kinship relationship are you to Kela? Do you call him brother-in-law?

                                                                                                        Kunbalakdjarrbelme

                                                                                                        -dingihdi

                                                                                                          Reduplicated form of 'di' meaning to stand or be somewhere for some time.

                                                                                                        A bush potato.

                                                                                                        Synonymsmardidjdjad is the duwa name. Didjkala is the yirridjdja name

                                                                                                        Scientific nameCartonema spicatum, Cartonema trigonospermum (Altman also records Cartonema parviflorum as didjkala).

                                                                                                          Various kinds of rainbow fish and hardyheads e.g. Banded rainbow fish, Mariana's hardyhead. Some speakers also include the spotted blue-eye or the delicate blue-eye.

                                                                                                          Scientific nameMelanotaenia trifasciata, Craterocephalus marianae

                                                                                                          • Dilebang nakka djenj kilekilelh yiman nadjirrkku dja kukbuyika. Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dilebang.

                                                                                                            Rainbow fish are small, like glassfish but different. In the old days, people used to eat them.

                                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                          Urinate, piss.

                                                                                                          Synonymslebun, djorrkoybun

                                                                                                            The action of making a dot.

                                                                                                            • Djal bimwi yuwurrinj yiman delek bolkki ngahbimbom wolewoleh kunekke ngayimeninj kunkudji dilh dilh dilh.

                                                                                                              There was only (solid figure) images in white ochre like I use today and like I painted before with dots, one by one, dot dot dot.

                                                                                                              (Mick Kubarkku, on file “Transcript of cassette RA93-2” by Murray Garde, 1993.)

                                                                                                            Spotted, having spots.

                                                                                                            • Nawu djabbo kukdilhdilhmiken dja mak djenj nawu dilhdilhmiken.

                                                                                                              The quoll has spots, and there are also fish that have spots.

                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                            • Nawu mayh nawern kukdilhdilhmiken, yiman kayime nayin djenj mayhmayh dja mayh buhbuyika. Mak kunmadj madjdilhdilhmiken.

                                                                                                              There are many animals with spots, for example snakes, fish, birds, and all kinds of things. Clothes can be spotted too.

                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                            Paint or draw dots.

                                                                                                            • Yoh dilhdilhmeninj la ngaleng Mardayin birrirarrkwemeninj mankarre nawu nadjamun 'old fashion one'.

                                                                                                              Yes, he used to paint dots but for Mardayin ceremony they used 'rarrk' (cross hatching) which was the old fashioned way.

                                                                                                            Dive under water, dive down.

                                                                                                            • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh yiman marrngunj burd djakolk nawern nawu djenj kare kore kukku kubowinjku. Karrbennan birriwern kore kukku kabirridjuhmiyindi kabirridimhme kanjdji kore kukku kabirriyawan djenj kabirridanjbun kundang bedberre wanjh kabirringun.

                                                                                                              Cormorants eat small freshwater fish, like baby eel-tailed catfish, spangled grunter and purple spotted gudgeon. We see lots of them in the water, diving down under the water to look for fish and spearing them with their beaks and eating them.

                                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                            Stand or be somewhere for some time, a long time (reduplicated form of ‘di’, to stand or be).

                                                                                                            • Wam nang kabenehbokyo, wanjh med dingihdi burrbuhburrbuni.

                                                                                                              He went and saw that their footprints were there, then stood there a while thinking.

                                                                                                              (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nabangardi bidbom kuwardde’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                                                            Common Australian cicada.

                                                                                                            Scientific nameCyclochila australasiae

                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                              Clan name associated with Jawoyn language and the upper Mann River region.

                                                                                                              • Djal Mann River. Nawu Dinjhmi Bokmarnde, anekke Mann River.

                                                                                                                Still on the Mann River. Those Dinjhmi and Bokmarnde clans are on the Mann River.

                                                                                                              1Moon.

                                                                                                              Synonymskarrakbal

                                                                                                              • Ngad karrinjilngmak bu dird kabolkwolkan, wanjh karribolknan bu kukak, nungka kayawoyhmimbimen.

                                                                                                                We are happy when the moon lights up the sky, so we can see at night. The moon comes back to life [every night].

                                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                              • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                                Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us that story.

                                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                              2Month, the lunar cycle.

                                                                                                              • Ngamadbom nakudji dird.

                                                                                                                I waited one month.

                                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                              -dirdko

                                                                                                                Moonlight.

                                                                                                              -dirdbuyika

                                                                                                                Next month.

                                                                                                              Moonlight.

                                                                                                              • Dirdko karrire.

                                                                                                                Let's go by moonlight.

                                                                                                              • Bu dirdko wanjh kabirriwaralnarren, yiman kayime mak kundung bu koyek dja karrikad bu kadungdi wanjh kabirriwaralnarren.

                                                                                                                By moonlight people cast a shadow ['see their own shadows'], just like when the sun is in the west or the east.

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                              A bright moon.

                                                                                                              • Bu ngarriyime dirdngukmak wanjh kunu dird kabolkwolkan bu ngarrire, yiman kayime bu

                                                                                                                When we say 'dirdngukmak', that means when the moon is bright enough to light our way at night.

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                              • Kuhni dirdngukmak dja karrire ngarrbek karriyawan.

                                                                                                                There's a bright moon, let's go hunting echidnas.

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                              See alsongukmak

                                                                                                              Play.

                                                                                                              • Wurdurd beh ngurridirri kandibengbun.

                                                                                                                You kids go and play over there, you're driving me crazy.

                                                                                                              1And. Can link both nouns and clauses.

                                                                                                              • Ngarrbek dja Ngalmangiyi benemdolkkang kakbibeh.

                                                                                                                The Echidna and the Long-necked Turtle came down from the north.

                                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                              • Ngudda yiyawnahna, dja ngaye ngawarlbun ngarrku.

                                                                                                                You look after the kid, and I’ll go hunting for us.

                                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                              2But.

                                                                                                              • Ngalbu ngalkordow ngalka mayh ngadberre bu ngarringun bu korrokoni dja bolkkime larrk.

                                                                                                                The egret is one of the animals we used to eat, but not any more.

                                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                              • Ngurrurdu korroko dolkani rey kaddum kaluk bininj benebokenh yimankek beneyameninj dja larrk.

                                                                                                                One day the Emu flew up into the air, two men tried to spear her but without success.

                                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                              3Because.

                                                                                                              • Bu Kudjewk wanjh birringimi kuwardderurrk birriyoy dja mandjewk dja birndu.

                                                                                                                In the wet season they moved into caves to stay, because of the rain and mosquitos.

                                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                              4So; and so.

                                                                                                                Japanese person.

                                                                                                                • Yiman nawu koyek nakka wanjh bindiyameng dalukkenh daluk bindikilekmi bindiberlmangi wanjh kunekke bindiyameng nawu birribuyika Djabbani.

                                                                                                                  There in the east, that’s where they speared them because they were interfering with women, sexually exploiting the women and so that’s why they speared those foreigners, those Japanese.

                                                                                                                Northern (spotted) quoll.

                                                                                                                Scientific nameDasyurus hallucatus

                                                                                                                • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                                  Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us that story.

                                                                                                                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                                LanguageKune,Kuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                Kunbalakyulukyuluk

                                                                                                                To stick into the ground, to end up standing upright.

                                                                                                                • Wanjh nakudji yimeng njalekenh manbu mankole ngarrburriwe kamdurndeng kadjabdan kore kubodme ngarrku. Wanjh bu benebalwam djarrehwurd benenang ngalbu Ngalyod kahyo wanjh benedurndi kured.

                                                                                                                  One of them said “Why does the spear end up landing [sticking into the ground] behind us when we throw it?”. Then when they went a little further they saw that the Rainbow Serpent was there, and they went home.

                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                1Stand upright, be standing, an elongate object standing on its base.

                                                                                                                • Kadjabdi lorrkkon.

                                                                                                                  The bone pole is standing upright.

                                                                                                                2Travel directly to the destination without stopping, "straight up kare".

                                                                                                                  Mouth Almighty.

                                                                                                                  Scientific nameGlossamia aprion

                                                                                                                  • Nahni djenj djabel korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birringuni yiman nadjirrkku dja bolkkime minj ngarringun.

                                                                                                                    People used to eat mouth almighty fish, just like they used to eat glassfish, but these days we don't eat them.

