Bininj Kunwok
dictionary

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?About

Oh, oh no, the thing is, no way (conveys that the speaker is shocked or wants to contradict something that has been said).

  • "Aba, yaw kinga nganang. Marndi wurdyaw kayawbaye kadberre warreh," yimeng ngalbu Ngalwakadj bedberre.

    “Oh, I saw a young crocodile. It might bite our kids” Ngalwakadj told them.

  • "Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng." "Aba, minj won, ngaye mak ngamarrwedoweng."

    "Give me a [turtle] leg, because I'm hungry” “No way. I can't give you any. I'm hungry too."

    (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

Beach, sand.

  • Kore manyunkurr, adjbud kayo.

    On the island, there is a beach.

    (Wildflower Band, ‘Galiwin’ku’)

1Is it?; maybe; I don't know!

  • Ngaye ngadjawayhme nuye bu ngayime "Adju baleh wam nawu Nabangardi?"

    I ask him, I say “I don’t know, where did Nabangardi go?”.

    (Jill Nganjmirra)

2Said after a joke which provides mild embarrassment to the hearer.

    EtymologyIwaidja aju 'it-lies', 'it is', 'it exists'.

    See alsokunubewu

    Name of a male ancestral dog being, who travelled with the female Ancestral dog Omwarl through the area around Gunbalanya. The name is from the Mengerr language but Kunwinjku speaking residents of Gunbalanya are familiar with the story of these two dogs. The name has been also spelt Adjumarllarl but there is no linguistic basis for a rl+l sequence in either pronunciation or syllable structure. However, the Adjumarllarl spelling is now largely an accepted convention.

    • Bu korroko duruk bokenh Adjumarlarl dja Omwarl benemwam karrikadbeh kukku benehboyawani.

      The two Ancestral Dogs Adjumarlarl and Omwarl came [to the Gunbalanya area] from the west, looking for water.

      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation, Adjumarllarl and Omwarl Story)

    Etymologyfrom the Mengerr language

    See alsoDuruk Benengadbom

    1Kind of shrub.

    Scientific nameGrewia xanthopetala, Grewia multiflora

      2Kind of hibiscus. As for the Grewia species, the bark of this hibiscus is used to make string and the young stems are good firesticks.

      Scientific nameHibiscus tiliaceaus

        1Name of the hill on the southern side of Gunbalanya township in Mengerrdji language country.

        • Nawu manimunak wirlarrk djang kahdjangdi kore kaddum kuwardde Arrkuluk.

          There is a sacred site for Magpie Goose eggs on the top of Arrkuluk rock.

          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

        2Hill on the western side of the entrance to Birraduk [Birrirddak] Creek valley, directly south of the Gunbalanya-Nabarlek road. This site has the same name as the hill at Gunbalanya and is therefore sometimes called ‘Arrkuluk number two’.

          An interjection used to express emotional attachment, dearness.

          Synonymsworro

          • Awurd, mayh namekke ngan­kodjborledke Kawk Kabim Djang

            So dear to me is that bird, its call reminds me of the sacred night heron dreaming.

            (Nabarlek Band song (Terrah Guymala))

          • Yika mak ngarriyime "awurd" bu nangale nawu kare djarre wanjh ngarrikongibun, dja mak bininj nawu karrowen, wanjh ngarriyime "awurd warre mankang mandengeyi".

            We might say “fv: Awurd” (“Oh that dear man/woman”) if someone goes far away and we feel sorry for them, or for example if someone dies we might say "Awurd (oh that poor man/woman) it’s a terrible thing, they had a car crash".

            (Jill Nganjmirra )

          LanguageKunwinjku

          1So that.

          • Yirrolkka ba karrire.

            Get up so we can go.

          2But.

          • Ba minj birrinayinj nganabbarru yoy, wanjh manwurrk biwayhkeng.

            But they didn't see a buffalo sleeping there until a bush fire woke him up.

          Sore, be in pain.

          • Ngabardbabang.

            I have a sore knee.

          • Baleh yimi bu yimimbabangni?

            How long has your eye been sore?

          LanguageKuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

          Kunbalakngarrkme

          Grammara kind of adjective which can take predicate prefixes (pronominal and nominal)

          Verb prefix indicating that one action follows another, possibly as a consequence. So, then, afterwards, as a result, in that case, with good reason, etc.

          • Birribadbom nabuyika benuk.

            Then they speared another bush turkey.

            (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

          • Dja kunubewu bolkkime wanjh nganang bu yiman kayime kurrung darnkih wanjh kabindibadkan kabirriwarlbun.

            Well I notice at the moment, probably because it’s coming up for build-up season, they’re taking them hunting a lot.

            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

          See alsobadbu

          Short eared rock wallaby.

          Scientific namePetrogale brachyotis

          • Korroko bininj birrirey djalakkiradj dorrengh kore kuwardde birriyawani birrinani birridanjbuni nawu badbong.

            In the old days, people would take spears into the escarpment looking for short-eared rock wallabies, and when they saw them they would spear them.

            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          Kunbalakdolhwarr

          1Exactly right!, absolutely! That's what I mean!

          • Badbu djalkurrmerrinj ngayi ngabengkan... I know!

            Yes, that's right, I know it put itself there, I know that.

          2When, if.

          • Badbu djal ngaleng werrk ngunnang, wanjh ngunkukbawon.

            When she [an emu] spots you first [before you see her], well she'll run away from you.

          • Badbu kondabu ngarrinankah arribukkayi manekke.

            If we see some here, we should show it to him.

          Grammarsubordinate conjuction

          Mirror, glass.

          • Baddumang ngarrikebnarren.

            We are looking at our faces in the mirror.

          • Warlirr kundung karrirung, kunekke kadberre karrirung, dja baddumang kabirrikarrme, baddumang kabirrikarrme kune kayime kakolhdebebme, kakolhdebebme, soon kabirrikarrme, glass, mirror, soon kabirrikarrme kadberre yiman muddikang rerri. Bokenh kabenekarrme, glass baddumang kukak kabirribebme.

            When the sun is hot, when we get really hot, then they have pieces of glass and when plants start sending out new growth [just before rain comes] then they [spirit beings] have pieces of glass and they take us away in something like a motor vehicle. They are in pairs with their pieces of glass and they appear at night.

            (Jimmy Bungurru (first language was Ndjébbana).)

          EtymologyFrom Makassarese patomang ‘compass’. Note also Ndjébbana baddúmang ‘swimming goggles, glass, mirror’. Also Iwaidja badumang (or bathumang) and Mawng patumang ‘glass, mirror’

          European style smoking pipe.

          Synonymsdjikka

          • Bu korroko wanjh larrwa dja badj birriwungmi dja bolkkime larrk.

            In the old days people used to smoke long Macassan pipes and European style pipes too, but not any more.

            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          Etymologymost likely an English loan but note Makassarese patti 'chest, case' and kalling 'tin, can' and cf Iwaidja patjukaling 'large container, drum' and Burarra bajikala 'long smoking pipe'.

          Kunbalakkunmuluru.

          Big one, large, main part. When two things are conceived of as existing in a greater-lesser, main-subordinate or parent-child relation, 'badjan' describes the greater or parent part. The lesser or child part is referred to with 'yaw'.

          • Kundulk mandubang birrilawkmangi birridjedmi birrimarnbuni manberlnginj, manbadjan dja manyaw wanjh birribekkani manmak wanjh bonj.

            They would peel the bark off ironwood branches and carve them into clapsticks, a large one and a small one, hear that they sounded good and that was it.

            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          • Manbu manbadjan makka rungkal. Manu manyaw makka rarrk.

            The large external lines are the outlines, the small lines

            (Joey Nganjmirra)

          Bash, hit to injure.

          • Kunwardde ngakodjbadjdji.

            I bashed it on the head with a rock.

          Kunbalakbonghme

          Small herbaceous plant which has an edible radish-like tuber.

          Scientific nameBrachystelma glabriflorum

          • Ngad bininj ngarringun manbu badjdjo ngarrire ngarrinan manrakel wanjh ngarrikarung ngarrimang kaluk mankuk ngarringun minj ngarrikinje mandjoleng ngarringun.

            We Aboriginal people eat bush radishes, we go and we see its leaves then we dig it up and eat it raw. We don't roast it and eat it cooked.

            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          LanguageKuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kune, Kunwinjku

          Etymologypossibly from Makassarese pacco 'Arum colocasia R., a plant with roots which are edible after cooking'. Cf Bajau pacco 'taro, Colocasia esculenta'. Also Mawng badjdjung 'yam type'.

          Basket. This word usually refers to a non-traditional basket, such as coiled baskets. The coiling technique was introduced to Arnhem Land by missionary Greta Matthews in the 1920s, but was traditionally used by southern Aboriginal people along the Murray River.

          • Ngaye ngahni Mamardawerre kaluk ngarrurrkmirri kunngobarn bu ngamarnbun, dja mak ngarriwen nawu ngarrimarnbun manbu badjkid nawu ngaye ngarridanginj.

            I live at Mamardawerre and I work making things out of pandanus, there are lots of us here making baskets, me and my sisters.

            (Jill Nganjmirra, quoted in Hamby, Louise (ed.), Twined Together: Kunmadj Njalehnjaleken, Injalak Arts and Crafts, Gunbalanya, 2005, p. xiii)

          Etymologyfrom English ‘basket’

          1Break something.

          • Bu kunboy karribakke wanjh karrinan nawu djak kabebmerren kore kuboybeh.

            If we break a termite mound, we see the white ants coming out from inside the mound.

            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          2Break (a law), transgress.

          • Yimarnebakke mankarre ngundukkan, nawu Balanda.

            If you break their law they'll put you in handcuffs, the white people.

            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006. Kunkarre changed to mankarre. )

          4Compose a song about a person or incident, be able to perform (orally) or recite something.

          • Djimarr benbakkeng yawurrinj mandule bedberre.

            Djimarr created a song for/about the young men.

          Kunbalak-murridjke, (variant > murridjdje)

          GrammarThis construction is of the form SUBJ/OBJ-break.

          Tobacco.

          • Bu yibawon bakki kamak wanjh.

            It would be good if you gave up smoking.

          Kunbalakkundjule

          Break.

          • Yuwn yikilekme wardi kabakme.

            Don't touch it or it might break.

          Kunbalak-murridjme, redup.= -murrimurridjme

          1Trajectory in space away from a static speaker and/or hearer or, in third-person-based narrative, on the protagonist's current position.

          • Yibalderrehmen!

            Move over! [so there’s room for me to squeeze in].

          • Nungka balwam kore mankabo bu dungyibmiyibmi darnki.

            He went out to the river when it was almost sunset.

          2Recurring or continuing movement along.

          • Yibalre / Yibale!

            Keep going!

          • Kundulk makkah kabalhdulkdarlkan.

            That stick is floating along down the river.

          • Ngabirlidombom ngarohrokmeng dja baldjalwurlhmeng.

            I tried to put the fire out, but it kept starting up again.

          Sleeping platform, table, bed.

          • Balabbala kanjdji.

            Under the table.

          Etymologyfrom Makassarese balla?-balla? 'cottage, small house; couch'.

          See alsokukbalabbala

          Flat, smooth.

          Synonymskukbalabala

          • Wirndilk kaworrbalabala.

            The Haemodorum coccineum plant has flat leaves.

            (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal, Russel, Jeremy & Garde, Murray, ‘A Preliminary List of Kundedjnjenghmi Plant Names’, NLC, Kabulwarnamyo, 2003 )

          GrammarNormally appears in noun or verb constructs, e.g. 'mandulkbalabala', 'a flat piece of wood'.

          Leech.

          • Baladj ngakengeme wardi ngankurlbayakwon.

            I'm frightened of leeches, they might finish up my blood.

          Bag, string bag or cloth bag.

          • Kunkare Ngalngarridj wam kunngobarn mangihmangi, kani baladjdji dja manmarli.

            One day Ngalngarridj went gathering pandanus, carrying a bag and a hooked stick.

            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

          Etymologyfrom Makassarese balase 'sack, bag'

          Person of non-Aboriginal descent.

          Synonymskukbele

          • Barrk ngarringeybun nawu ngad bininj ngarriwinjku ngarrikukburlerri dja birrikukbele balanda kabirringeybun 'black wallaroo'.

            Us Kunwinjku Aboriginal people say 'barrk', but non-indigenous people, white people, call it a 'black wallaroo'.

            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

          LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kune

          Etymologyfrom Macassarese, Hollander

          Male subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

          • Barrk djukerre. Nakka duwa Balang. Balang Belinj.

            The black wallaroos are of the duwa moiety and the male is Balang subsection and the female is Belinj.

          LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

          Far, a long way.

          Synonymsdjarre

          • Ngalburlanj wam kore kubolkbalay.

            Ngalburlanj went to a place very far away.

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          • La name nawaran yingeybun wardi kangeybekkan bonj ngunbawon kare kelekele. Namekke. Kukkelekele namekke. Nawaran. Ngunbekkan. Kunwok kabekkan. Yiman bininj nakka, kunwok kakarrme. Kangeybekkan nawu balay kangimen nawu kururrk cave munguyhmunguyh marrek mak ngarrngalke.