                                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku= djenjbarrang

                                                                                                                  Yam knife made from the shoulder blade bone of a kangaroo.

                                                                                                                  • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrimangi kunj djaberlemurrng, birrimarnbuni djaberle bu birridadjkeyiken manme. Yiman kayime mankinjdjek birridadjkeyi.

                                                                                                                    In the old days, our ancestors would get the shoulder blades of kangaroos and use them to make bone knives for cutting food, for example cheeky yams.

                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                  Grammarno prefix

                                                                                                                  Place an elongate object on its end, place into the ground (such as a pole or a stick).

                                                                                                                  • Yirrulkdjabnamen wanjh yirrukka midjikked.

                                                                                                                    Place some sticks in the ground and tie up your mosquito net.

                                                                                                                  Dig.

                                                                                                                  • Ngalngomi kardukardu dokang kadjabudjme mankarremudyi.

                                                                                                                    Ngalkudji daluk wam kakarung karrbarda.

                                                                                                                    One woman went digging for long yams.

                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                  Regular Bininj Kunwokkarung

                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                  Generic term for common grasshoppers.

                                                                                                                  • Djaddedde kangun kunmalaworr. Kubolkwern ngarrbennan.

                                                                                                                    Grasshoppers eat leaves. You can see them anywhere.

                                                                                                                  Green Tree Frog, also generic for all frogs.

                                                                                                                  Scientific nameLitorea caerulea

                                                                                                                  • Burarr nang djaddi nayahwurd. Binjolhmeng.

                                                                                                                    A goanna saw the small frog. It swallowed him.

                                                                                                                    (‘Djaddi na-yahwurd’, Maningrida Literature Production Centre, Maningrida, 1994)

                                                                                                                  • Mandjewk ka-djakdung djaddi 'noise' kamarnbun 'kodwong-kodwong'.

                                                                                                                    In the wet season the frogs make noise 'gotwong-gotwong'.

                                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kundjeyhmi, Kune

                                                                                                                  Single, unmarried.

                                                                                                                  • Nawu bininj djadmudni wam korroko, dja wanjh bolkkime mey daluk.

                                                                                                                    The man was single for a long time, but now he's found a wife.

                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                  Ant.

                                                                                                                  Scientific nameIridomyrmex sanguineus

                                                                                                                  • Djak nganbayeng.

                                                                                                                    An ant bit me.

                                                                                                                    (Dakgalawuy, Nancy, ‘Wurdyaw dirrihdirri’ in ‘Kunwinjku Stories’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1982)

                                                                                                                  • Bu njale karringun karribawon kore kunrurrk wanjh karrinan nawern djak bu kanome dja kabolkan.

                                                                                                                    If we're eating something and we leave it in the house, then ants will smell it and lots of them will come after it.

                                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                  Black-necked stork, also known as the jabiru. Associated with the yirridjdja moiety.

                                                                                                                  Scientific nameEphippiorhynchus asiaticus

                                                                                                                  • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey kore kudjorlok manlabbarl birrinani djakarna kangun djenj wanjh birridanjbuni djalakiradj.

                                                                                                                    In the old days, people would go down to the billabongs and see jabirus eating fish, and they would spear them with multi-pronged spears.

                                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                  Kunbalakdjanarra

                                                                                                                  Fall (rain).

                                                                                                                  • Bu kudjewk kayimerran mandjewk nakimuk kadjakdung.

                                                                                                                    When the wet season starts, heavy rains fall.

                                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                  Younger brother (address and referent), YB.

                                                                                                                    1Only, just. Exclusively one thing and not another.

                                                                                                                    • Minj ngad karrinan nawu Nakurrurndilhba birridjalkudji kabirrinan nawu marrkidjbu nawu birrikurdang.

                                                                                                                      We can’t see Nakurrurndilhba spirits, only clever men with special powers can see them.

                                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                    2That's all, exactly, just. Adverb which indicates the extent of something.

                                                                                                                    • Bedman mak morlehmorlenj djal kunmekbe rerrih, mankarre bokenh bu kabirrikadjung laik- mahni bu kunkukbelekenh, mahni kunkukburlerrikenh.

                                                                                                                      It's just the same for the women - there are two laws they have to follow: one black, one white.

                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                    • Nja, ten dollar djal bonj, wardi kanmarneyakwon.

                                                                                                                      Here you are, here's ten dollars and that's it, or you'll clean me out.

                                                                                                                      (Evans, Nicholas (ed.), How to write Kundjeyhmi, prepared for the National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Gagudju Association.)

                                                                                                                    3Keep on doing something, just keep doing something etc. Adverb of duration which indicates that an action or situation is continuing or repeating for some time.

                                                                                                                    • Yidjalbun.

                                                                                                                      Keep hitting it.

                                                                                                                    • Djal munguyh kabenedjarrkdi.

                                                                                                                      They just stay together permanently [as a couple].

                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                    4Just, anyway. Do something for no specific reason, purpose or intent, do something despite reasons not to, do something freely without restrictions or limitations.

                                                                                                                    • Ngamdjalbom.

                                                                                                                      I've just rung you on the phone for no reason (just to say hello).

                                                                                                                    • "Yuwn yikan mankukyahwurd makka" "Bonj warribo ngadjalkan ngakinje ngangun. Bonj bu mankukyahwurd"

                                                                                                                      "Don't take that yam, it's too small". "Whatever, I'll just take it anyway and cook it up and eat it. Doesn't matter if it's small".

                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                    • Wanjh nunganwali wurdyaw kamayhmakmen - kadjalre nawu kambun mayh. Kaluk minj bidlarrk kamdurndeng.

                                                                                                                      The child in turn will become a good hunter, he just goes and gets an animal, and he never comes back empty handed.

                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                    GrammarPrefix on verbs, noun-adjective compounds, adjectives, numerals and locations. When it restricts nouns, it is a separate word rather than a prefix. Despite being a complex word, the semantic range of 'djal' is very similar to 'just' in English, so speakers of either language should find the translation fairly intuitive. It can mean 'only' (just the women and not the men), 'exactly' (that's just the thing, just ten and no more). 'keep on doing, continuously' (he just stayed there), 'for no particular reason' (I just decided to come along') or 'despite reasons to the contrary' etc ('I just did it anyway').

                                                                                                                    Multi-pronged spear, similar to 'fish wire' spear except the points are made from hardwood.

                                                                                                                    • Danjbom djalaban.

                                                                                                                      He speared it with a 'djalaban' type spear.

                                                                                                                      (The example phrase comes from texts Peter Carroll has deposited with AIATSIS)

                                                                                                                    'Fish wire' spear, wire. Spear with three or four sharpened metal prongs at the end, used for fishing or hunting smaller animals such as aquatic birds. A similar spear with barbed wooden prongs is known as mandanj and is considered to be the more traditional prototype for djalakiradj.

                                                                                                                    • Bolkkime nawu djalakiradj karrimarnbun nawu balanda marnbom wire. Karridjobke karrimarnbun dad danjbik kunubewu kunkarrngbakmeng nawu wire dad. Karrimang mankole wanjh karridadname nawu dad djalakkiradj.

                                                                                                                      These days we make fishing spears out of wire, a non-indigenous material. We cut it and make three or four prongs, then we cut spear shafts and fasten the prongs onto them.

                                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                    EtymologyEvans writes that this comes from Malay "tali kəras" meaning "taut line". "This would presumably refer to the way in which the string holding the prongs in place must be pulled taut". Yolngu Matha = djalakaritj 'spear with long thin steel prongs, used for fishing'

                                                                                                                    See alsomandanj

                                                                                                                    Name of a number of patriclans in the upper Kumadderr (Goomadeer) River district.

                                                                                                                    • Ngad ngarridjalama, Kundjalama ngarriwokdi.

                                                                                                                      We people of Djalama clan speak our own clan dialect called Kundjalama.

                                                                                                                    1Tree orchid. The juice from the base of the plant was used as a fixative for ochre pigments on bark, stone or body decoration.

                                                                                                                    Scientific nameDendrobium dicuphum

                                                                                                                    • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birribimbuni kore dolobbo wanjh birrirey birriyawani djalamardi. Wanjh birrimangi birrikani kured, birridongi yika birribayeyi birrikerlkwoni. Wanjh birribarungi nawu dolobbo birribimbuni njale.

                                                                                                                      In the old days, when people wanted to paint on bark, they would go looking for tree orchids. They would get them, take them home and pund them up, or chew them to make them soft. Then they would paint something on the bark (using the orchid as fixative).

                                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                    2A plant with edible tuber but leaves similar to the orchid.

                                                                                                                      Kunbalaknone

                                                                                                                      Dragonfly.

                                                                                                                      • Nawu djalangkarridj-djalangkarridj bu kabirrinan nawu dabborrabbolk wanjh kabirriyime bonj wanjh djenj kamulewan.

                                                                                                                        When people see dragonflies, they say that means there are fish (ready to be caught).

                                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                      Centipede.

                                                                                                                      • Djalarr djang bedberre birri-Madjba.

                                                                                                                        The centipede is a dreaming for Madjba (Jawoyn) clan people.

                                                                                                                      LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                      Keep doing action, keep going.

                                                                                                                      • Yidjalay.

                                                                                                                        Keep going further.

                                                                                                                      • Nawu Nawamud bimarneyimeng Nangarridj mah ngudda wanjh yidjalay kurih kakbi.

                                                                                                                        Nawamud said to Nangarridj "OK, you just keep on going north then".

                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                      • Mah yidjalay munguyh yidjalmarnbu.

                                                                                                                        OK just keep on doing it.

                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                      Grammarfrom imperative form of djal+re > djal+ray

                                                                                                                      Regional place name for the region on the upper reaches and headwaters of the Kumadderr (Goomadeer) River.

                                                                                                                      • Bolkkime konda ngawokdi ngayolyolme bu nadjinem ngayolyolme bu korroko mak konda kunred kabolkngeyyo Djalbangurrk kubolkbadjan bad Makkalarl kubolkyaw.

                                                                                                                        I'll tell you today about the black wallaroo here in this country called Djalbangurrk which is the big place name but the small locality is known as Makkalarl.

                                                                                                                      Keep going, keep doing something.

                                                                                                                      • Yidjalay.

                                                                                                                        Keep going further.

                                                                                                                      • Bu bininj kabirriwohre kunbarnangarrakuyeng yiman malamalaywi kabirridedjdjingmang kabirridjale kadungborledme bu kabaldungyibme.

                                                                                                                        When people walk around all day, for example they might start in the morning and keep on going until the afternoon and the sun starts to go down.

                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                      • Nawu bininj kabiwabun nabuyika bininj wanjh kadjalkukyakmen minj nangale kabingalke. Kunekke birrikurduyimi korroko nawu dabborabbolk bu bindiwabuni namarndekah wanjh birridjalkukyakmeni minj mak birridurndeyi kore kured dja wanjh birridjaley kore kuwardderurrk munguyhmunguyh.

                                                                                                                        When a man curses another man, the other man just disappears, nobody can find him anymore. That's what people used to do in the old days, they would sing people over to the evil spirits, and they would just disappear and not come back home, they would just go on into a cave and stay there forever.

                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                      GrammarAn abbreviation of 'djal'+'re’. Conjugated like 're', e.g. kadjale (he/she keeps going), yidjalay (keep going!), birridjaley (they would keep going), ngadjalwam (I kept going).

                                                                                                                      Cut into pieces, slice in half.

                                                                                                                      • Wanjh nawu ngalmangiyi dja kedjebe nakka benewilkdi wanjh benehni benehmadbuni wanjh bu djolengminj wanjh benewayhkeng benedjalkmey benenguneng wanjh beneworrkminj.

                                                                                                                        Then they cooked the long-necked turtles and file snakes in the ground oven, sat and waited a while, and when they were done they lifted them out, cut them up, ate them and were full.

                                                                                                                        (Garnarradj, Elaine N, ‘Ngalbadjan dja Ngalyaw’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Oenpelli, 1975)

                                                                                                                      1Just do some little thing, just do something temporarily, for the time being, only, nothing more.

                                                                                                                      • Ngabendjalwohkan wurdurd.

                                                                                                                        I'll take the children for the time being [until you return].

                                                                                                                      • Manmekbe ngadjalwohyolyolmeng bonj, la ngaburnbun.

                                                                                                                        That's all I had to say, I'll stop now.

                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                      2For no purpose, to no result.

                                                                                                                      • Karridjalohwamwi karrikowerrinj.

                                                                                                                        We just went there for nothing, we were under an incorrect belief (that something could be obtained there).

                                                                                                                      Grammardjal+woh

                                                                                                                      Desire, want, like, love.

                                                                                                                      • Milbabba nawu yul kadjaluy karrokan kalko karombehme.

                                                                                                                        Bimarnedjareni kunkimuk duninjh.

                                                                                                                        He loved him very much.

                                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 56-59)

                                                                                                                      • Bu kandiweybuyi ngarridjaluyi.

                                                                                                                        Bu kandiwoyi ngarridjaremeninj.

                                                                                                                        If you could possibly give it to us we would like that.

                                                                                                                      Regular Bininj Kunwokdjare

                                                                                                                      Trousers.

                                                                                                                      • Yidjongburren djalawarra!

                                                                                                                        Put on those trousers!

                                                                                                                      Etymologyfrom Makassarese saluwara 'trousers’

                                                                                                                      Tamarind tree and fruit.

                                                                                                                        EtymologyFrom Makassarese camba.

                                                                                                                        Hit something against something else, lift and throw OBJ down with force.

                                                                                                                        • Ngalbininjkobeng nabininjkobeng benewam kalawan benehyawani wanjh benengalkeng nawu kalawan. Ngalbininjkobeng yimeng "Mah yima yidjambarrhmang".

                                                                                                                          A husband and wife went looking for goannas, and they found one. The wife said "Okay, grab it (by the tail) and smash it against something" [this is the usual way to kill a goanna].

                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                        • Ngandjambarrhdjambarrhmang muddikang.

                                                                                                                          The truck is throwing me around.

                                                                                                                        Royal jelly in bee hives. Literally ‘dog’s vomit’.

                                                                                                                        • Djamokurlh nakka mankung yiwk, bu ngarrinan mannguy kanguybun yiman manbordokorr, mandjalen dja manmardba, wanjh nawu mankung bod kabirrimang manbu mannguy mankalkkid, dja kabirrimarnbun yiwk. Kaluk minj yiwkrayek dja yiwkkerlkkerlk. Wanjh nakka ngarriyime djamokurlh. Minj kabangmeyiwkrayekmen. Kaluk bu manbubuyika mannguy kanguybun, wanjh kunu mankalkkid kabirrimang nawu mankung bod, wanjh kabirrimarnbun kayiwkrayekmen.

                                                                                                                          Royal jelly is a kind of honey, when we see flowers such as stringybark, woollybutt and scarlet gum, that's when the bees are gathering nectar to make honey. It's not firm honey yet, it's very liquid. We call that djamokurlh [royal jelly]. It's not hard yet. Then when other flowers bloom, and the bees get the nectar of those flowers, then the honey becomes harder.

                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                        Police.

                                                                                                                          Sacred, restricted, secret, set apart.

                                                                                                                          • Nadjamun minj karriyolyolme.

                                                                                                                            That's secret/sacred, we don't talk about that.

                                                                                                                          Kunbalaknjeknjek

                                                                                                                          -bolkdjamun

                                                                                                                            Restricted area, sacred place.

                                                                                                                          -manbodjamun

                                                                                                                            A sacred water body, sacred water hole.

                                                                                                                          Not sweet, bland, flavorless.

                                                                                                                          • Manme manbu mandjan.

                                                                                                                            Bland food, food that's not very sweet.

                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                          • Manbu manbodjan ngarriyime makka minj kakarrme nawu mankung namanjmak. Nawu mankung ngarriyime minj manbomanjmak. Dja manbodjan.

                                                                                                                            We can describe honey that's not very good as 'manbodjan' ('liquid that's not sweet'). It's not good honey, it's a bit flavorless.

                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                          Yellow spotted monitor which is a goanna similar in size (up to 1 metre) to kalawan Varanus gouldii but with different colour and skin patterning.

                                                                                                                          Scientific nameVaranus panoptes

                                                                                                                            Bludge off other people, e.g. hang around waiting for offers of food, asking for money or cigarattes.

                                                                                                                            • Ngudda yidjandi ngadberre!

                                                                                                                              You’re bludging off us!

                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                            1Sunday.

                                                                                                                              2Week.

                                                                                                                                Etymologyfrom English 'Sunday'.