            If you utter the name of the Oenpelli python [when hunting it] then it will be too late and it will leave you behind and go off in fear. That's it. It is a very timid animal the Oenpelli python. It can hear your speech. It is like a human and has its own language. It can hear its name and will take off a long way and go inside a cave and you'll never find it.

            (Jimmy Kalarriya, in file ‘Kalarriya Nawaran’ recorded by Murray Garde.)

          LanguageKune, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

          1Where.

          • Ngudda baleh yihdi?

            Where have you been?

          2What.

          • Maladj, baleh ngundihmarneyimeng? Oh ngandihkaybom ngamarrewedowen ngarrowen .

            Maladj, what did they say to you? Oh, they refused to give me any [food]. Now I'm really starving.

          • Bale kayime?

            What's (s)he saying?

          • Minj baleh karriyime.

            There's nothing we can do. [or] What can we possibly do/say?

          3How.

          • Bale ngayimiwon?

            How do I do this?

          LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kune

          When.

          • Bu balekeno yimdurndeng?

            When are you coming back?

            (Jill Nganjmirra)

          Close or block off.

          • Kunngol mimbalhmeng dird.

            The clouds have blocked the moon.

          Kunbalak-balhbonghme

          -dangbalhme

            Close door or block off an entrance.

          Dead end valley or narrow gully which are the sites chosen for fire drives to trap kangaroos which become trapped and injured by fire and can then be easily speared.

          • Makka ngarridi manekke kunj yiman ba kahre manbambarr kabidbun, yah ngarriyame.

            We stand there in them (the gullies) and if the kangaroos go up the narrow gully then we spear them.

          GrammarThe prefix fv:(m)an- is optional

          Shine, glisten, be bright or brilliant in colour (either in terms of lightness or in hue), be vivid.

          • Djadberlhberl nawu kakarlangbarme.

            That red-shouldered parrot, the one with the brightly coloured shoulder.

          • Ngudda yingurlme yire, ngayi ngabarme ngare, ngayi yiman mankalarr.

            You move as a dark form, I go with a bright shining body, I am like the ghost gum (a Kuninjku kunborrk genre song text).

          -mimbame

            Be dazzled.

          1Dangerous, wild, violent.

          • Birrihbang.

            Wild people (violent or quick to anger).

          • Kundjikurdubuk djang kundjak nabang.

            The sickness dreaming site at Kundjikurdubuk is dangerous.

          2Food that is either poisonous or 'cheeky', i.e. leaves a burning sensation in the mouth or is very strong in taste (salty, bitter, too sweet, too much chilli etc).

          • Manu kari yikurrmeng manbang ngandjenbom.

            This curry powder you put [in the food] is so powerful it has burnt my tongue.

          -kunbang

            Alcohol, alcoholic beverage, grog.

          -ngudjbang

            Powerful, fast (of animals etc).

          Male subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

          • Aa Bangardi bimbom bu ngabbard nganbimbukkang Bangardi ngayiken nadjorrorlam

            There are paintings by a man of Bangardi subsection which my father showed me, Bangardi, a man related to me of Djorrorlom clan.

            (JK)

          LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

          Female subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

          • Manbulu Karri ngalengarre Bangardidjan ngal-Marrirn.

            Manbulu Karri (a place) belongs to her, Bangardidjan of the Marrirn clan.

            (Kevin Buluwana)

          LanguageKuninjku

          Late wet season, the last rains of the wet season (April-May), 'knockemdowns' (late storms which 'knock down' the tall spear grass.

          • Daluhdaluk kabirrire kabirrimang mankodjbang bu bangkerreng kayimerran.

            Women go and get water peanuts in the late wet season.

            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

          Person of mixed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal descent.

            EtymologyFrom: from Makassarese kayo bangko 'mangrove sp., whose bark is used to boil trepang to give a red colour'.

            Not yet.

            • Yuwn yibangmeyarlkilekme.

              Don't touch the (fishing) line yet.

            • Ngadjadj, bu ngarrbalre kore kakkak, yuwn kanbangmemulewan, yidjalbawo kaluk ngalengman kadjawayhme.

              Uncle, when we go to see grandma, don't introduce me to her straight away, leave it and let her ask.

              (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Manakgu, Andrew et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

            Grammaran aspectual prefix on verbs with the sense of 'before time in topic frame'

            Become wild, aggressive, violent.

            • Kunbang birribonguneng birribangminj wanjh.

              They drank alcohol and then they become violent.

            Kunbalak-marimen

            Enamel metal cup or mug, pannikin.

            • Djakku kakan banikin bele, kabiwon Nabulanj.

              Lefty [nickname] is carrying a white pannikin, he’s going to give it to Nabulanj.

              (‘Lesson 13: Djurra ‘L’’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

            Etymologyfrom English ‘pannikin’

            Smelly, smelling of something, odorous (pleasant or malodorous).

            • Kanudbanj.

              It's smells rotten.

            Cross cousin who is considered an affine e.g. brother-in-law, sister-in-law, MBD, MBS, MMBDS, MMBDD. Borrowed from Kriol, which in turn is likely borrowed from another Top End language. Used as term of reference and address.

            Synonymskanjok

              ‘Almost’, ‘nearly happened but didn’t’, ‘be about to’. When prefixed to the verb to get barlanhmang the meaning is ‘let go of, lose control of, fail to take hold of’. In Kune it can appear as a free form.

              • Ngalkudji bikebbadjdji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

                He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He hit the other woman, but he didn't manage to hit her hard, and she just fainted.

                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

              • Ngad ngarrikarrme mankare mankarre kerrngekenh wanjh ngarribarlanhmang.

                We have the old law from the very beginning but we are letting it go [losing it].

                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 260)

              • Nganbarlankebdoy.

                He nearly punched me.

              -barlanhmang

                Let go of something, lose something, not hold something properly.

              Crooked, twisted, skewed, bent, bandy (legged).

              • Kukbarli.

                Crooked body/crippled/object out of shape.

              • Mimbarli.

                Cross-eyed/having an off-centred iris.

              • Wanjh kumwam, ngandjawam ngadberre nawu ngarridanjbik ngarrihdi: Ngalngarridj June, ngaye, Ngaldengebarli Ngalkodjok.

                Then he came and asked the three of us who were there, June, myself, and that Ngalkodjok with the bandy legs.

                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

              -barlidan

                Become crooked.

              Become crooked or twisted.

              • Yibiwkeng, bonj barlidanj.

                You've bent it, it's crooked now.

              Fill up a container to capacity.

              • Benebokenh kohbakohbanj benewam benehmangi mandem. Benemey benebarlkeng, ngalkudji yimeng, "yimray ngarrdokme ngabarlkeng ngayembu".

                Two old women were gathering waterlily roots. They filled up their bags, and one of them said "Come here, let's go, mine is full already".

                (Manakgu, Andrew ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

              Sacred boomerangs used in pairs as musical instruments in various ceremonial contexts.

              Synonymsbirrkala

              • Malalam yiman kayime yibengkan mandjoh yiman kayime manu, kabirrimarnbun njamed, barlkkan.

                In dry hill country where you can find Acacia difficilis, they use that timber to make boomerangs.

              Be filled to capacity.

              • Karriborrahkendong rowk wanjh barlmeng karriyirrurndeng.

                Let's fill up all the containers with water and then take them back full.

              Change course, turn and travel in another direction, turn off a track.

              • Kabolhbarlungme.

                The track curves around.

              • Kukbarlungmeng.

                It has twisted around [e.g. a crocodile swerving to catch a fish].

              • Mahni karribarlungmen!

                We turn off here!

              In the daytime.

              • Barnangarra kakeyo kaluk kukak kayawan nawu djenj dja kordbolbok dja nawern nawu mayh kilekilelh.

                It sleeps in the daytime, then in the nighttime it looks for fish and frogs and many other small animals.

                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation, Bokorn (spangled grunter) story.)

              Stone axe with wooden haft.

              Synonymskarramalk

                Be high up, be situated in a high place.

                • Ngurribarndin!

                  Stay up there!

                • Ngadedjbarndi manih.

                  I'll sit up on this [chair].

                GrammarNominal subjects can be incorporated.

                Carpet python.

                Scientific nameMorelia spilota variegata

                • Barndol kukdahdadjmiken.

                  The carpet python has striped blocks of colour.

                • Ngalbu barndol ngalkka kabirringun kore kubolkbubuyika.

                  In other places, the people eat carpet pythons.

                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                Place in a high position, hang up.

                • Yibarnamen wardi duruk kangun.

                  Put it up high otherwise the dogs might eat it.

                Long wooden-headed 'shovel-spear', with bamboo shaft and head having an exceptionally long (>320mm) broad, leaf-shaped blade of ironwood (Erythrophleum chlorostachys) although today the points are typically fashioned from hammered steel.

                  Kunbalakdjerrkudmiken

                  The sprouting seeds of the waterlily, edible raw or cooked.

                  • Bu benebebmeng kured wanjh beneworrhmeng benewilkdi nawu kalawan dja mandem dja manu barrdjungka benekinjeng kore kuyirrke dja nawu mankung benedelengbarnnameng kore balabbala.

                    When they got back to camp they made a fire and cooked the goanna in the ashes and the water lily seeds on the coals and put the honey they had gathered up in the roof of the shelter.

                  1Sunrise, the appearance of the sun at dawn.

                  • Ngurridolkka barrhbom!

                    Get up you mob, the sun's up!

                  2Cover over, wrap up.

                  • 'Kanwo', bimarneyimeng ngalu ngalbadjan 'kanwo kunkod ba ngabarrhburren.' Barrhburrinj wanjh yonginj ngaleng.

                    'Give me some', said the mother, 'give me paperbark so I can cover myself [to use as a blanket]. She covered herself over and she slept.

                  Kunbalakkumbehmerren.

                  -barrhburren

                    Cover self, be a canopy of vegetation.

                  Crack or split open an OBJ, burst.

                  • Mibbarr nungkah kabun nawu dabuno kangun karrowkke, kabarrhke 'dek' kukebyih.

                    The white bellied sea eagle breaks the [emu] egg to eat it, 'crack' it smashes it open with its beak.

                  Shatter, crack or split, burst open.

                  • Milhbarrhmeng namekke murrika.

                    That car has a smashed windscreen.

                  • Ngardbakan nakka karohrok yiman karnubirr. Bu ngarridjare kuk ngarringun wanjh kunwardde ngarridong kabarrhme wanjh ngarringun

                    Saltwater mussels are similar to freshwater mussels. If we want to just eat them raw, we hit them with a rock, they split open and we can eat them like that.

                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                  Kunbalak-barrhyamidokan

                  Male black rock wallaroo.

                  Scientific nameMacropus bernadus

                  • Nakidjkidj kakarrme barrk kelebuk nuye.

                    Nakidjkidj spirits keep black wallaroos as pets.

                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                  LanguageKune, Kunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi

                  Smear, paint, cover a surface with a wet or viscous substance. This word can be contrasted with bimbun, which means to paint a picture, draw or write.

                  • Kunrodjbe kabirribarung wanjh delek kabirribimbun kore dolobbo nawu mayh njale nawu kunj djenj dja nawern.

                    Let's paint ourselves with pipe clay and dance.

                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                  -barurren

                    Smear oneself with ochre or other substance.

                  Be quiet!, shush!

                  • Yoh yoh bonj bonj karrikaybun, karrikaybun baw!

                    Yes, yes, that's it, that's what we shall do, let's not give any to her, we'll refuse to give any, quiet now [she's coming]!

                  • Wurdurd bawh, wokyak!

                    Hey kids, shush, be quiet!

                  • Bawh, ngurringurdmen! Bulanj kabiwokmang Balang!

                    Shush, be quiet all of you! Bulanj is making a voice recording of Balang!

                  1Leave alone, leave untouched.

                  • Yuwn ngurrikilekme, ngurribawo!

                    Don't touch it, leave it alone!

                  2Abandon.

                  • Ngandibawong.

                    They left me.

                  3Part contact with OBJ.

                  • Nakimuk nganbawon.

                    They [the trousers] are too big, they're falling down off me.

                  4Give up a previous habitual activity, stop.

                  • Bakki ngabawong.

                    I've given up smoking.

                  Kunbalak-warnmorrhme

                  -baworren

                    Divorce each other.

                  --yibawon

                    Leave something to someone, pass something on to someone.

                  Chicken, fowl.

                  • Nanikud ngarrikarrmi and bawurl ngarrikarrmi nawern.

                    We had goats, and lots of chickens too.

                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                  Etymologyfrom English ‘fowl’

                  Purchase, buy.

                  • Manme nganebayahme karrewoneng.

                    We'll buy some food for ourselves.

                    (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                  Etymologyfrom English 'buy'

                  Inside, within, deep down.

                  • Wanjh bikodjbayeng biyibkeng kanjdji wanjh bikani kanjdji bidjalngani [bidjalkani] kurorre baybay.

                    Then it [the rainbow serpent] swallowed her head first and took her deep down into the earth.

                    (The example phrase comes from some texts Peter Carroll has deposited with AIATSIS. )

                  • Daluk baybayken.

                    Women’s internal reproductive organs.