                                                                                                                                1Place of religious significance where the spiritual essence of a totemic being, plant, animal or other emblem resides in a particular location.

                                                                                                                                • Nawu Manimunak wirlarrk djang kahdjangdi kore kaddum kuwarde Arrkuluk.

                                                                                                                                  There is a sacred site for Magpie Goose eggs on the top of Arrkuluk rock.

                                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                2Totemic emblem, 'dreaming'.

                                                                                                                                • Djalarr djang bedberre birri-Madjba.

                                                                                                                                  The djalarr centipede is a dreaming for Madjba (Jawoyn) clan people.

                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                -djangdi

                                                                                                                                  There is a sacred site, a sacred site exists.

                                                                                                                                -djangkurrmerren

                                                                                                                                  Place oneself as djang, said when an ancestor becomes a sacred site.

                                                                                                                                -djangwarrewon

                                                                                                                                  Disturb a sacred site.

                                                                                                                                Have a sacred site or totemic emblem.

                                                                                                                                • Durlmangkarr konda kadjangdi Kudjaborrng. Barrk kumekke djang kayo. O njamed nawaran.

                                                                                                                                  The Durlmangkarr clan have a dreaming place here at Kudjaborrng. There is a black wallaroo dreaming or whatsit, an Oenpelli python dreaming there.

                                                                                                                                Go hunting.

                                                                                                                                • Nakudji wam djangkang, nang dungyibmeng wanjh keleminj.

                                                                                                                                  A man went out hunting, saw that the sun had set and became frightened.

                                                                                                                                LanguageKuninjku

                                                                                                                                Kunbalakdjahdjangmodme

                                                                                                                                In a large group, all together.

                                                                                                                                Synonymskaberrk

                                                                                                                                • Bu ngarrire djenj wanjh ngarrinan marrngunj kore kukku djangked kamirnderri.

                                                                                                                                  When we go fishing, we see lots of baby catfish swimming around in the water.

                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                Perform increase ritual.

                                                                                                                                • Manmakkawarri djang kahdjangdi kondah kore Kunbarlanja. Korroko dabborrabbolk nawu kondah kunred bedberre birrirey kunworr mandubang birrimangi birriwodbuni birridjangweyi wanjh kolungi kore manlabbarlkimuk nawu nawern djenj manmakkawarri.

                                                                                                                                  There is a sacred site for the Catfish here in Gunbalanya (a rock not far from the billabong). In the old days, the people from this area would go and hit the rock with ironwood branches as an increase ritual, and lots of catfish would go down into the billabong.

                                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                Sunrise, the sun rises.

                                                                                                                                • Kamdjaralaworrbayhme.

                                                                                                                                  Kamdungbebme.

                                                                                                                                  The sun is rising.

                                                                                                                                Regular Bininj Kunwokdungbebme

                                                                                                                                Sunset, the sun goes down.

                                                                                                                                • Kundjarala manbu kamdjaralaworrbayhme dja kadjaralayibbonghme.

                                                                                                                                  Kundung manbu kamdungbebme dja karrungyibme.

                                                                                                                                  The sun comes up and goes down.

                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                • Yimankek balhdjaralayibbonghmeng dja birriworrbayhmeng.

                                                                                                                                  Yimankek balhdungyibmi dja birribebmeng.

                                                                                                                                  It was just about sunset when they arrived.

                                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 48-51)

                                                                                                                                Regular Bininj Kunwokdungyibme

                                                                                                                                Be stuck, locked in a position.

                                                                                                                                  Want, desire, love, like.

                                                                                                                                  • Ngaye ngawarnyak makka yaldanj, minj ngadjare.

                                                                                                                                    I don't want that waterlily root, I don't like it.

                                                                                                                                    (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Nakudji Namarladj Ngiwkmihngiwkmirey’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                  • Ngadjare ngawokdi Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                    I want to speak Kunwinjku.

                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakdjaloy

                                                                                                                                  -marnedjare

                                                                                                                                    Love somebody, want to see somebody.

                                                                                                                                  -kundjare

                                                                                                                                    Desire.

                                                                                                                                  -djaredowen

                                                                                                                                    Long for something, crave something.

                                                                                                                                  Clink, squeak. Sound of small hard objects hitting or scraping against each other, for example coins in a bag, or walking on pebbles or sand.

                                                                                                                                  • Nakka ngabekkang kadjarlingirrkme!

                                                                                                                                    I heard a clinking noise from him [he's got coins in his pocket]!

                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                  • Kadjarlingirrkme ngarriyime bu kunwardde nawu money ngarribekkan kore baladjdji bu kabirrikurrme, wanjh kadjarlingirrkme.

                                                                                                                                    We say 'it's clinking' when we hear people put money into a bag, and it clinks.

                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                  • Mak bu kore kunkurlk dja kunwardde mankiliehkilel kahyo bu yiman karrire karribolkmelme kadjarlingirrkme karribekkan kore kurrenge kadberre bu kandengedurrhme.

                                                                                                                                    Also when we walk on earth and ground covered in small pebbles, we hear it clinking and squeaking as our feet hit it.

                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                  Connect two parts together, attach.

                                                                                                                                  • Bu korroko nakka mandanj birrimarnbuni kundulk birrimirrhmarnbuni. Wanjh kore mankole birridjarlkkennami wanjh djenj birridanjbuni.

                                                                                                                                    In the old days people would make mandanj type spears. They would sharpen small pieces of wood and attach them to a spear shaft and spear fish.

                                                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                  • Key yidjalkkennamen kure murrika.

                                                                                                                                    Put the key in the car [in the ignition].

                                                                                                                                  • Kandjalkkenname kuburldjarn.

                                                                                                                                    Put me in the middle [of a queue, or a line of dancers].

                                                                                                                                  • Konda ngadjalkkennamerren.

                                                                                                                                    I'll put myself in the middle [of the queue].

                                                                                                                                  Small tick.

                                                                                                                                    See alsosee middurru

                                                                                                                                    Fork in branch. Larger Y-shaped forked branches are used as a ladder to climb trees. The fork is laid against the tree and you climb up.

                                                                                                                                      GrammarOften the locative prefix ku- is attached kudjarnngal ‘in the fork of the branch’.

                                                                                                                                      -kudjarnngal

                                                                                                                                        In the fork of the branch.

                                                                                                                                      Horse.

                                                                                                                                      • Nabulanj wam kabbal wanjh nawu djarrang dja nganabbarru mirndeyarlarrkeng.

                                                                                                                                        Nabulanj went down to the floodplain, and all the horses and the all buffalo ran off and dispersed (as he walked near them).

                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                      Etymologyfrom Makassarese j·rang 'horse'.

                                                                                                                                      Piggyback, on one's shoulders.

                                                                                                                                      • Djarrangdjarrang yimornema.

                                                                                                                                        Carry him/her on your shoulders.

                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                      1Stand.

                                                                                                                                      • Ngarridokang wanjh ngarrikurdudmeng badjorrkorrongko kumhdjarrbelmi bu ngankurdudmi.

                                                                                                                                        Ngarriwam wanjh ngarrinang nganabbarru kumhdi ngankuknani.

                                                                                                                                        We were walking along and saw a buffalo standing there looking at us.

                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                      2Be, there is.

                                                                                                                                      • Bendarr nawu nungan kadjarrbelme muna bu kawayalhbonghme.

                                                                                                                                        Dird nawu nungan kadi kukak bu kawolkan.

                                                                                                                                        The moon is there at night and gives light.

                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                      3Stay.

                                                                                                                                      • Ngalwamud dakalhmeng, "Ngudda kondah ngurridjarrbelme",

                                                                                                                                        Ngalwamud yimeng, "Ngudda kondah ngurridi".

                                                                                                                                        Ngalwamud said, "You stay here".

                                                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 28-31)

                                                                                                                                      Regular Bininj Kunwokdi

                                                                                                                                      Far, distant, a long way away.

                                                                                                                                      Synonymsbalay

                                                                                                                                      • Wam djarreh wanjh mandjewk kumhwam nayahwurd wanjh yerre kimukminj.

                                                                                                                                        He went a long way away and it started to rain a little, then the rain got heavy.

                                                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                      • Minj kawernhbolknan djarreh.

                                                                                                                                        He’s short-sighted, he’s suffering from myopia.

                                                                                                                                        (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                      -djarrehwurd

                                                                                                                                        A bit further.

                                                                                                                                      Further.