                  • Ngalengman baybaywi djahdjalburrbuni.

                    She knew within herself, was convinced of it.

                    (Nawirridj, Grace & Rowe, Meryl (eds), 'Karriburlume God: Kunwinjku Song Book', Gunbalanya, 1985, p. 7.)

                  -baybaywi

                    Inside, internally, within oneself.

                  1Bite.

                  • Nganbidbaye.

                    It's biting my finger.

                  • Birribayerrinj duruk.

                    The dogs were fighting (biting each other).

                  2Cause an illness, cause pain, cause fright etc.

                  • Njale ngunbayeng?

                    What's the matter? What’s happened? [lit. “What’s bitten you?”]

                  Kunbalak-lawme

                  Each, individually, separately.

                  • Birribebbehwam.

                    They each went on their own.

                  • Ngarrbenbebbewon.

                    Let's give to each of them.

                  • Mankung nawu yiman kayime kabebbengeybuyika nawu mankung kardderre lorlbban nabiwo njalenjale.

                    The varieties of honey for example each have a different name, such as kardderre, lorlbban, nabiwo and so on.

                  GrammarThis verbal prefix has a distributive function which can include spatial separation. The 'distributive share' (see Evans 2003:497) can be focused on an intransitive or transitive subject but in some cases for the latter, also on the object and verb.

                  1Take out, bring out, reveal, cause to appear.

                  • Yibebkemen bakki nguddangke ngawungme!

                    Take out your tobacco and I'll have a smoke!

                  2Produce children.

                  • Wamuddjan nganemarren ngarridj la ngarridjdjan ngabebke.

                    I'll get married to a woman of wamuddjan subsection and I'll have (produce) children of ngarridj and ngarridjdjan subsection.

                  Kunbalak-worrbayhke

                  1Appear, arrive.

                  • Birrbebmeng.

                    They're here (they have arrived).

                  • Dungbebmeng.

                    The sun is up.

                  2Go/come out of an enclosure or dwelling.

                  • Yibebmen!

                    Go outside!

                  Kunbalakworrbayhme

                  1Theirs, of theirs.

                  • Dabborrabbolk kunwok bedberre.

                    The language of the ancestors.

                  2For them, to them.

                  • Ngadmanwali karrikan bedberre.

                    It's our turn to take it for them.

                  • Wardi yiyolyolme bedberre Balanda.

                    Explain it for those non-Aboriginal people.

                  Grammarcan express a benefactive function when there is no benefactive applicative [i.e.-marne-] in the verb complex. The first sense expresses basic possession of a noun

                  They, them

                  • Bedda Nakorrkko benekabokurrmeng.

                    The Nakorrkko [ancestral father and son heroes] placed the creek there.

                  • Kunekke kabirriyime bedda.

                    That's the kind of thing they [those people] do.

                  Apply paint to a surface, flick a liquid or viscous substance. Also used for the process of applying paint during screen printing (e.g. at Injalak Arts and Crafts in Gunbalanya).

                  • Karribedjekmerren delek karriborrkke.

                    Let's flick ourselves with white ochre and dance.

                  Themselves, by themselves.

                  • Nawu Mimih nakka yiman ngad bininj djaying, dja bedman djal kuwarde kuwarderurrk kabirriyo.

                    It's said that Mimih spirits are similar to us people, but they live by themselves in rocky country in caves.

                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                  • Nakka bukka bedberre bedman na-Buyhmi.

                    That [land] there belongs exclusively to the Buyhmi clan themselves.

                  GrammarThis is a pronoun of the emphatic series (there being three kinds of free-standing pronouns: direct, oblique and emphatic). Evans

                  1Ritually cleanse a place or person by swatting with smoking ironwood leaves, for example after witnessing a sacred ceremony.

                  • Minj kangun djenj, la birriberhkeng wanjh bonj nguneng.

                    He wasn't allowed to eat fish and then they lifted the restriction (by smoking him) and it was OK for him to eat it then.

                  2Perform increase ritual which involves swatting a particular site with a branch of ironwood leaves, and asking for plentiful game, fish etc.

                  • Kunmalaworr mandubang kabirrimang wanjh kabirridjangberhke kabirribolkngeyhngeybun. Wanjh kadjangyalarrme.

                    People get an ironwood branch and swat the sacred site with it, calling out the names of places (where they want to find plentiful game). Then the djang spreads out from there (and goes to those places, increasing the animals/fish etc).

                  • Delek birriburriwemeninj dja kunmalaworr birriberhberhkemeninj kuwukku, o kure djenj kabimdi djenjken.

                    They would throw white clay (into the water) and thrash the place with leaves in the water or similarly at the fish increase site they would strike the paintings of fish with leaves.

                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                  3Lift ceremonial restrictions on food.

                  • Minj kangun djenj, la birriberhkeng wanjh bonj nguneng.

                    He wasn't allowed to eat fish and then they lifted the restriction and it was okay for him to eat it then.

                  Death adder.

                  Scientific nameAcanthiphis praelongus

                    LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                    Kunbalakngalwirnyi

                    Arafura file snake.

                    Scientific nameAcrochordus arafurae

                      LanguageKuninjku

                      Kunbalak1. ngaldjangarabunebune 2. ngaldjangarakerlkkerlk

                      1Listen, hear.

                      • Bukbuk karribekkan kawokdi kayime bukbuk bukbuk bukbuk.

                        We hear the pheasant coucal calling out “book-book, book-book, book-book”.

                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                      • Yibekka wanjh.

                        Listen to him/her.

                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                      2Feel, touch

                      • Bekkarrinj nungan kunkurlah nuye kahbuyikahmen wanjh yimerranj madj.

                        He felt his skin becoming different and he became an octopus.

                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                      See alsomanjbekkan

                      Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                      Consider, think about before making a decision.

                        Kunbalakmarrngalahmerren.

                        Stick together (as in one surface to another).

                        • Nganbelbme.

                          It's sticking to me.

                        • Belbminj.

                          Stuck together.

                        1White.

                        • Kukbele.

                          White skinned person.

                        • Kunngolbele.

                          White clouds.

                        2 Clean, clear.

                        • Manbobele.

                          Clear water.

                        -belemen

                          Become white or brighter in colour.

                        Numbness, pins and needles, cramp.

                        • Bele ngandengekarrme.

                          I've got a cramp in my leg.

                        1Lick.

                        • Duruk kumwam benmenebelenghmeng, dja yakminj.

                          A dog came and licked them, then disappeared.

                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                        2Drink leaking or dripping fluid, lick up.

                          Generic name for most geckos.

                          Scientific nameDiplodactylus spp.

                            LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                            Become numb, become stiff.

                            • Kabirriwunghme, everywhere kare manekke kundolng. Kabenkinjekinje wanjh rerrih kabirribekkan kabirribeleyerrkan yiman. Bele kabenmang.

                              Yes, when they inhale [marijuana], that smoke goes everywhere inside. It makes them hot and then they feel like they are getting numb all over. It makes them numb.

                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                            Female subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

                            • Barrk djukerre. Nakka duwa Balang. Balang Belinj.

                              The black wallaroos are of the duwa moiety and the male is Balang subsection and the female is Belinj.

                            LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                            1Subsiding of a swelling, go down.

                            • Ngamokbelngdanj.

                              The swelling on my sore has gone down.

                            • Kandiddjawa yiwilkdeng karung kalurlme. Kaluk karriwilkmang kabuhme kabelngdan wanjh.

                              You put a damper in the coals and it cooks and swells up. We get it out and it when it's cooled the swelling subsides.

                            2Deflate, go flat (tyre).

                              1Make distracting noise, annoy, disturb.

                              • Marrek bekkan, wurdurd kandibengbun.

                                I can't hear you, those kids are making too much noise.

                              2Offend or say something improper to somebody, particularly to talk with a man about his sister or to a woman about her brother.

                              • Ey, kanbengbun!

                                Hey, you're offending me (i.e. Don't talk to me about my sister).

                              Notify, let someone know, remind.

                              • Yimray kanbengdayhke.

                                Come and let me know.

                              Remember something, be reminded of, realise.

                              • Ngudda ‘young people’ wanjh ngudda bu ngurribengdayhmen wanjh ngurribolknahnan. Ba bu ngarridowerren, ngarriyakmen, wanjh ngudda ngurribolknahnan.

                                You young people, you should realise you can look after the place. So then when we die, when we’ve gone, you’ll be able to look after the place.”

                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                              1Understand, know.

                              • Yibengkan konda Kurrurldul yibengkan kahyo Balang, la kaddum djang kahdi.

                                You know here at Kurrurldul where Balang lives, well upstream from there is that sacred site.

                              2Know how to, be able to.

                              • Bolkkime minj nangale kabengkan bu kamarnbun manbu bokko larrk.

                                These days nobody knows how to make barbed spears.

                                (Andrew Mankgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                              3Think.

                              • Med kabengkan.

                                Wait, she'll think about it.

                              See alsowernhbengkan

                              Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                              Confuse someone.

                              • Dulkelorrkkelorrken benbengmayahkeng birribengwabom birrimayahmeng.

                                Dulkelorrkkelorrken (the Tree Spirit) has made them confused and disoriented and they’ve gotten lost.

                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                              Be confused, unable to think clearly.

                              • Dja nawu yika ngad ngarriyime birrimayalidjad dja mak birrikodjkuludjad, dja yika mak nawu yiman birrimayaliwarre minj kabirriwernhburrbun, yiman kabirrihdjalbengmayahme.

                                With some people we can say they think well, they are clever, and with others, its like they can’t think well, they don’t know much, it’s as if they get confused.

                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                              See alsomayahme

                              Forget something.

                              Synonymskodjmukmeng

                              • Dja ngabengmidjdanj, ngaye ngayahwurdni.

                                But I've forgotten, I was very young at the time.

                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                              1Deaf, hearing impaired.

                                2Heedless person, one who doesn’t pay attention or take sensible advice, stupid person, unable to learn.

                                • A: Nangale? B. Nawu nanih bengwarr.

                                  A: Who? B. This one here, the stupid one.

                                  (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. 252)

                                Kunbalakkunmardorrhyambah

                                Send mad, distract, annoy (due to disturbance, noise, irritation etc).

                                • Kanhbengwarrewong, arribengwarreminj arridjalni arriburrbun Balandakenh.

                                  It has destroyed our well-being, we have gone crazy just sitting in one place only knowing non-Aboriginal culture.

                                Become annoyed or seriously irritated, develop dementia, become mad or insane, start to do stupid things.

                                • Kanhbengwarrewong, arribengwarreminj arridjalni arriburrbun Balandakenh.

                                  It has destroyed our well-being, we have gone crazy just sitting in one place only knowing non-Aboriginal culture.

                                Australian bustard or plains turkey, often referred to as a ‘bush turkey’.

                                Scientific nameArdeotis australis

                                • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk minj ngandiwoyinj ngalbu benuk bu ngarringuyinj. Ngandimarneyimi ngahli mayh benuk minj ngurringun ngaldjamun. Benuk kakarrekan ceremony manbu Mardayin.

                                  In the past, the Old People didn't give us any bush turkey to eat though. They used to tell us we don't eat this bird, it's taboo because it's part of the Mardayin ceremony.

                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                Circumcise. This is a less polite word than the synonym lakkayenwon.

                                Synonymsberddadjke, lakkayenwon

                                • Kabindihberddjobke bukka, dja konda larrk.

                                  They practice circumcision over there [in the east], but not here.

                                  (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 123)

                                Aunty, FZ.

                                  Carry by handle over the shoulder.

                                  • Ngalkudji ngalkohbanj bernelkani baladjdji kore kukarlang.

                                    An old woman was carrying a bag over her shoulder.

                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                  • Kunyirrk kabernalkan.

                                    She's carrying a dilly bag on her shoulder.

                                  See alsoNakodjok Kayirrkberneldjerrkdi

                                  Masked lapwing, also known as the masked plover or spur-winged plover.

                                  Scientific nameVanellus miles

                                  • Name kanmulewan berrebberreb bu ngarriwarlbun.

                                    That masked plover sings out and lets animals know that we are approaching when we go hunting.

                                  • Berrebberreb ngad duwa.

                                    The masked lapwing is for us duwa moiety people.

                                  1Claim ownership over.

                                  • Nakka duruk yaw ngardduk. Ngayi werrk ngaberrebburrinj.

                                    That puppy is mine. I was first to claim it.

                                  • Kanyingkihberrebbom.

                                    He claimed us from the start.

                                  2Promise (object to indirect object).

                                  • Nganberrebbom manme.

                                    He promised to give me food.

                                  3Promise to give a woman or girl in marriage.

                                  • Kumekke nganemarrinj ngalbu ngandiberrebbom Mary Lilinjdji.

                                    That's where we got married, me and Mary Lilinjdji, who had been promised to me.

                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                  Rainbow bee-eater.

                                  Scientific nameMerops ornatus

                                  • Berrerdberrerd karrinan kabarndi kore kundulk manyende yika karrolkan kare kubuyika mayh kayawan.

                                    We see Rainbow Bee Eaters sitting on tree branches, or flying off somewhere else to look for insects.

                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentaton)

                                  Them (2), theirs (2).