                                                                                                                                      • Wanjh bu benebalwam djarrehwurd benenang ngalbu Ngalyod kahyo wanjh benedurndi kured.

                                                                                                                                        Then when they went a little further they saw that the Rainbow Serpent was there, and they went home.

                                                                                                                                        (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                      Go in another direction, separate.

                                                                                                                                      • Ngalbu ngalyawk djarrirnmey kadberre. Minj kumrawinj karridjarrkwarlbuyi.

                                                                                                                                        The girl went off in another direction, she didn't come hunting with us.

                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                      • Ngudda yidjarrirnmey ngadberre.

                                                                                                                                        You didn't come with us, you went with the other mob.

                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                      • Kabarrarndjarrirnmang.

                                                                                                                                        The two gorges intersect then fork away in different directions.

                                                                                                                                      See alsokudjarrirn

                                                                                                                                      Together, all acting together, all.

                                                                                                                                      • Karridjarrkre.

                                                                                                                                        Lets all go together.

                                                                                                                                      Pair, two.

                                                                                                                                      Synonymsboken

                                                                                                                                      • Yaw djarrkno.

                                                                                                                                        Twins.

                                                                                                                                      LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                      See alsodjarrkno na-/ ngal- /man-kudji

                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakbulalh

                                                                                                                                      Ask.

                                                                                                                                      Synonymsdjawayhme

                                                                                                                                      • Wanjh Nawakadj wam benhyawani, benngalkeng, bendjawam, "Ngudda ngurriyameng djarrang?"

                                                                                                                                        Then Nawakadj went looking for them. He found them and asked them "Did you manage to spear a horse?".

                                                                                                                                        (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                      -djawarren

                                                                                                                                        Ask each other, ask oneself, reflect.

                                                                                                                                      Ask, request.

                                                                                                                                      • Wurdyaw bidjawam kornkumo ngalbadjankah, djawayhmeng, "Karrard baleh wam?”

                                                                                                                                        The child asked his father about his mother, he asked “Where’s mum gone?”

                                                                                                                                        (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                      • Nawu ngundidjawayhme yibenngeykurrme

                                                                                                                                        Friend Requests (on Facebook)

                                                                                                                                      1Friend.

                                                                                                                                        2Disciple (Christianity).

                                                                                                                                          EtymologyProbably from Makassarese toana 'guest'.

                                                                                                                                          Jawoyn, the Jawoyn language and people, whose traditional country is centred on the southern part of the Arnhem Plateau and surrounding areas such as Katherine and Barunga.

                                                                                                                                          • Ngalkudji wurdyaw Ngaldjawonj / bolkbawong kunred ngalengarre / Bolkmaddi kore Manginburru bedberre

                                                                                                                                            There is a little girl from a Jawoyn clan / who left her country / And who has stayed for a long time on Manginburru land

                                                                                                                                            (Wildflower Band, ‘Ngaldjawonj ‘The Jawoyn Girl’’, from the Album ‘Maningburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                                                                                                          • Konhda Nanguluwurr barriyoy Nadjawonj, kabolkbuk.

                                                                                                                                            Jawoyn people slept here at Nanguluwurr, it's a dry place.

                                                                                                                                          1Supposedly, apparently, they say. Introduces falso complements of reportative verb. 'That's what the claim is...'

                                                                                                                                          • Korroko bininj bokenh benedanjbom benekinjeng benenguneng benedoweng djaying bu birrimulewam.

                                                                                                                                            In the past two people speared one, cooked it and ate it and they died. That's what people say.

                                                                                                                                            (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                          2Possibly, might be, whether or not, (introduces predicates whose epistemic status is uncertain).

                                                                                                                                          • Nakka maydbi bedberre, old man nakka kabengkan Wamud. Nakka djaying bedberre Wurrbbarn.

                                                                                                                                            It [a place] might belong to them, old man Wamud will know. It possibly belongs to the Wurrbbarn clan.

                                                                                                                                          3Expresses lack of commitment or uncertainty to the truth value or otherwise of a reported claim. 'Apparently'.

                                                                                                                                            4Expression of misapprehension.

                                                                                                                                            • Djaying ba-rayinj kurih.

                                                                                                                                              I thought he was going to come (but he didn't) (Kundjeyhmi).

                                                                                                                                            Grammarcounterfactual particle

                                                                                                                                            Northern brushtail possum.

                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameTrichosurus arnhemensis

                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                              Address term used by a woman to her children (of both genders) or a man to his sister’s children.

                                                                                                                                                Make an arrangement to do something later, make an appointment, confirm a plan, organise, decide or promise to do something.

                                                                                                                                                Synonymsyingkikarremarnbun

                                                                                                                                                • Kabirridjedjenkurrme wanjh kadjedjedjenyo.

                                                                                                                                                  People make an arrangement, and it becomes a confirmed plan.

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                • Nakudji nakohbanj wokdjedjenkurrmerrinj bu kadjare wanjh Kunabibi kabimarnewokkan ba kawokbekkan dja kanjilngmakmen.

                                                                                                                                                  An old man made the decision, he wanted the Kunabibi ceremony to go ahead because it would make him happy to hear the ceremony performed again.

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                See alsodjedjenyo

                                                                                                                                                Be arranged, confirmed, organised, decided (of a plan, event, etc). Have an appointment, have an upcoming event (e.g. a ceremony) scheduled.

                                                                                                                                                • Korroko kahdjedjenyo ngardduk nawu mandjewk nabuyika ngare bu ngaborlbmeken.

                                                                                                                                                  It's already been arranged that next year I'm going away to study [at university etc.]

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                • Nawu nakohbanj benmarneyimi nawu namud nuye "Korroko ngakarremarnbom bu nahni wurdyaw kahdjedjenyo nuye bu lakkayen kayimerran. Mak Kunabibi kanan dja Yabburlurrwa. Mak Mardayin. Ngadjare kanan rowk ba bu kaburrbun dja kaborlbme.

                                                                                                                                                  The old man told his family "I've made the decision and arranged for that child to be circumcised. He will also see the Kunabibi and Yabburlurrwa ceremonies, and also the Mardayin. I want him to see it all, so he learns and knows.

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                See alsodjedjenkurrme

                                                                                                                                                Scrape with a tool; carve or sculpt.

                                                                                                                                                • Namarden bolkdjedmeng kure Kukkurr.

                                                                                                                                                  The Lightning Spirit carved out that place at Kukkurr (Kukkurr is a large red cliff on the eastern bank of the Liverpool river).

                                                                                                                                                Laugh, smile.

                                                                                                                                                • Ngarridjekmeng ngarridoweng ngarribodmedadjmeng.

                                                                                                                                                  We laughed until it hurt and we doubled over.

                                                                                                                                                • Nakudji nakimukkenh borrkkeng wanjh karridjekmeng.

                                                                                                                                                  One fat man danced and we laughed (at him).

                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakyedjekme

                                                                                                                                                Gravel, small pebbles.

                                                                                                                                                • Djelkno birriwayhkemeninj and warrwarrhmeninj birribolkngehngeybuyi kunred ya.

                                                                                                                                                  They lifted up gravel and as it fell to the ground they would call out the names of places (as part of an increase ritual because the gravel represents green plums at a particular djang site).

                                                                                                                                                LanguageKuninjku,Kune

                                                                                                                                                -kudjehdjedjelk

                                                                                                                                                  gravel-covered country

                                                                                                                                                Ritually support a relative in their ceremonial progression by not eating foods regarded as ceremonially ‘dangerous’, for example snakes or certain fish.

                                                                                                                                                • Nawu nayawurrinj bu kanan mayh Kunabibi wanjh ngalbadjan kabimarnedjemdi. Minj kangun mayh dja djenj nawu nabang, wardi kabibun nawu nayawurrinj.

                                                                                                                                                  When a boy has just been through a Kunabibi ceremony, his mother will abstain from eating foods that are ceremonially ‘dangerous’. Otherwise the boy might get sick.

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakdjamdjarrbelme

                                                                                                                                                Sneak up, creep up.

                                                                                                                                                • Nakudji bininj wabwabmeng wanjh yameng kunj. Nabuyika nawu bininj djemhdjemhmeng yameng nawu nganabbarru.

                                                                                                                                                  One man crept up and speared a kangaroo. The other man snuck up on a buffalo and speared it.

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                • Ngayeman mod ngani “Ma yidjemhdjemhmen ngudda werrk” ngayimeng.

                                                                                                                                                  I sat there quietly, “OK you go and sneak up, you go first,” I said.

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                1Nest (of bird, crocodile etc.)

                                                                                                                                                Synonymsred

                                                                                                                                                • Kinga karedmarnbun kore kungarre kurralk kore kukku darnkih djengkeh kamarnbun wanjh wirllarrk kawirllarkngukdeng dja darnkih kayiyo nawu wirllarrk.

                                                                                                                                                  The saltwater crocodile makes its nest in jungle thickets near the water. It lays its eggs there and stays close to the eggs.

                                                                                                                                                  (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                • Mayh nawu yiman kayime yok, kinga, nayin, murlbbu dja kurrih nakka kabirridjengkehmarnbun kore kabirriyo. Mayhmayh warridj kabirridjengkehkurrme bu kabirriwirlarrkkurrme.

                                                                                                                                                  Animals like bandicoots, crocodiles, snakes, small mammals and bluetongue lizards all make nests to live in. Birds also make nest to lay their eggs in.

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                • Kadjengkehyo kinga.

                                                                                                                                                  The crocodile is in its nest.

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                2Used idiomatically to mean camp, floor etc.

                                                                                                                                                • Ngalkohbanj bimarneyimeng ngalyawk "Kab kundjengkeh yiwemen".

                                                                                                                                                  The old woman told the young woman "OK, sweep the floor".

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                -djengkehmang

                                                                                                                                                  Collect grass, twigs etc. to make a nest

                                                                                                                                                -djengkehmarnbun

                                                                                                                                                  Make a nest.

                                                                                                                                                -djengkehwe

                                                                                                                                                  Sweep the floor, rake the camp etc.

                                                                                                                                                -djengkehyo

                                                                                                                                                  Be or lie in a nest.

                                                                                                                                                1Fish (generic).

                                                                                                                                                • Nakodjok dja Nawamud benewam Kunnanj, djenj benehmangi.

                                                                                                                                                  Nakodjok and Nawamud went to Kunnanj, catching fish.

                                                                                                                                                  (Galamirnda, Barbara N., ‘Nakodjok Dja Nawamud Benewam Kunnanj Djenj’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, 1975)

                                                                                                                                                2Fishing (when combined with the verb re, 'to go'). (Literally 'go for fish').

                                                                                                                                                • Daluk benebokenh benewam djenj wakkidj.

                                                                                                                                                  Two women went fishing with fishing lines.

                                                                                                                                                  (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkorrngelk

                                                                                                                                                -djenjmak

                                                                                                                                                  Good at fishing.

                                                                                                                                                Mitchell's water monitor.

                                                                                                                                                Scientific nameVaranus mitchelli

                                                                                                                                                  String bag (looped or knotted) with string woven from a great variety of plant fibres including Acacia difficilis, Acacia latifolia, Brachychiton diversifolius, Brachychiton megaphyllus, Clerodendrum floribundum, Ficus virens, Hibiscus arnhemensis, Pandanus spiralis, Pandanus aquaticus, Planchonia careya and Sterculia quadrifida.

                                                                                                                                                  • Djerrh korroko birrimarnbuni manmekenh bu birriwarlbuni nawu morlehmorlenj.

                                                                                                                                                    In the past, women used to make dilly bags for gathering fruits and vegetables.

                                                                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkaledjerrk

                                                                                                                                                  -kunkorndjerrh

                                                                                                                                                    Scrotum.

                                                                                                                                                  Tip onto side, capsize, start to sink.

                                                                                                                                                  • Doy kunwardde djerrkdanj, barrabarrhmeng.

                                                                                                                                                    [The boat] hit the rocks, capsized and broke up.

                                                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 246)

                                                                                                                                                  • Kadungdjerrkdan.

                                                                                                                                                    The sun is sinking.

                                                                                                                                                  -djerrkname

                                                                                                                                                    Tip something over.

                                                                                                                                                  -djerrkdi

                                                                                                                                                    Be on its side, capsized.

                                                                                                                                                  Termite mound, black. These are freestanding termite mounds and very hard, so they are not favoured for use in ground ovens.

                                                                                                                                                  • Djibdjib kaboydjabdi.

                                                                                                                                                    There is a black termite mound standing there.

                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                  See alsobambam

                                                                                                                                                  Dwarf spirit being. Some are said to inhabit the honey dreaming country in Mok clan estate.

                                                                                                                                                  • Name nungan djenj kangun djidjnguk nakka.

                                                                                                                                                    Those djidjnguk spirits eat fish.

                                                                                                                                                  • Djidjnguk nakka dedjdjumbung murrngrayek dja nabang warridj.

                                                                                                                                                    Djidjnguk spirits are short and strong, and dangerous too.

                                                                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                  Willy wagtail. Possibly also the grey fantail.

                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameRhipidura leucophrys, Rhipidura fuliginosa

                                                                                                                                                    Breast-feed, allow to suckle.

                                                                                                                                                    • Kabiyawdjikkawon.

                                                                                                                                                      She's breast-feeding the baby.

                                                                                                                                                    Giant millipede.

                                                                                                                                                    • Djilawarnbed nakka mayh nawu nungan kayo kore kuwardde dja njilhmi, yiman kakukyime djalarr. Kaluk nungan dedjdjumbung minj kanbaye dja bu karrikarrme karribidyayme dja karribidburlurlhme.

                                                                                                                                                      Millipedes are insects that live in rocky country and by springs. They look a bit like centipedes, but they're shorter and don't bite. But they can make your hands itchy and swollen if you handle them.

                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                    • Korroko dabborrabbolk bindimarneyimi nawu yawuhyawurrinj bu kunborlidj birrikarrmi kore kuberrekalk dja kukarlang bokenh, birriyimi "Kunborlidj ke yiman kayime djilawarnbed kahyo".

                                                                                                                                                      In the old days, our ancestors used to tell the young men who had ritual scars on their chest and shoulders [when their scars had healed and come up] "Your scars are like millipedes".

                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                    • Djilwarnbed nadjinem, nadjinem kangun kamarnbun kunbalem.

                                                                                                                                                      The black wallaroo eats millipedes and it makes them fat.

                                                                                                                                                      (Bardayal Nadjamerrek)

                                                                                                                                                    Kind of cane grass sometimes referred to as 'bush sugar cane' because of the sugary juice it contains. Some speakers say that mayadjdja is sweet grass that has ripened and has plenty of juice whilst younger grass without much juice is called djilidjilih.

                                                                                                                                                    Synonymsmayadjdja

                                                                                                                                                    Scientific nameHeteropogon triticeus

                                                                                                                                                    • Birriwern wurdwurd birriwam birrihmangi kundalk birrihbakkeyi njamed mayadjdja dja djilidjilih birribayeyi.

                                                                                                                                                      Lots of children went and were breaking themselves pieces of grass to chew on, bush sugarcane.

                                                                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                    • Bu kabirriwohre kore kudahdadalk wanjh wanjh kabirringalke djilihdjili, kukku kabokarrme, wanjh kabirridalkbayehbaye kukku kabirribongun.

                                                                                                                                                      When people walk around in grassy areas they find bush sugar cane, which has juice in it, so they bite the grass and drink the juice.

                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                    Wandering whistle duck.

                                                                                                                                                    Scientific nameDendrocygna arcuata

                                                                                                                                                    • Nganere djilikuybi nganedulubun, dja manimunak.

                                                                                                                                                      We're going to shoot Whistle Duck and Magpie Goose.

                                                                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 40-43)

                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku

                                                                                                                                                    Itch, fungal rash, ringworm.

                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                      Have a protrusion of some kind on the head, e.g. a lump, hump or horn.

                                                                                                                                                      • Kadjilinjwokme bu ngarriyime, yiman kayime ngalyod ngalbu kakodjdjilinjwokme, mak yiman mayhmayh nawu kakodjdjilinjwokme manimunak.

                                                                                                                                                        When we say something 'kadjilinjwokme' [has a protrusion on the head], that can refer for example to the horns of the rainbow serpent, or birds that have humps on their heads, like magpie geese.

                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                      Wind which blows from the east.

                                                                                                                                                      • Djimurruko kunkurra kabun koyekbeh.

                                                                                                                                                        In the east wind season the wind blows from the east.

                                                                                                                                                      See alsobarra

                                                                                                                                                      1Bite (esp. insects), penetrate the skin, spike the skin.