                                    Further, further along.

                                    • Kondah kore karrihni dja borledmikenh kore Nimbabbirr dja bewh kurredjdubbe kabbal kabolkngeyyo Wurrmarninj.

                                      On the other side of Nimbabbirr from where we are here, and further down to the very end of the floodplain, that place is called Wurrmarninj.

                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                    Ancestral being, said to be the progenitor of mako 'didjeridu'.

                                      Baby

                                      • Ngalbu ngalyawkyawk kayawkan wanjh ngarrimarneyime bibbidj minj ngarringeybun, warddi kabikebkadjung bu kabenekebrohrok. Dja bibbidj ngarrimarneyime ba kornkumo kabikebkadjung bu kabenekebrohrok.

                                        When a girl has a child, we call it 'bibbidj', we don't use it's name, otherwise it will end up looking like its mother. We call it 'bibbidj' so it will look like its father. (In Kunwinjku culture it is considered preferable that a child takes after its father in terms of looks).

                                        (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                      1Climb, climb up.

                                      • Nani yina bobbidj, la ngabidbun wanjh ngarradje.

                                        Look at that wild honey, alright I'll climb up and cut it out.

                                      • Birribidbuni kundulk kore kurrula darnkih.

                                        They used to climb a tree close to the river.

                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                      2 Get into or onto a raised object, e.g. a vehicle.

                                      • Korroko muddikayakni… Dja bolkkime muddika kabirribidbun.

                                        There were no cars in the old days… Nowadays they can all get in vehicles.

                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                      3Rise, rise up. Can refer to the action of many things that rise, such as blistering.

                                      • Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                        When the tide comes up, we don't see any mud crabs.

                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                      • Nganbidbom, ngakurlahlurlmeng.

                                        It caused a blister on my hand, my skin was swollen.

                                        (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                      4Leave camp to enter a ceremonial place.

                                      • Bu kunwok Kunwinjku ngarriyime mayh ngarriwarlbun. Dja bu ngarriyime mayh ngarrire ngarribidbun karrkad wanjh nakka kore ceremony yiman Kunabibi mandjamun manbu bininj ngadberre.

                                        In the Kunwinjku language, we say that we hunt mayh (animals). But when we say we’re going up to a mayh, in that case it means we’re going up to a ceremony, like Kunabibi or another sacred event of ours.

                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                      1Lift something up.

                                      Synonyms-wayhke

                                      • Bu kinga birridulubom doweng wanjh birrikukbidbuyhweng kore kurlabbarlbeh.

                                        When they had shot the crocodiles, they lifted the dead animals out of the billabong.

                                        (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                      2Give someone a lift (in a car etc).

                                      • Muddika kabindibidbuyhwe kabirridjarrkre.

                                        They give them a lift in the car, and they all go together.

                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                      2Send someone to ceremony.

                                      • Ngarrbenbidbuyhwe kore mayh.

                                        We send them to ceremony.

                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                      Push with finger, poke, press.

                                      Synonymsdjuyme

                                      • Bininj nawu biddjuyimeng wanjh wurlhmeng manbu kabolkwolkan.

                                        The man pressed the button and turned on the torch.

                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                      Generic term for two dolphin species; 1. Australian snubfin dolphin, 2. Australian humpback dolphin.

                                      Scientific nameOrcaella heinsohni (Australian snubfin dolphin), Sousa chinensis (Australian humpback dolphin).

                                      • Biddurangkan kabobuhme.

                                        Dolphins blow water [from their blow-holes].

                                      Turn, spin, rotate etc. Manipulate with the hands in a circular motion eg. stir, mix (with an implement), fasten a bolt, screw on a lid. etc.

                                      • Bidjurdu kabidjibbidjibme karrinan.

                                        We can see a whirlwind spinning around

                                      Manually skilled, dexterous or clever.

                                        Help, assist.

                                        • Kanbidyikarrme ngarrwayhke nanih.

                                          Help me lift this up.

                                        • Karribidyikarrmerrimen.

                                          Let's help one another.

                                        • Kabindibidyikarrme daluhdaluk bu kabirriyawmang.

                                          They are midwives.

                                        Feral pig.

                                        • Bik kabolkarung kabolkwarrehwarrewon.

                                          Pigs dig up the ground and damage the country.

                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                        Etymologyfrom English 'pig'

                                        Spotted tree monitor.

                                        Scientific nameVaranus scalaris

                                          LanguageKuninjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                          Eel-tailed Catfishes (black ones only).

                                          Scientific nameNeosilurus spp., egs. Neosilurus ater, Neosilurus argenteus, Neosilurus hyrtlii, but also Cinetodus froggatti, Anodontiglanis dahli.

                                          • Kondah djenj karrurndeng, kamre konda konda kamre kondah karrurndeng, minj kabidbun kurih, only dunbuhmanj kabidbun en ngardderrhwo modjarrkki kabidbun kaddum bad konda djenj karrurndeng namarnkol barrhmanj, njarlkan, karlerrh, bikkurr karrurndeng konda kumekke djal bonj karrurndeng.

                                            This is where the fish go back - they come up to here and then go back. They can't climb up [the bar of boulders at the waterfall], only sooty grunter can, short neck turtles, fresh water crocodiles can climb up to the higher area but here the fish go back: barramundi, saratoga, archer fish, long toms, black eel-tailed catfishes, there's nothing they can do, they just go back.

                                          LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku

                                          Kunbalaknakeryi

                                          Pillow, cushion.

                                          • Kodjbila ngarrikodjdahkendi bu ngarrikeyo.

                                            We put our heads on a pillow when we sleep.

                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                          Etymologyfrom English ‘pillow’.

                                          Bark canoe made from stitching together a folded piece of Eucalyptus tetrodonta bark.

                                          • Djabayéna Kawarréya mankuken mani manbolh. Bilem ngarribidbuni.

                                            Here at Djabayéna Kawarréya it is an important place. We used to pull our bark canoes up [out of the river here].

                                          LanguageKuninjku

                                          1Painting, drawing, image, picture.

                                          • Birribimbuni bim kurdukadji kore kunburrk bedberre.

                                            They painted pictures of emus on their bodies.

                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                          2Written letter, word or character.

                                            3Cat's cradle string game.

                                              LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                              See alsobimbun

                                              -bimdi

                                                There is an image, word etc, to be (of images, words etc).

                                              1Draw, paint or otherwise use markings to create a picture.

                                              • Kabirribimbun mayh mimih djenj dja nawern.

                                                They paint animals, Mimih spirits, fish and lots of different things.

                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                              • Yibengkan Kodjok nawu bimbohbimbom?

                                                Do you know that man of Kodjok skin who used to be an artist ('used to paint')?

                                              2Write.

                                              Synonymswokbimbun

                                              • Yingeybimburren!

                                                Write your name!

                                              Take photo with camera (still or moving film).

                                              • Ngandihbimmangi munguyh, ngangudjwarreminj.

                                                They were always taking pictures of me, I got tired of it.

                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                              1Look at a picture, see an image.

                                              • Nahni nabarlek karribimnan kabimdi kore kuwardderurrk.

                                                We see paintings of rock wallabies in rock shelters.

                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                              2Read, see written material.

                                              • Ngarrbenbukkani Kunwinjku ngarrbimbuni djurra. Ngarrimarnbuni, ngarrbihbimbuni wurdwurd birribimnani.

                                                The two of us used to teach them Kunwinjku, we would write it. We used make books, we used to write them for the kids to read.

                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                              • Minj djurra ngabimnayinj.

                                                I'd never seen writing on paper before.

                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                              Read aloud, read out (a word, sentence etc).

                                              • Yibimngeybu.

                                                Read the sentence out for me.

                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                              • Minj birriwernhbimngeybuyinj. Birribimwakwani.

                                                They couldn't read out the words properly. They didn't know the letters.

                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                              1Man.

                                              • Bininj yameng kunj.

                                                The man speared a kangaroo.

                                                (Maralngurra, Dolly, 'Bininj Yameng Kunj', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                              2Person/human being.

                                              • Ngalkudji ngalkohbanj kuni ngalkangila wanjh ngaleng kangeyyo kurdukadji kaluk ngaleng wanjh bininjni korroko wanjh yerre mayh yimerranj.

                                                There was an old lady whose skin name was Ngalkangila and now we call her emu, a long time ago she was really an old lady. [Wildfire Band song text].

                                              3Aboriginal person/people.

                                              • Nawu bininj dja balanda kabirrimang nawu mayh wanjh kabirrikelebukwon kakelebukmen kabirrimarnbun kelebuk mayh bedberre.

                                                Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people get animals and tame them, and make them into pets.

                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                              4Male.

                                                See alsobinihbininj

                                                Kunbalakyol

                                                Quartz, stone tool or point made from quartz.

                                                • Manbu birddurrk makka wurd manwarddeyahwurd dja manwarddebele.

                                                  Quartz stones are small and white.

                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                Beeswax.

                                                • Birdikelk.

                                                  Soft beeswax.

                                                • Birdirayek.

                                                  Hard beeswax.

                                                LanguageKuninjku

                                                1Flame, fire, torch. This term is always incorporated into verbs, e.g. birlikan, 'to carry a fire stick'.

                                                • Birriwurlhkeyi kunak wanjh nawu djebuyh birlikengemi manbu kunak kumkolungi birribuni birrikani birrikinjeyi birringuni.

                                                  They would light a fire, and the possum would be scared of the flames, so it would come down and they would hit it, then take it to cook and eat.

                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                • Ngandibukkani how bu ngandiburdebmi - kunak ngarribirlumarnbuni, en ngarrimarnbuni kunrurrk kore ngarriyoy.

                                                  They taught us how to rub sticks to make a flame and how to make shelters to camp in.

                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                2Light of a fire, an electric light or of lightning.

                                                • Wolbu kambirlikadjung.

                                                  The bugs are attracted to the light.

                                                • Mandjewk nganbom ngadberre, ngurdulmeng la birlibirliwern ngarrinang.

                                                  The rain fell on us and there was thunder and we saw lots of lightning.

                                                LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                Grammarincorporable

                                                -birlikan

                                                  Carry a fire stick, torch, light etc.

                                                Carry fire or light, take a torch.

                                                • Karribirlikan.

                                                  Let's take torches.

                                                • Yukkuyukku kabirlihbirlikan.

                                                  The firefly carries light.

                                                Generic term for Silver Barramundi, adult.

                                                Scientific nameLates calcarifer

                                                • Andy bimbom komrdaw, narin la birlmu.

                                                  Andy drew a long-necked turtle, a snake and a barramundi.

                                                  ('Nakimuk Djurra: a Big Book', Marrkolidjban School, 1993)

                                                LanguageKuninjku

                                                Grammarsee also mankumirli and wardurrkku

                                                1Mosquito. There is a djang totemic site for the mosquito near Marrkolidjban.

                                                • Bu Kudjewk wanjh birringimi kuwarderurrk birriyoy dja mandjewk dja birndu.

                                                  In the wet season they moved into caves to stay, because of the rain and mosquitos.

                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                2March fly.

                                                  3Glossy ibis (which is black and has a beak like a mosquito proboscis thus the polysemy).

                                                  Scientific namePlegadis falcinellis

                                                  • Ngalbu birndu ngalkka mayhmayh karrinan kore kabbal bu kudjewk dja kurrung karrolkarren karrinan mirndewern.

                                                    We see glossy ibis on the floodplain in the wet season, and we see lots of them flying in the build-up season.

                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                  Kunbalakmernengel

                                                  Rice.

                                                  • Birradjdja ngarringuni… ngarrikurrmi, ngarribuni wanjh yoy. Manwerrk manu rey warreka.

                                                    We used to eat rice… we used to put it there and thresh it. The husks would fly off all over the place but the rice would stay where it was.

                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                  Etymologyfrom Makassarese = berasa 'milled rice'

                                                  1Clear the ground of vegetation, make a clear space to sit down or camp, sweep.

                                                    2(Of weather, clouds) clearing of clouds after rain or a storm.

                                                    • Konda kadjakdung, la kuni korroko birrhmeng.

                                                      It's raining here but over there the clouds have already cleared.

                                                    LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi, Kunwinjku

                                                    Sacred boomerangs used in pairs as musical instruments in various ceremonial contexts. Not used for hunting in West Arnhem Land.

                                                    Synonymsbarlkkan

                                                    • Birrkala kabirrimarnbun kore kundulk mandubang.

                                                      Ceremonial boomerangs are made from ironwood.

                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    Place finger or hand into something.

                                                    • Kakebbirrkarren.

                                                      He's sticking his finger up his nose.

                                                    • Bu korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey birridjuhmi kore kuronj birribobirrkani birriyawani kedjebe.

                                                      In the old days, people would go into the water, then poke around in the water with their hands looking for file snakes.

                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    1Green pygmy-goose.

                                                    Scientific nameNettapus pulchellus

                                                    • Biwudj namak bu ngarringun bu ngarrire ngarriwarlbun manimunak djilikuybi ngarriyawan.

                                                      The green pygmy goose is good eating, when we go hunting magpie geese or whistle ducks we look for pygmy geese as well.

                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                    2Some speakers also refer to the pink-eared duck as biwudj.