                                                                                                                                                      • Nawu birndu birridjinbuni wurdyaw.

                                                                                                                                                        The mosquitos were biting the child.

                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                      • Djarrang kahdi kore kukku wanjh baladj bidjinbom.

                                                                                                                                                        The horse is in the water, and it got bitten by leeches.

                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                      • Nawu bod djinbom kunkanj.

                                                                                                                                                        The flies laid their eggs in the meat.

                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                      2Have sores, have a rash. Literally 'sores bite one's skin'. Often used to refer to scabies, which is in fact caused by burrowing mites.

                                                                                                                                                      • Kunmok bidjinbom.

                                                                                                                                                        Sores cover her skin.

                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                      • Yika kore kukurlah manbu kunmok kabikurlahdjinbun bu kamokwernmen kore kuburrk.

                                                                                                                                                        Sometimes sores afflict people's skin, and spread across people's bodies.

                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                      See alsomuddjinbun

                                                                                                                                                      Name of four different patriclans, one in Kakadu National Park, another associated with the Amurdak language and pronounced Yindiwi, the third a Kunwinjku yirridjdja moiety clan located in the region near the mouth of the Goomadeer [Kumadderr] River, and the fourth an extinct Kunwinjku Djindibi in the Kuborlomborlom region.

                                                                                                                                                        Join things together, connect something, fit something together.

                                                                                                                                                        • Ngalbadjan dja wurdyaw bindimurrngmey dja bindimurrngdjindjindulubom wanjh bindikukkurrmeng kore mayh djak reddihreddi. Wanjh manbu kunmurrng ngalengman djindjinduluburrinj dja beneyawoyhdarrkidminj nawu ngalbadjan dja wurdyaw.

                                                                                                                                                          Then they collected up all the bones of the mother and her dead baby, fitted them together again and took the bodies back to an ant nest. All the bones began to join themselves and the mother and her baby came to life again.

                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T, 2005)

                                                                                                                                                        Join up, connect with each other, fit together, intersect.

                                                                                                                                                        • Kunmurrng kadjindjinduluburren kore ngad bininj karrihmurrngdi.

                                                                                                                                                          All of our bones fit together (at the joints).

                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                        • Manbu kukku mankaboberl kadjindjinduluburren wanjh kabalbore kore manbokimuk kaberlmarren.

                                                                                                                                                          Small branches of rivers join up and flow into larger rivers.

                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                        • Dja mak karrbarda manbu daluk ngarrikarung wanjh ngarrikuknan kakukdjidjinduluburren wanjh ngarriyime mandjikkadjikkayi. Manrakeldaluk.

                                                                                                                                                          Also in the case of long yams which we women dig up, if we see a root with other little roots coming out from the main root (lit. 'joined onto it'), we call that a ‘root with breasts’, a ‘female plant’.

                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                        1A grass sp. used to make tiny brushes for painting cross-hatching on bark paintings.

                                                                                                                                                        Synonymsmanyilk

                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameCyperas javanicus

                                                                                                                                                        • Djirddudjirddu kabirridong wanjh kakebdjowhme.

                                                                                                                                                          They pound the sedge grass and the end becomes soft (so they can use it as a brush).

                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                        2Long dorsal fin of saratoga fish which is also used to make paintbrushes.

                                                                                                                                                          Steal.

                                                                                                                                                          • Nangale djirdmey kunmadj ngarduk?

                                                                                                                                                            Who stole my clothes?

                                                                                                                                                          Salt.

                                                                                                                                                          • Ngarrihyoy Nimbuwa mankabo ngarridulubuni kinga ngarrikurlahbuni djirla ngarrikurlahkani Kunbarlanja.

                                                                                                                                                            We were camping at Nimbuwa creek and hunting crocodiles. We would salt the skins and carry them back to Gunbalanya.

                                                                                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, biography section.)

                                                                                                                                                          Etymologyfrom Makassarese 'salt(y), brackish'

                                                                                                                                                          Most larger quails e.g. stubble quail, brown quail, chestnut-backed button-quail.

                                                                                                                                                          SynonymsI= djiribbidj, mehme, E= merhmerh

                                                                                                                                                          Scientific nameCoturnix pectoralis, Coturnix ypsilophora, Turnix castanota

                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKundjeyhmi,Kundedjnjenghmi,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                            A stick or string used to carry fish, being inserted through the gills and out of the mouth.

                                                                                                                                                            • Yika kunyarl dja kundulk bu kabirridjirribiwon nawu djenj.

                                                                                                                                                              People carry fish with either a stick or a string through the gills.

                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                            Wash, clean something with water.

                                                                                                                                                              Generic term for most kingfishers (sacred kingfisher, red-backed kingfisher, forest kingfisher, mangrove kingfisher and azure kingfisher).

                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameTodiramphus (Halcyon) sancta, Todiramphus (Halcyon) pyrrhopygia, Todiramphus (Halcyon) macleayii, Halcyon senegaloides, Alcedo azurea

                                                                                                                                                              • Djirrihdiddid kakukyime yiman kaldurrk dja ngahli ngalkukyahwurd.

                                                                                                                                                                The kingfisher looks like a blue-winged kookaburra, but it has a smaller body.

                                                                                                                                                                (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                              1Push against.

                                                                                                                                                              • Minj kawurrme murrikang karridjirrkkan.

                                                                                                                                                                The car won't start, let's push it.

                                                                                                                                                              • Bikukdjirrkkang.

                                                                                                                                                                She pushed him.

                                                                                                                                                              2.Scare away, scare off.

                                                                                                                                                              • Arrbenmadbom burrkyak. Minj nangale bininj kumrawinj ngadbu djirrkkayinj nganabbarru ngadberre.

                                                                                                                                                                They are under duress from all directions — this way and that way.

                                                                                                                                                              -kebdjirrkkan

                                                                                                                                                                Place under duress, force someone to do something.

                                                                                                                                                              1Cut; cut off, end (a process or activity).

                                                                                                                                                                2Draw a line on something.

                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                  -berddjobke

                                                                                                                                                                    Circumcise.

                                                                                                                                                                  Finish up, cut off, come to an end.

                                                                                                                                                                  • That bolkno, Warlang Karrulkkarrme, Dedjbang kadjobme, beh duwa.

                                                                                                                                                                    That place Warlang Karrulkkarrme, and then at Dedjbang, that’s where it finishes, [i.e. the border between two clan estates] and that's duwa moiety country this way.

                                                                                                                                                                  Centipede.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Kore kunred Djurlka kore kubolkmayirrkulidj kunred ngaye ngayime karrardwarrekenh bukka Djodj kadjangdi.

                                                                                                                                                                    At Djurlka in Mayirrkulidj clan country, which is my mother’s country, there is a centipede sacred site.

                                                                                                                                                                    (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku

                                                                                                                                                                  Cough.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Kangurdke kore karridjohme bu karribarurren nawu delek kukodj, kadjale kanjdji kurrenge.

                                                                                                                                                                    It stops us from coughing when we rub [a special white ochre] over ourselves from head to foot.

                                                                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 196, additions Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                  Name of three different duwa moiety patriclans, one in the Tin Camp Creek and Myra Falls region, the second in Kakadu National Park and a third on the lower Liverpool River.

                                                                                                                                                                  • A:Birrikodbarrebom dolobbo, birridakmeng. B:Kumekke Ngalirrikewern? A: Yo wanjh kunred bedberre birrimey, na-Djokyih.

                                                                                                                                                                    A: They made house with stringy bark, they peeled it off the trees. B: There at Ngalirrkewern? A: Yes, they made their camp there, in Djok country.

                                                                                                                                                                  Narrow, tight.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Kubarrarndjokko.

                                                                                                                                                                    A narrow passage.

                                                                                                                                                                  Herd together into a narrow place (as when hunting animals).

                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunak kabendjokkohmikan kunj.

                                                                                                                                                                    The fire herds all the kangaroos together into a narrow place [where they can be speared]

                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunj kabarridjokkohmikan.

                                                                                                                                                                    They herd the kangaroos into a narrow place.

                                                                                                                                                                    (Kundedjnjenghmi)

                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunak kabandjokkohmikan kunj, kabandjokkome kabandjirrkkan kure

                                                                                                                                                                    The fire herds the kangaroos together and presses them into a narrow place where there are people waiting ahead [to spear them].