                                                    Scientific nameMelacorhynchus membranaceus

                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                      Water or other liquids. Incorporated form of the word water, which appears when it forms part of other words.

                                                      • Kaboyo.

                                                        Water lies there / there is water.

                                                      • Manbomak.

                                                        good drinking water.

                                                      • Minj kabirrire kabirribongun kunbang.

                                                        They don't go and drink alcohol.

                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                      LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                      Grammarincorporable

                                                      Kind of wild honey or 'sugar bag' which is found in tree hollows and has a crumbling cerumen or brown resinous wax which is not favoured for tool and artifact production. The honey of this bee is much relished. The base of the hive, called ngeyhno is made from a harder cerumen which can be used for material culture production although other honey type hives are preferred.

                                                      Synonymskarderre

                                                      Scientific nameAustroplebeia magna

                                                        LanguageKune, Rembarrnga= yurduh

                                                        Kunbalaknamawul

                                                        1Tide come in.

                                                        • Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                                          At high tide, we don't see any mud crabs.

                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        2Water rise up (e.g. flood, start of wet season).

                                                        • Kabobidbun wanjh kankebngun.

                                                          The water rises up and drowns us.

                                                        Good-bye.

                                                        • Ma bonj bobo.

                                                          OK, that’s all, bye.

                                                        • Yikah mak kabbal ngarrirey bu ngarribuni kalawan, ngarrimarmeyimi, "Bobo!". Kalawan, kunekke ngurriyimen "Bobo" wanjh kakurrmerren kalawan. Ngurrire ngurribun.

                                                          Or, sometimes, we would be go out on the floodplains getting goanna, and we would say to the goannas “Goodbye!”. If you say goodbye, the goanna will just stay still for you, then you can go and kill it.

                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                        1Fly (insect).

                                                        • Mandudjmi karung wanjh bod kawernmen.

                                                          When the green plums are ripe, it is the time when there are many flies.

                                                        2Native honey bees of the Tetragonula (previously Trigona) and Austroplebeia genera.

                                                        Scientific nameTetragonula mellipes, Austroplebeia magna, Austroplebeia essingtoni

                                                        • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey manberrk birriyawani birridulknani kaddum birrinani mankung bod kahboddolkan wanjh birridulkrderdmi birriwodjburriweyi birrimonbuhmi, wanjh birrimangi nawu yiwk dja mandabu birrirawoni birridahkendongi kore billycan.

                                                          In the old days, people would go into the forest searching [for honey], looking up at the trees. When they saw honey bees flying around they would chop down the tree and open it up, then they would get the liquid honey and pollen sacs and put them all together in a billy can.

                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        Kunbalakmuk

                                                        Crouch down, hunch over, bend down.

                                                        • Munguyh benehdjalkarungi kaluk wanjh kukku kumbobebmeng benebiddjuhmeng kunbid berrewoneng kore benekaruy wanjh beneboddanj benebonguyinj.

                                                          They just kept on digging, and when they reached water they washed their hands from all the digging, then they crouched down and drank the water.

                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        Recede (of water in a water body), dry out.

                                                        • Karrinan bu kabukmen kabodowen kore kabbal bu Kurrung duninjh kayimerran.

                                                          When the real build-up season starts, we see the floodplain drying up and the water receding.

                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                        • Kabodowerren rowk manbu kukku kukudji kukku karribongun kore manlabbarlkimuk dja kore njilhmi kaboyo kore ngarribobengkan korroko dabborrabbolk ngandibolkbukkang.

                                                          All the water dries up [in the dry season], we can only drink water from large billabongs and springs, places we know to find water that the old people showed us in the past.

                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                        Two.

                                                        • Daluk bokenh wakkidj benehweyi.

                                                          Two women were fishing.

                                                          (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                        • Ngunebokenh.

                                                          You two.

                                                        LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                        Kunbalakburlalh

                                                        Boil water, heat up water.

                                                          Kunbalakdjurlkkinj-bobekke

                                                          Follow tracks.

                                                          Synonymsbokkadjung

                                                          • Yika mak bu nganabarru karribokkan wanjh karribokkadjung karribekkan ngarradj kawokdi kabimulewan namekke nganabarru.

                                                            Sometimes when we're tracking a buffalo, we follow its tracks and we hear a cockatoo calling out, which gives away the buffalo's position.

                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                          Spear type with many barbs running along the shaft.

                                                          • Bokko birrimarnbuni manbu kunyidkenh bu birridurreni.

                                                            People used to make barbed spears for fighting.

                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                          LanguageKuninjku= bardangarr

                                                          Spangled grunter. These fish form schools and migrate to breed in the early wet season or after the first storms of kunumeleng.

                                                          Scientific nameLeiopotherapon unicolor

                                                            LanguageKuninjku= boddowk

                                                            Black bittern.

                                                            Scientific nameIxobrychus flavicollis

                                                            • Kurlabakku kawk bokung nawu kabirrirohrok kabirriyawan djenj kabirrini kore kukadjid yika kabirribarndi kore kundulk kabirrimadbun djenj.

                                                              The pied heron, the rufous night heron and the black bittern are all similar, in that they all hunt fish by standing on the bank or up in a tree, waiting for the fish to go past.

                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                            LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                            Follow a path or road.

                                                              Follow after something, come after something.

                                                              • Bu njale karringun karribawon kore kunrurrk wanjh karrinan nawern djak bu kanome dja kabolkan.

                                                                If we're eating something and we leave it in the house, then ants will smell it and lots of them will come after it.

                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                              Leave a place, with the connotation of staying away for a long time or for good. Abandon a place.

                                                              • Ngabolkbawong kunred ngardduk / Dja ngabenbawong bininj ngardduk / Ahwurd ngaye, ahwurd / Ngabolkbawong kunred Ngardayun

                                                                I have been away from my homeland for so long / And away from my people for so long / I am feeling sad, so sad / I miss my home Ngardayun

                                                                (Wildflower Band, ‘Galiwin’ku’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                              1Conduct earthworks, dig tunnels or mine, create environmental damage, destroy a place, create the landscape of a place.

                                                              • Nabangardi dja Nawamud beneyimeng konda kunred wanjh bolkdoweng ngad ngadberre, bu balanda birrimwam birribolkbom dja birribolkwarrewong.

                                                                Nabangardi and Nawamud said “This place of ours has been destroyed, when white people came they dug the place up and ruined it”.

                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                              2Make a racket, make a noisy disturbance.

                                                              • Wurdwurd kabirribolkbun.

                                                                The children are making a lot of noise.

                                                              Sacred place, restricted place.

                                                                1Place become boring with nothing of interest happening.

                                                                • Bolkdoweng konda.

                                                                  This place is boring.

                                                                2Destruction of a place (and people).

                                                                • Nabangardi dja Nawamud beneyimeng konda kunred wanjh bolkdoweng ngad ngadberre, bu balanda birrimwam birribolkbom dja birribolkwarrewong.

                                                                  Nabangardi and Nawamud said “This place of ours has been destroyed, when white people came they dug the place up and ruined it”.

                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                • Bu kabirribolkbun kunred karrowen, kunred bu karribolkdowen namekke story nuye ngadberre ngad, nawu kumekke tribe namekke tribe nawu Mirarr namekke.

                                                                  If they damage the place, the country there will die, the country and us with it and the story will die, that is the tribe called the Mirarr people.

                                                                1Now.

                                                                • Yoh bolkkime kamkan.

                                                                  Yes, he's bringing it now.

                                                                  (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                                2Nowadays, these days, now.

                                                                • Dja bolkkime larrk minj nangale kadjuhme kinga nawern kahyo kore manlabbarlkimuk kahboyo wardi kanbaye kanbun.

                                                                  But nowadays no-one gets into the water at the big billabong, there are lots of crocodiles and they would bite and kill us.

                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                3Today.

                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                  Kunbalakkolhkol

                                                                  Stay at home, stay at a place, refuse to come when called.

                                                                  • A: Baleh kabirrini? B: Ngabenkayhmeng korroko, bonj birribolkmaddi.

                                                                    A: Where are they? B: I've already called them but they're staying where they are.

                                                                  • Ngalkudji wurdyaw Ngaldjawonj / bolkbawong kunred ngalengarre / Bolkmaddi kore Manginburru bedberre

                                                                    There is a little girl from a Jawoyn clan / who left her country / And who has stayed for a long time on Manginburru land

                                                                    (Wildflower Band, ‘Ngaldjawonj ‘The Jawoyn Girl’’, from the Album ‘Maningburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                                  1Be on the watch for, look out for.

                                                                    2Care for country, look after a place, caretake a place.

                                                                    • Kaluk wurdurd ngadberre / kabirribolknahnan kondah kunred ngadberre.

                                                                      When we pass away our children / will carry on looking after this land for us.

                                                                      (Wildflower Band, ‘Manginburru’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                    Look at a place, survey surroundings.

                                                                    • Minj kawernhbolknan djarre.

                                                                      He’s short-sighted (he can't see very far).

                                                                      (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                    • Ngaye ngawam ngabidbom kuwardde / Ngabolknang bu dungyibmeng / Wanjh ngabolkkongibom kunred ngadberre.

                                                                      I went to the top of the rock and looked around / When I saw the sun go down I felt sad / Because this is where the people lived a long time ago.

                                                                      (Wildflower Band, ‘Manginburru’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 (Loose English translation from album cover). )

                                                                    • Kondanjh kandimarnekorrkke warde ngurrikorrkke ngurrinan ba ngabolknan ba kamak ngare wanjh ngare ngayame.

                                                                      Look here and try and lance my sore so I can get up and go look at that place and spear it (a kangaroo).

                                                                    Be called (of a place), name of a place is.

                                                                    • Kunred kabolkngeyyo Bobongki, manbowern dja mandjimdjimwern.

                                                                      The place called Bobongki has a lot of water and water pandanus.

                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                    • Ngaye ngabolkngeyyo kunred Maburrinj / Ngadolkkang ngadanginj dja ngabolknang

                                                                    • I am the country Maburrinj / I stood up and looked around at my many places

                                                                      (Wildflower Band, ’Maburrinj (The lonely place called Maburrinj)’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                    See alsongeyyo

                                                                    Little black cormorant.

                                                                    Scientific namePhalacrocorax sulcirostris

                                                                    • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh.

                                                                      Cormorants eat small fish.

                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                    Long-tailed rock monitor, also known as the black-palmed monitor.

                                                                    Scientific nameVaranus glebopalma

                                                                    • Nawu bongka ngarringeybun nawu yiman djanay kakukyime nungan kuwarde kaddum kukorlh kayo.

                                                                      Rock monitors look similar to yellow-spotted monitors, but they live up in rocky country.

                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                    LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku, Kunwinjku

                                                                    Drink.

                                                                    • Ngarre kab kukku ngarrbongun.

                                                                      Let's go and drink some water.

                                                                      (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                    • Birrimey kunbang bedberre wanjh birridjalbonguneng.

                                                                      They got their grog and just kept drinking.

                                                                    Kunbalak-djurlkkinjyakwan

                                                                    1Finish, finished.

                                                                    • Bonj yakminj.

                                                                      Finished, all gone!

                                                                    2The end (used at the end of a story or narrative).

                                                                    • Wanjh birridokmeng kured. Bonj.

                                                                      Then they went home. The End.

                                                                      (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                    3 That's all, just, just like that, it's OK just like that. Marker used to delineate or limit.

                                                                    • A: Yidjare marnekan? B: Bonj, kamak, ngakan.

                                                                      A: Do you want me to take it for you? B: No, it's OK, I'll take it.

                                                                    • Kabenengeyboken, bonj kangeyboken.

                                                                      They've got two names, just two names.

                                                                    • "Yuwn yikan mankukyahwurd makka" "Bonj warribo ngadjalkan ngakinje ngangun. Bonj bu mankukyahwurd"

                                                                      "Don't take that yam, it's too small". "Whatever, I'll take it anyway and cook it up and eat it. Doesn't matter if it's small".

                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                    4Finally, in the end. Marker used to indicate the end of a process.

                                                                    • Wanjh duhkeng, duhkeng. Bonj bohborrolkang.

                                                                      He lanced it and lanced it (an infected wound) and then the fluid burst out.

                                                                    5Marker used to describe the size, shape, extent etc. of something.

                                                                    • Djalmey kundulk yiman bonj kunekke kayime.

                                                                      He just went and got a stick which was about 'there' (demonstrates size), this big !

                                                                    Cold.

                                                                    • Ngabidbonjdjek.

                                                                      My fingers are cold.

                                                                    Kunbalakkurrbele

                                                                    Sniff (a liquid, especially petrol).

                                                                    • Nanih nawu wurdwurd might be kabirridjordmen minj kabirrire kabirribongun kunbang, or petrol kabirribonome or kundalk kabirriwunghme, larrk.

                                                                      So when those kids grow up they probably won't drink, or sniff petrol or smoke grass, no way.

                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                    Flow.

                                                                    • Bu kudjewk mandjewk nawern kadjakdung wanjh kabore kore mankabo.

                                                                      When it rains a lot in the wet season, the water flows in the rivers.

                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                    1Learn, become familiar with something eg. language, a skill.

                                                                    • Kandibukkan ba ngaborlbme.

                                                                      You show me so I will learn it.

                                                                    2Get used to something or someone.

                                                                    • Ngarriborlbmeng di.

                                                                      We've got used to drinking tea.

                                                                    • Ngudda yiborlbmeng ngarduk.

                                                                      You've got used to me.

                                                                    GrammarTakes possessive pronoun if the object is human.

                                                                    Turn over to other side, change.

                                                                    • Ngaborledkeng nawu djenj, wanjh ngayawoyhyerrkang ngamadbom korroko wanjh nganang ruy, wanjh ngawayhkeng.

                                                                      I turned over the fish and sat down again, waited a while, then when I saw that it was cooked I pulled it out (of the hot coals).

                                                                      (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                    • Birrikodjkurluborledkeng.

                                                                      They changed their minds.

                                                                    See alsosee kodjborledke

                                                                    Kunbalakdordedjke

                                                                    1Turn around, rotate, turn over.

                                                                    • Yimborledmen kanmirrkma!

                                                                      Turn facing me!

                                                                      (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                    2Change.

                                                                    • Bolkkime wurdwurd nahni yiman birribuyikaminj, borledmeng kadberre.

                                                                      Nowadays the kids are different, they’ve changed on us.

                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                    See alsokukborledke

                                                                    Kunbalakdordedjme

                                                                    On the other side, behind.

                                                                    • Warde borledmiken yiyawan.

                                                                      Try searching on the other side.

                                                                    Australian Magpie-lark. The word also describes the call of the Magpie-lark, which is said to ‘call its own name’.

                                                                    Scientific nameGrallina cyanoleuca

                                                                    • Borliblib karrinan Kudjewk Kurrung Bangkerreng Wurrkeng Kurnumeleng bu baleh karrire karribekkan kawokdi kangeyburren kayime borliblib borliblib borliblib.

                                                                      We see the Magpie Lark in the wet season, dry season, late wet season, late dry season and build-up season - wherever we go we hear its call, calling out its name “borliblib borliblib borliblib”.

                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                    Water python and possibly also the freshwater keelback.

                                                                    Scientific nameBothrochilus fuscus (previously known as Liasis fuscus), Amphiesma mairii

                                                                    • Bininj dja daluhdaluk kabirrire kabirriyawan kore kukku kabirribobirrkan kabirrimang borlokko kedjebe ngalmangiyi kore kuronj.

                                                                      Men and women go looking for water pythons in the water, they poke their hands into the water and pull out the pythons, file snakes and long-necked turtles.

                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                    Post or beam used in house or shade shelter construction. In shelter construction this is typically the horizontal crossbeam, in contrast to the forked sticks it rests between (karlang).

                                                                    • Bu kabirrikodbarrename, wanjh mandulkdjarrkkarlang kabirridadjke, kabirridulkdjabname. Wanjh yerre borlorl kabirriwarnamkurrme. Wanjh kunkod dja dolobbo kabirribarrkbun.

                                                                      When people make a paperbark shelter, they cut forked trees and stick them upright into the ground. Then they place crossbeams across them, and then put bark over the structure.

                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                    Father a child.

                                                                    • Nangale ngunbornang?

                                                                      Who is your father?

                                                                    • Beywurd bornarrinj.

                                                                      He fathered a child (for himself).

                                                                    Kunbalakwalebonghme.

                                                                    Spear thrower, woomera.

                                                                    • Bolkmelmeng mankole mey kolhmibom borndok kamak rowk.

                                                                      He placed his foot down, got his spear and tested it with his spear thrower; everything was fine.

                                                                    Kunbalakkarndubbu

                                                                    Wipe, rub.

                                                                    • Balmey kunworr kurlba borndungi.

                                                                      Then he got some leaves and was wiping off the blood with them.

                                                                      (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                                    • Kano manburrba ngaborndurren.

                                                                      Give me the cloth, I'll wipe myself.

                                                                    Play with, pat or stroke.

                                                                    • Wurdurd yuwn ngurriborrkbun wardi ngunbaye.

                                                                      Kids, don't play with it, it might bite you.

                                                                    Dance.

                                                                    • Korroko birriwayini birriborrkkeyi kore mamurrng dja kore mulil.

                                                                      In the old days, people would sing and dance at Mamurrng ceremonies and public feasts.

                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                    • Yawkyawk dja yawurrinj kabirrire kabirriborrkke kore disco.

                                                                      Girls and boys go dancing at the disco.

                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                    Kunbalakborrkidjbonghme

                                                                    Snore.

                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                      Lie flat, to lie on one’s stomach.

                                                                      • Kawardeboyboyyo.

                                                                        There is a rock lying flat.

                                                                        (Evans, Nick, Mayali vocabulary gathered 1986-1988 from native speakers for Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Gagudju Association)

                                                                      Recently, before, in the recent past, some time ago but with the sense of a more specific point in time and not a time in the very distant past.

                                                                      • Nabulanj wam mankung kore nang boyen.

                                                                        I guess people assigned a skin name to buffalo in recent times, it's from a different place.

                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                      -boyehboyen

                                                                        In recent times, over the last few months/years with the sense of a recent length of time extended over a continuous period.

                                                                      Northern knob-tailed gecko, prickly knob-tailed gecko.

                                                                      Scientific nameNephrurus sheai, Nephurus asper

                                                                      • Boywek karrinan kore kunrurrk kurrambalk karrihyo karrinan kahbarnbarndi.

                                                                        We see geckos in the houses where we live, sitting up on things.

                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                      1When.

                                                                      • Bu ngayahwurdni.

                                                                        When I was a child.

                                                                      2About, concerning, in relation to.

                                                                      • Ngayolyolme bu namarrkon djang.

                                                                        I'll tell a story about lightning dreaming.

                                                                      • Bu ngudda.

                                                                        That's up to you.

                                                                      3If (conditional sense).

                                                                      • Bu yinan kelebuk yuwn yibun.

                                                                        If you see a tame animal, don't kill it.

                                                                      Grammarsubordinating conjuction

                                                                      Bottle.

                                                                      • Budjdjulung kaburriwe, kabarrhme.

                                                                        He throws a bottle and it smashes.

                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                      Etymologyfrom Makassarese

                                                                      Cat, feral cat.

                                                                      Synonymsbiyawo

                                                                      • Bolkkime nawu budjiked karrikarrme nawern karri kore kurehrered kadberre kore karrihyo.

                                                                        Nowadays we have lots of cats on our lands where we live.

                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                      1Blow.

                                                                      • Kunkurra kabuhme, darnki mandjewk kadjakdung.

                                                                        The wind is blowing, soon it's going to rain.

                                                                      • Nangale kabuhme mako?

                                                                        Who's going to play the didjeridoo?

                                                                      22. be blown on.

                                                                      • Med ngaladminj, ngarrbuhme.

                                                                        Hang on, I'm hot, let's take the breeze.

                                                                      Kunbalakburrhnjudjbonghme.

                                                                      Dry or shallow.

                                                                      • Bukminj rowk kamak karridjowkke.

                                                                        It's all dry, we can cross OK.

                                                                      • Birndu kangun dumdum dja yehyeng nawu kayo kare kore kukku kukadjid dja kore kubuk.

                                                                        The glossy ibis eats beetles and all kinds of things that live in the water, the sand and the shallows.

                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                      See alsokelebuk

                                                                      -bukmen

                                                                        Dry out.

                                                                      Pheasant coucal.

                                                                      Scientific nameCentropus phasianinus

                                                                      • Bukbuk karribekkan kawokdi kayime bukbuk bukbuk bukbuk.

                                                                        We hear the pheasant coucal calling out “book-book, book-book, book-book”.

                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                      Dream.

                                                                        -bukirrinan

                                                                          see something in a dream.

                                                                        -bukirriyo

                                                                          Dream.

                                                                        Dream of something.

                                                                        Synonyms(kodj)bukirrire, bukirriyo

                                                                        • Ngarrnan, marrek ngarrnan, yika yiyo yibukirribun Wakkewakken o ankung.

                                                                          We see it, not really see it, sometimes when you sleep you will dream and see the Wakkewakken or the honey.

                                                                        Kunbalakborridjbonghme

                                                                        That probably, over there probably, might be, thing.

                                                                        • Yimankek mununminj, bonj, wanjh ngarriwam. Bukka Arrkuluk.

                                                                          When it was dark enough , that was it, off we went. Over there by Arrkuluk.

                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                        Show, demonstrate, teach, make manifest.

                                                                        • Wardi kanbukkan bale kayime.

                                                                          Try and show me, what do you do?

                                                                        • Kabukkarren nawu kundjak karrihkarrme kuburrk kadberre.

                                                                          Symptoms which are manifest when we have physical illness.

                                                                        Kunbalakbuyukme

                                                                        Dry up (of bodies of water), dry out (of plants etc), evaporate.

                                                                        • Bu kurrung manbu kabbal kabukmen.

                                                                          In the dry season, the floodplain dries up.

                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                        • Kabirridakurrme manbu kunngobarn kabukmen wanjh kabirrimarnbun nawu badjkid.

                                                                          They put the pandanus out in the sun, it dries out and they make baskets from it.

                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                        Kunbalakburnduyhmen

                                                                        Earthquake; also the name of a Jawoyn ancestral being and concomitant religious cult in which earthquake and subterranean fire feature as part of apocalyptic beliefs.

                                                                        • Yibekkang kukak bolkrokahrokang? Ngarringeybun bula.

                                                                          Did you feel the earth shaking last night? We call that bula.

                                                                        Male subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and mardku matri-moiety.

                                                                        • Baw, ngurringurdmen! Bulanj kabiwokmang Balang!

                                                                          ‘Would you people be quiet! Bulanj is recording Balang!’

                                                                          (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. xiv)

                                                                        • Kaluk Bulanj bimarnedjareni ngaleng bu yiman birrimarrimeninj namekke. Bulanj nawu walk bikang yibengkan laik ngarrbinmarneyime 'Nani yikan kureh ba bininj yibinmang yibinreydurndeng ba karriyakwon.'

                                                                          Another man of Bulanj subsection coveted her, (the boy's mother, a woman of Kodjdjan subsection), and wanted to marry her. Bulanj was going to accompany the boy to be circumcised according to the custom, like when we ask 'You take the circumcision candidate (to another group of people in a distant location) so that you will retrun with lots of people to complete the ceremony.'

                                                                        LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                        Female subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and mardku matri-moiety.

                                                                        • Bu anyungki, makka djal Bininj duninj bawokyimi like old people

                                                                          In the beginning, she (emu) was a human being and she talked, she was an old woman, old people, … of the ngal-Kangila subsection and the Wurrbbarn clan.

                                                                          (Djnj)

                                                                        • Ngali bininjni ngalu ngurrurdu borledkerrinj nahni birridolkang kungol, ngalih wanjh ngale birribawong kukurlk kawake. Bulanjdjan ngal-Wurrbbarn. Yo. Ngalnguyakimuk Bakkarda (Kardbam), Wurrbbarnbulu, Burnungku, Warrayhngu, Kamal.

                                                                          This emu was once a human being and... all the people here associated with her changed into animals (points to a painting illustrating

                                                                        LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                        1Erase, rub out, delete.

                                                                        • Yimarneyimen kabularrbun.

                                                                          Tell him to delete it.

                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                        1Finish a task.

                                                                        • Ngayeh ngayakwon story ngawernhbularrbun, ngare, ngare wanjh kuwadda, ngahdurndeng.

                                                                          I'm going to finish telling all this information completely and then I'm off, I'm going back home.

                                                                        Dilly bag tightly woven from light fibres.

                                                                        Synonymskul-kolborn

                                                                        • Bolkbawong wam manberrk yawani manme mangi dahkendongi ngalengarre manme kore bulbbe.

                                                                          She left that place and went into the bush looking for food, which she collected in her dilly bag.

                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                        1Middle, centre.

                                                                        • Kubuldjdjarn yikurrmen.

                                                                          Put it in the middle.

                                                                        2Deep (of water or substance).

                                                                        • Kabuldjarn.

                                                                          It's deep.

                                                                        -kumurrng buldjdjarn

                                                                          Very early before sunrise

                                                                        -Bininj buldjdjarn.

                                                                          Ethnonymic reference: ‘the people from the middle/central regions’. This is one of several terms of this nature that indicate the place of origin of a person ideally through their matriline.

                                                                        Cattle, male or female.

                                                                        • Nahni bininj kukbele kangeyyo Paddy Cahill nawu kumwam kondah Kunbarlanja kondah durrkmirri manme dudjengi dja djarrang dja bulikki benhbukkani bininj ngad nawu birrikukburlerri.

                                                                          That white man named Paddy Cahill came to Gunbalanya, he was working here planting vegetables and he also showed the people horses and cattle, us Aboriginal people.

                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                        Etymologyfrom English 'bullock'.

                                                                        Middle, centre.

                                                                        Synonymsbuldjdjarn

                                                                        • Beneyimerranj mahni manlabbarl manbardmo karri. Mandulkkimuk kahdi kore bulkayh.

                                                                          Those two [Yawkyawk spirits] became that billabong, with waterlilies on it. There is a big tree in the middle of it.