                                                                                                                                                                    (Kundedjnjenghmi)

                                                                                                                                                                  1Cooked, ripe, ready.

                                                                                                                                                                    2Skilled, experienced, ‘pro’ [colloquial]

                                                                                                                                                                    • Djoleng nakka.

                                                                                                                                                                      He’s a real pro.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Ray Nadjamerrek, referring to ‘Batman’ the helicopter pilot. )

                                                                                                                                                                    -djolengmen

                                                                                                                                                                      Ripen, get cooked.

                                                                                                                                                                    Put on clothes.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Yidjongburren djalawarra!

                                                                                                                                                                      Put on those trousers.

                                                                                                                                                                    Grammarusually only used as reflexive

                                                                                                                                                                    Axe head.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Wurrakkak benedurrinj Nimbuwa wanjh Wurrakkak mey karramalk bidjuddjobkemeninj dja larrk nawu karramalk djord djorddolkang bolkngadji.

                                                                                                                                                                      Wurrakkak and Nimbuwa fought, and Wurrakkak took a stone axe and tried to cut off Nimbuwa's head, but it didn't work and the axe head flew off and buried itself in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                    Grow, grow up.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Wurrmarninj kadjordmen kore kabbal.

                                                                                                                                                                      Red lilies grow on floodplains.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                    • Djordohdjordminj nawu ngarridudji.

                                                                                                                                                                      The ones we planted have all grown up.

                                                                                                                                                                    -djordmerren

                                                                                                                                                                      Grow (in large numbers).

                                                                                                                                                                    -djordmiwe

                                                                                                                                                                      Bring something or someone up, raise a child, make something grow, cultivate.

                                                                                                                                                                    Collective or plural sense of grow; 'they are all growing'.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Mandjewk kamankan, nganbowon kukku / Kamarnbun kadjordmerren kundalk kundulk

                                                                                                                                                                      The rain falls to give me some water / To make the trees and grass grow.

                                                                                                                                                                      (Wildflower Band, 'Maburrinj', from the Album ‘Maningburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                                                                                                                                    1Grow something, cultivate.

                                                                                                                                                                      2Raise someone from a child, 'grow im up'.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kornkumo doweng wanjh ngadjadj nuye bidjordmiweng.

                                                                                                                                                                        His father died and so then his mother's brother raised him.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kunkanj, wirlarrk, kundjikkakurrk, djenj, dja nawern nawu namakmak kabendjordmiwe, yun ngurrbenwon kandidjdjawa dja tea makka manwarre.

                                                                                                                                                                        Meat, eggs, breast milk, fish, all those good foods are what grows them [children] up strong. Don’t give them flour and tea, that’s bad.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Nawirridj, Grace, untitled book, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                                                                                                      Run away, head off somewhere without others’ knowledge, run off and get lost.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kunkare wurdyaw djorlkmeng, dja ngalbadjan kornkumo beneni kured, dja nungan wam. Wam kore kungarrebuldjarn, wanjh dulknang mandulkkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                        One day a long time ago, a child ran away. His mother and father were at home, and he set off alone. He went to the middle of the forest, and saw a big tree.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly W, ‘Kunkare Wurdyaw Djorlkmeng’, C.M.S, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngad wanjh silly ngarriyimeng, kunkudjikenh bu ngarridjorlkmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                        Well, we had been silly that one time when we ran away.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                      Skirt made from kurrajong bark fibre, worn by both men and women.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Djorrkkon birriyarlmarnbuni manbudbud birridukkareni.

                                                                                                                                                                        People would make skirts from kurrajong bark and tie them around themselves.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra.)

                                                                                                                                                                      • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birrinami djorkkon bu birrikukbalhmerreni. Kaluk kunyarl birriyarlmangi manbudbud, birriyarlyirrmi, yerre birridongi kore kuwardde bu yarlkerlkmeni. Birribokdengi wanjh birriyarlkuyengbuni bu birrimarnbuni djorrkkon yerre wanjh birringardmodukkarreni.

                                                                                                                                                                        In the old days our ancestors used to put on kurrajong fibre skirts to cover themselves. They would gather fibre from the [bark of the] kurrajong tree, strip it, then pound it with a rock to soften it. They would roll it on their thighs and plait the fibre into longer pieces, make skirts and tie them around their hips.

                                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra.)

                                                                                                                                                                      Rock ringtail possum.

                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific namePetropseudes dahli

                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakdolhwarr

                                                                                                                                                                        Straighten.

                                                                                                                                                                          -djorrngmerren

                                                                                                                                                                            Stretch oneself, stretch out.

                                                                                                                                                                          Name of a yirridjdja moiety patriclan on the Arnhem Land plateau (upper Mann River region). Major totem is narlangak 'frilled-neck lizard'.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngandibukkang bu dolobbo Ngabbard nganbukkang en kakkak ngayahwurdni dja yakminj nawu nawernwarre en birri-Djorrorlam and na-Mowalangu Bangardi.

                                                                                                                                                                            They all showed me how to paint on bark, my father and my mother's mother's brothers, one of whom died when I was small. And also my Djorrorlam clan relatives and a Bangardi subsection man of the Mowalangu clan [whom I call mother's mother's brother also].

                                                                                                                                                                          Cross over (a creek, river etc).

                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakdjorrbowke

                                                                                                                                                                            1Break neck (of game, after capture).

                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngarduk kokok ngayi ngadurndeng ngamang kaluk ba kabun kadjudbakke kure kuronj nungka yimeng djahwodjahwong.

                                                                                                                                                                              I'll go back and get my big brother so he'll go and kill it and break its neck (the crocodile) somewhere there in the water.

                                                                                                                                                                            2Be an expert in ceremony or law, lead or control a ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko nakka nakka kabidjudbakke ngadberre Ubarr ngayih dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                              Already him, he is leading our Ubarr ceremony, me included.

                                                                                                                                                                            3An idiom meaning (wife) deceive (husband), play up behind back of (husband).

                                                                                                                                                                            • Albininjkobeng kundjudbakbakke (Kdj).

                                                                                                                                                                              Your wife's playing up on you.

                                                                                                                                                                            Toothache.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Djudju nganmarnengalkeng.

                                                                                                                                                                              I've got a toothache.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngakarrme djudju kore kuyidme.

                                                                                                                                                                              I've got an ache in my tooth.

                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk bu birridoweni djudju kore kuyidme, wanjh birrimangi mandudjmi kunmalaworr, bu birriwolngwoni kore kunak, wanjh birringarlbakkinjerreni. Yika mak birrimangi kuybuk, birrikebkinjeyi werrk wanjh yerre birringarlbakkinjerreni. Wanjh ngurdmi nawu djudju munguyhmunguyh.

                                                                                                                                                                              In the old days when our ancestors had a toothache, they would gather green plum leaves, start them smoking in the fire, then burn their cheeks with them. Or sometimes they also used banksia cones, lit the end of them, and used that to burn their cheek. Then the toothache would stop.

                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                            See alsoyidmebabang

                                                                                                                                                                            Prod, jab, poke, spike.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngandengedjurrudjudmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                              It poked my feet all over [walking on spiky vegetation].

                                                                                                                                                                            • Yun yikanemdjudmerren!

                                                                                                                                                                              Don't poke things into your ear!

                                                                                                                                                                            Grammarthe noun being spiked is incorporated as a verbal prefix

                                                                                                                                                                            Immerse in water, splash.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Bimimdjuhkeng.

                                                                                                                                                                              She washed his eyes.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Kandimimdjuhkeken.

                                                                                                                                                                              Eye drops.

                                                                                                                                                                              (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                                            Be in water, get into water, shower, bathe.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Dja bolkkime larrk minj nangale kadjuhme kinga nawern kahyo kore manlabbarlkimuk kahboyo wardi kanbaye kanbun.

                                                                                                                                                                              But these days no-one gets into the water at the big billabong, there are lots of crocodiles and they would bite and kill us.

                                                                                                                                                                              (Nabulanj Namandjulngunj, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                            Female black wallaroo.

                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameMacropus bernadus

                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                              See alsobarrk

                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakngalwarddedjenngorrmo

                                                                                                                                                                              Sugar.

                                                                                                                                                                                Etymologyfrom English

                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkunkarnalanj

                                                                                                                                                                                Matches.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Etymologyfrom either Makassarese colo? 'match' or from Malay or Bajau sulu 'torch'.