                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 172)

                                                                        Properly, really, seriously.

                                                                        • Bu bulkkidj duninjh ngurridjare wanjh ngurrimray karridjarrkbidyikarrmerren.

                                                                          If you really want it, come and let’s all help each other [to make it happen].

                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                        1Ghost Bat.

                                                                        Scientific nameMacroderma gigas.

                                                                        • Bumabuma minj karrinan kore kubolkwarlah kuberrk. Nungan kadjalyo kore kuwarderurrk kaddum kuwarde.

                                                                          We don't see ghost bats out in the open. They just stay in caves up in the rocks.

                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                        2.Mythical hero ancestor who turned into a bat.

                                                                        • Daluk bikang biyiwam Bumabuma marnburrinj warlang wanjh.

                                                                          He took the women, went with her and then turned himself into a bat.

                                                                        1Hit, strike.

                                                                        • Ngalkudji bikebbadjdji mandjad la ngalbuyika ngalbu bibarlanbom, wanjh djalwohmankang.

                                                                          He hit one woman hard, straight in the face. He almost hit the other one, but she fainted with fright and fell down.

                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                                        • Kunberl nganmarnebom.

                                                                          He broke my arm.

                                                                        2Kill, injure.

                                                                        • Ngalyod kumwam kanjdjibeh kurorre benbom birriwern bininj nawu birrihyoy kumekke.

                                                                          The Rainbow Serpent came up from under the earth and killed all the people who were there.

                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                        3Burn.

                                                                        • Manbang manekke ngandjenbom.

                                                                          That food's strong, it burnt my tongue.

                                                                        4Produce.

                                                                        • Manih kundulk yekke kanguybun.

                                                                          This tree produces flowers in the dry season.

                                                                        5Suffer effects of a storm, be rained on.

                                                                        • Mandjewk nganbom ngadberre.

                                                                          The storm fell on us.

                                                                        6Ring on the telephone.

                                                                        • Kaluk kukak kabirribun delebon birriyimeng.

                                                                          They said they would ring up by phone tonight.

                                                                        Kunbalakbonghme

                                                                        -burren

                                                                          Fight, fight each other.

                                                                        Term used to refer to a blind person or someone who can't see well, a substitute for using the person’s name.

                                                                          Kiss.

                                                                          • Kabenebunjhmarren.

                                                                            They are kissing each other.

                                                                          Merten's Water Monitor.

                                                                          Scientific nameVeranus mertensi

                                                                          • Burarr namak mayh bu ngarringun yiman kalawan karohrok.

                                                                            Water goannas are good to eat, just like other goannas.

                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                          • Nawu kukku kayo nakka kunngey bokenh bu ngarringeybun burarr dja durrbu dja nayahwurd nakka djerlih.

                                                                            We have two names for those (goannas) that live in the water, 'burarr' and 'durrbu', and the smaller type we call 'djerlih' (Mitchell's water monitor).

                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                          LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                          Kunbalakdedjronj, djingronj

                                                                          Spangled Grunter.

                                                                          Synonymsbokorn

                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                            Social category based on ceremonial grouping of the following subsections; ngarridj/ngarridjdjan, bangardi/bangardidjan; kamarrang/kamanj, balang/belinj.

                                                                              See alsokuyal

                                                                              Rub quickly back and forwards between the hands such as in the use of fire sticks.

                                                                              • Korroko kundjakkorl birriburdebmi birrinami wurlhmi manbu kunak.

                                                                                In the old days, people would rub fire sticks together to start a fire.

                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                              Kunbalakbidjirrbonghme

                                                                              Mould or other rotting substances with a greenish hue.

                                                                              • Kanudbore buriburi.

                                                                                There is a greenish pus discharge [from an infected wound].

                                                                              Black.

                                                                              Synonyms-kurduk

                                                                              • Kukbulerri.

                                                                                Black (skinned) person.

                                                                              See also-bulerriwon

                                                                              Kunbalakkurlngunj.

                                                                              -burlerran

                                                                                Blacken, become black.

                                                                              1Grub, moth larvae, adult moth; tiny ant sp.

                                                                                2Boil (infected sore).

                                                                                  GrammarThe semantic connection between the two senses of this word is that the various insects described as ‘burlng’ are believed to bite humans and cause infections such as boils.

                                                                                  Freshwater eels, single gilled eel.

                                                                                  Scientific nameSynbranchus bengalensis, Ophisternon gutturale

                                                                                  • Burlukkurri kayo kore kukku kubak dja kukih.

                                                                                    Eels live in the water, amongst the water weeds and in the mud.

                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  Praise.

                                                                                  • Kabirriburlume nawu namekbe yawurrinj.

                                                                                    They praise that boy.

                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                  -burlumerren

                                                                                    Show off, perform with confidence.

                                                                                  Finish, stop.

                                                                                  • Mayh ngarriyakwong, bonj burnbom.

                                                                                    We completed the ceremony and now it's finished.

                                                                                  • Bonj wanjh, ngurriburnbu wurdwurd. Ngurrikeyo, karrikeyo.

                                                                                    OK that's it, cut it out kids. Go to sleep, let's all go to sleep.

                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                  1. Understand, know.

                                                                                  • Daluhdaluk nawu dabborrabbolk kabirriburrbun manbu manrakel mankinjdjek dja karrbarda.

                                                                                    Older women know [how to distinguish] the foliage of long yams and cheeky yams.

                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  2Think, think about.

                                                                                  • Med, ngaburrbun.

                                                                                    Wait, I'm thinking.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                  Kunbalakmarrngalahme

                                                                                  Fight one another.

                                                                                  • Yawkyawk bokenh beneburrinj.

                                                                                    Two young girls had a fight.

                                                                                    (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                  Throw, chuck, throw away, push down.

                                                                                  • Yimburriwemen!

                                                                                    Chuck it over here to me!

                                                                                  • Bikukburriweng.

                                                                                    She pushed him down.

                                                                                  Kunbalakwarlhke

                                                                                  Deep part, middle area.

                                                                                  • Kaboburrk.

                                                                                    The water is deep.

                                                                                  Recognise, understand (literally, 'see the shape' or 'see the main substance' of something).

                                                                                  • Ngad bininj ngarringun manbu badjdjo... ngarrire ngarrirakelnan ngarrirakelburrknan wanjh ngarrikarung.

                                                                                    We Aboriginal people eat bush radishes... we go and we see the leaves, we recognise the leaves and we dig them up.

                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  • Ngawernhburrkburrknang manekke English manbu kunwok.

                                                                                    I really understood English.

                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                  Kunbalakwalngakurrurdme

                                                                                  1No, nothing.

                                                                                  • Burrkyak, minj korroko ngunnayi, djalbolkkime bu kerrngekkenh duninj ngunkuknan.

                                                                                    No, she's never seen you before, she’s going to see you in person for the first time now.

                                                                                    (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Manakgu, Andrew et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

                                                                                  2It was no use, nothing happened, to no avail.

                                                                                  • Birriyawam birrikayhmeng burrkyak.

                                                                                    They looked for him and called out, but to no avail.

                                                                                    (Garnarradj, Elaine, ‘Nakudji Wurdyaw Bengwabom’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku,Kune= kayakki

                                                                                  Without purpose or cause, lacking a motivation, with no specific intent.

                                                                                  • Djal burudjang bibom.

                                                                                    He just hit him for no reason.

                                                                                  1Other, another.

                                                                                  • Birribadbom nabuyika benuk.

                                                                                    Then they speared another bush turkey.

                                                                                    (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                                  • Kernalk bokenh ngalbu ngalmudbele dja ngalbuyika ngalmudburlerri.

                                                                                    There are two types of ibis, the one with black feathers and another one with white feathers.

                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  2Different, different kind.

                                                                                  • Nawu karrkkanj nakka mayhmayh yiman marram dja nungan kukbuyika.

                                                                                    The brown falcon is a bird like the whistling kite, but it looks a bit different.

                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                  Faded, dim, indistinct, not bright.

                                                                                  • Nakka banikkin melkbuyu.

                                                                                    The inside of that tin is rusty (not shiny).

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  • Battery karrowen wanjh muddika kamimbuyumen minj kawernhbolkwolkan.

                                                                                    When the battery dies, the car's lights become dim and don't light up the surroundings anymore.

                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                  -buyungmen

                                                                                    Become faded, indistinct, not bright.

                                                                                  In the sun.

                                                                                  • Karrayo.

                                                                                    It's lying in the sun.

                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku= larrhmikurrme, larrhme

                                                                                  -dakurrme

                                                                                    Place out in the sun.

                                                                                  -dayo

                                                                                    Lie in the sun.

                                                                                  1Feather, feather like crest and tail on the rainbow serpent.

                                                                                    2White egret, a name derived from the bird’s plume.

                                                                                    • Kunngey kakarrme danjbik bu ngarringeybun. Komorlo kabakaba dja dabberrk dja ngaldjalkudji ngalbu mayhmayh.

                                                                                      It has three names that we call it by. Komorlo, kabakaba and dabberrk, but they all refer to the same bird.

                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                    3Plume of smoke, can be used as a signal e.g. that someone is on their way.

                                                                                    • Bu kabirriwurlhke djarre wanjh kundolng manekke kamarnburren dabberrk.

                                                                                      If people make a fire a long way away, the smoke forms a plume in the sky.

                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                    1Old person, adult, elder, (human) ancestor.

                                                                                    • Manbu karrbarda mandule dja kunborrk bu korroko nakudji nakohbanj dabbolk Nakangila Nabarrbinj marnbom.

                                                                                      An old Nakangila skin man of the Barrbinj clan made the Long Yam song cycle, a long time ago.

                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                    2Friend.

                                                                                    • Kabenedabbolk.

                                                                                      They're friends.

                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                    1Elders, adults, old people.

                                                                                      2Ancestors, the 'Old People'. The human ancestors of present-day people, as opposed to mythological Ancestors.

                                                                                      • Korroko dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dolek.

                                                                                        In the old days, people [our ancestors] used to eat wood grubs.

                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                      See alsodabbolk

                                                                                      Kunbalakkarrabolko

                                                                                      Grammarreduplication of dabbolk

                                                                                      1Press in on, crowd around.

                                                                                      • ‘Oh barrk bolkki ngarduk kunj ngarrabke’ ngarriyime.

                                                                                        'Oh I'm going to close in that black wallaroo there, a kangaroo for me' we say.

                                                                                      • Benedjalwam bu kunred djarre benerrabkeng kumekke.

                                                                                        They kept going to places far away in order to close in on him there.

                                                                                      • Ngalbu makkakkurr ngalka ngalkimuk mayhmayh ngalbu ngalengman kadjalngun djenj... Dabborrabbolk birrirey birridabkeyi kore kurrubbe yiman kayime Mandjaworlbidji wanjh birribuni kundulk birrimangi birrikerribuni wanjh birringuni.

                                                                                        The pelican is a big bird that eats fish. In the old days, people would herd them into a closed-off area like Mandjaworlbidji (the 'Big Waterfall' at Gunbalanya) and kill them, gather wood and cook them in a ground oven.

                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                      2Meet, meet halfway, come across.

                                                                                      • Nabulanj bimarneyimeng Nakangila "yimray kandabke kore manbolh". Wanjh Nakangila yimeng "Ngamre, dabke kore manbolh nan".

                                                                                        Nabulanj said to Nakangila "Come and meet me halfway, on the road". And Nakangila said "I'll head over then and meet you there".

                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                      • Barrk kare kukku kabongun kore kahboyo, wanjh bininj kare kabidabke kore kukku kaboyo wanjh kabiyame.

                                                                                        The black wallaby goes to the waterhole to drink, and the man goes and comes across it there and spears it.

                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                      Egg, of any animal.

                                                                                      • Dabuno karrabukabun.

                                                                                        They sit on the eggs.

                                                                                        (Mick Kubarkku, quoted in Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus : indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 48)

                                                                                      LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                      See also-dabungukdeng

                                                                                      Kunbalakmorrodjornno

                                                                                      King brown snake.

                                                                                      Scientific namePseudechis australis

                                                                                      • Bolkkime karrbennan kalawan dja dadbe kabeneburren wanjh kalawan kakarrme.

                                                                                        Now when we see a goanna and a brown snake fighting, the goanna will always win.

                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                      Kunbalakdarrmayal

                                                                                      Daddubbe spirit, often depicted in paintings with an amputated leg. Said to live in escarpment country and be similar to Mimih spirits, though they are short and stocky, as opposed to Mimih which are tall and very skinny.

                                                                                      • Bininj nawu nakurdang wanjh kabinan nawu Daddubbe bu kabebme kukak kayimerran.

                                                                                        ‘Clever men’ can see Daddubbe spirits when they come out at night.

                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                      • Nawu Daddubbe nakka nungan kahyo kore kuwardderurrk yiman kayime mimih bu kabirriyo kore kuwardderurrk.

                                                                                        The Daddubbe spirit lives in caves, just like Mimih spirits which also live in caves.

                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                      • Mimih nangarradjku, Daddubbe namardku.

                                                                                        The mimih spirits are of nangarradjku moiety but Daddubbe is namardku moiety.

                                                                                      1Cut, slice.

                                                                                      • Kabindibukkan bu mako kabirridadjke kabirrimarnbun.

                                                                                        They show them how to cut (trees for) didjeridus and how to make them.

                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                      2Divide, draw a dividing line.

                                                                                        3Cut off, interrupt.

                                                                                        • Diledadjkerren.

                                                                                          Abruptly interrupt urination.

                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                        See alsodadjme

                                                                                        Kunbalakdilhke

                                                                                        1Be cut.

                                                                                          2Cease, stop.

                                                                                          • Mandjewk karradjme wanjh karrimang.

                                                                                            When it stops raining we can get it.

                                                                                          Give.

                                                                                          Synonymswon

                                                                                          • Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng.

                                                                                            Give me a (turtle) leg, I'm starving.

                                                                                            (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                          Be inside or within the boundary of something, e.g. a container. Sit, sleep or lie on or in something e.g. a mat, blanket, canoe or car.

                                                                                          • Baladjdji nang kahdarlkan manbu manme dahkedahkendi mankinjdjek, wanjh yimeng, "Ngurrimray, ngurrinan... Minj mak njale karrahkendi. Manme manu yakminj".

                                                                                            He saw the dillybag, which had been filled with cheeky yams, floating in the water, and said "Come and have a look... There's nothing in there, the food is gone".

                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 190)

                                                                                          • "Nahni marebu ngunedahkendi." "Kek", beneyimeng, wanjh benemey benehdahkendi.

                                                                                            "That mat is for you two to sit on." "Really?" they said, and they took it and sat on it.

                                                                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Ngalngarridj Marebu Marnbom’, Oenpelli School and Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                          Place into a container.

                                                                                          • Yiborrahkendo!

                                                                                            Fill up the water (container).

                                                                                          Kunbalakdahkenlorlme

                                                                                          Block an action, refuse permission, stop someone from doing something.

                                                                                          • Yimarnek kamrayinj la Ngarridj birrahmeng.

                                                                                            She was going to come but Ngarridj wouldn't let her.

                                                                                          Place out in the sun.

                                                                                          • Kabirridakurrme kore kurrungbang kadayo kabukmen.

                                                                                            They put it out in the hot sun, it lies there in the sun and it dries out.

                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                          LanguageKuninjku= larrhmikurrme

                                                                                          Dingo. Literally dalk-ken, 'from the grass'.

                                                                                          Scientific nameCanis lupus dingo

                                                                                          • Ngahli daluk Ngalyangdoh dja dalkken ngalengarre benewam benehwarlbuni kukak.

                                                                                            That woman Ngalyangdoh and her dingo went off hunting at night.

                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                          1Woman.

                                                                                          • Daluk bokenh benewam ngalmangiyi kore kabbal.

                                                                                            Two women went looking for long-necked turtles on the floodplain.

                                                                                            (Nabobbob, Rose, ‘Kunbidkudji Kunwok’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                          2Wife.

                                                                                          • Daluk kakarrme.

                                                                                            He's married (he has a wife).

                                                                                          3Female.

                                                                                          • Merlbbe daluk ngalkka nabininjkobeng ngalengarre warradjangkal.

                                                                                            Merlbbe is the female agile wallaby, and her mate is the male agile wallaby, warradjangkal.

                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                          See alsodaluhdaluk

                                                                                          Kunbalak1.kardukardu 2. ngaldjubdjubken

                                                                                          A glowing water plant or other mystical light phenomenon that appears in water bodies and is associated with the Mardayin ceremony.

                                                                                          • JM: Njamed dangarrk. Yoh, ka-yo, yiman dayno. KL:Yoh, dangarrk ka-ngerrhmirri, Mardayin. Ka-rung kandji.

                                                                                            JM: They are whatsit, dangarrk. Yes, they are like round [shapes]. KL: Yes, the dangarrk give off light and are Mardayin [sacred]. They burn under [the water].

                                                                                            (John Mawurndjul and Kay Lindjuwanga from Maningrida Arts and Culture bark painting documentation, June 1994. Recorded by Murray Garde and on file ‘Mawurndjul Texts’.)

                                                                                          1Close a door, window or opening, shut one's mouth.

                                                                                          • Yirrangbalhmen!

                                                                                            Close the door!

                                                                                          • Yirrangbalhmerrimen!

                                                                                            Close your mouth!

                                                                                            (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                          2Lock someone in, shut someone in.

                                                                                          • Kumunun wanjh ngandidangbalhmi.

                                                                                            At night they used to lock us in.

                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                          1Stand, reach a standing position, come to a standstill.

                                                                                          • Beneburriweyi madjawarr durndengi djabdangeni kore benedanginj.

                                                                                            The two of them were throwing spears, but the spears were bouncing back and coming to stand upright in the ground where the two of them were standing.

                                                                                            (From Evans 2003:379, (9.115))

                                                                                          • Ngarridanginj wanjh ngarrikoluy.

                                                                                            We stopped and got down (from the truck).

                                                                                          2Come to live in a place.

                                                                                          • Bu korroko ngarranginj, bu mandjewk mandjewk ngadjaldi munguyh.

                                                                                            I came here to live a long time ago, for many years and I'll stay here always.

                                                                                            (Margaret from Manmoyi in Gerhalter translation)

                                                                                          3Be siblings.

                                                                                          • Mongerrk benbenenang daluk bokenh. Bedda benedanginj.

                                                                                            One day, Mongerrk saw two women. They were sisters.

                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                          4Was born.

                                                                                          Synonyms-dolkan

                                                                                          • Nawamud kumekke kunred danginj wanjh kunuka kaborndokdi.

                                                                                            Nawamud was born in that place, that’s his birthplace.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                          5Grow, appear, come to be, become. Form of the verb -di ('there is, stand') that implies the process of coming into being, literally 'standing up'.

                                                                                          • Minj karribukkan bu kayahwurd. Kadjalle kadjawurrkdangen bu kabidbun.

                                                                                            We won’t teach him when he’s too young. When he grows some whiskers, then he can go up to the ceremony ground.

                                                                                          • Ngurringeynamerrimen, wanjh ba membership ngurriyimerran, dja ngurringeydangen kore djurra.

                                                                                            Sign your names, so you'll become members and your name will appear on the list.

                                                                                            (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015)

                                                                                          Grammarthis idiomatic sense being a semantic extention of the verb to stand is also only represented by the past perfective form -danginj

                                                                                          -kukdangen

                                                                                            Fruit, start fruiting, grow fruit.

                                                                                          -djawurrkdangen

                                                                                            Grow a beard.

                                                                                          -balemdangen

                                                                                            Grow fat (of game animals).

                                                                                          Siblings, brothers, sisters.

                                                                                          • Nganedanginj.

                                                                                            We are siblings / we are brothers / we are sisters.

                                                                                          • Birridanginj.

                                                                                            They are all siblings.

                                                                                          • Ngarriwen nawu ngarrimarnbun manbu badjkid nawu ngaye ngarridanginj.

                                                                                            There are lots of us here making baskets, me and my sisters.

                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra, quoted in Hamby, Louise (ed.), Twined Together: Kunmadj Njalehnjaleken, Injalak Arts and Crafts, Gunbalanya, 2005, p. xiii)

                                                                                          See alsodangen

                                                                                          Opening, entrance, mouth, lid (of cave, basket, room, didgeridoo etc).

                                                                                          • Dulklorrkkelorrkken nakka yiman nayuhyungkih kabirriyo kore kundulk manlohlorrk kore kurrangmaye kundulk kore Ankung Djang.

                                                                                            Dulklorrkkelorrkken spirits are like creation Ancestors, they live in hollow trees, where the trees have an opening, in Honey Dreaming country.

                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                          -kurrangmaye

                                                                                            The area just outside of the entrance to a rock-shelter; just beyond the overhang of a rock-shelter, typically a domestic space associated with a rock- shelter.

                                                                                          Strict, strict person, one who can speak strongly.

                                                                                            Loudmouth, literally ‘mouth-wide’.

                                                                                              Argue, discuss with each other.

                                                                                              • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us the story.

                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                              Three.

                                                                                              • Mandengeyi danjbik wam kore Kunnanj.

                                                                                                Three cars went to Kunnanj.

                                                                                                (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 19’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981.)

                                                                                              • Wurdwurd birridanjbik birriwam djenj.

                                                                                                Three children went fishing.

                                                                                                (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                              • Birriburdebmi danjbikkah, dja yika kunkarrngbakmeng, wanjh wurlhmi manu kunak.

                                                                                                They would rub it [the fire stick] back and forth three or four times, and the fire would start.

                                                                                                (Maralngurra, Dolly, ’Korroko Bu Bininj Birrimarnbuni Kunak’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974)

                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                              GrammarIf referring to people, the prefix 'birri-' is often added to make 'birridanjbik', 'the three of them'.

                                                                                              Kill, spear, especially with a multi-pronged 'fish wire' spear.

                                                                                              • Nawakadj dja Nabulanj benewam djenj benehdanjbuni kubbunj benehkani.

                                                                                                Nawakadj and Nabulanj went spearing fish with a canoe.

                                                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj Dja Nabulanj Benewam Djenj’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre.)

                                                                                              Dry, dried out.

                                                                                              • Nahni kunj kangeyyo ngorlomorroh, kaluk kadi yiman kayime kore kubolkdarleh.

                                                                                                That kangaroo is called "ngorlomorroh" (Northern nail-tail wallaby), and it lives in dry areas.

                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                              • Nang kayerrkan kore mandulkdarleh

                                                                                                He saw there was some [wild honey] in a dead tree

                                                                                                (Kunwinjku texts collected by Peter Carroll, on file at ASEDA)

                                                                                              -darlehmen

                                                                                                Dry out.

                                                                                              -darlehwon

                                                                                                Dry something out.

                                                                                              Float.

                                                                                              • Baladjdji nang kahdarlkan manbu manme dahkedahkendi mankinjdjek.

                                                                                                He saw the dillybag, which had been filled with cheeky yams, floating [empty] in the water.

                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 190)

                                                                                              Close up, closely.

                                                                                              • Karridarnhnan.

                                                                                                Let's have a close look at it.

                                                                                              1Close, close up.

                                                                                              • Nawu kinga kumhdjalwam darnkih kore ngalmekbe daluk kore ningihni.

                                                                                                The crocodile just came right up close to where that woman was sitting.

                                                                                                (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                              2Soon, nearly, about to.

                                                                                              • Kordbolbok ngarribekkan kawokdi kukak kamulewan mandjewk bu darnkih kadjakdung.

                                                                                                When we hear frogs at night, it means that it’s going to rain soon.

                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                              1Alive.

                                                                                              • Kunubewu benedarrkid. Kunubewu benedoweng.

                                                                                                Maybe the two of them are alive. Maybe they're dead.

                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                              • Nungka karrarrkid.

                                                                                                He is alive.

                                                                                              2Actual, in person.

                                                                                              • Ngarribokkadjuy nganabbarru wanjh ngarribebmeng kure darrkid ngarrinang.

                                                                                                We followed the buffalo tracks until we arrived and actually saw it (the buffalo).

                                                                                              Red-collared lorikeet. Affiliated with duwa moiety.

                                                                                              Scientific nameTrichoglossus rubritorquis

                                                                                              • Dedded kunmud kabirrimudmang kabirrikurrme kore djerrh wongkorr mardayin kunmadj.

                                                                                                People get lorikeet feathers and weave them into sacred dilly bags for the Mardayin ceremony.

                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                              Black ant.

                                                                                              • Wanjh kunu Mamik bibayeng deddel.

                                                                                                And Shorty got bitten by a black ant there.

                                                                                                (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja nakodjok benekang’ in ‘Kunwinjku Stories’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1982)

                                                                                              Cut open the guts of a kangaroo during cooking.

                                                                                              • Birridedjbuni birrinjamduhkeyi birribebkeyi mannjam kundurddu kudiw kunbalem dja njalehnjale rowk kore kunj kunjam.

                                                                                                They would cut open the kangaroo, make an opening in its belly and pull out the stomach, heart, liver, fat and everything else inside.

                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                              Begin, be ready to start.

                                                                                              • Ngaleng nalkbom, nalkbom dja dedjdjingmey wayihwayini.

                                                                                                She cried and cried, then began to sing.

                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 132)

                                                                                              Short.

                                                                                              • Ngaldedjdjumbung ngalkka.

                                                                                                That short woman.

                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                              1Naked.

                                                                                              Synonymslahlarrk

                                                                                                2 Without a base, missing its bottom.

                                                                                                • Banikkin dedjlarrk.

                                                                                                  A cup without a bottom, a cup with a big hole in the bottom of it.

                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                3 Empty, with nothing in the bottom (e.g. of a bag), finished down to the last piece.

                                                                                                • "Kankukwo kunwardde." "Minj ngakarrme kunwardde, dja dedjlahlarrk nawu baladjdji."

                                                                                                  "Give me some money." "I don't have any money, the bag is empty."

                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                • Dedjlarrkminj nawu bakki.

                                                                                                  All the tobacco is gone.

                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                Shake or shiver.

                                                                                                • Mamamh ngamngimen dja mandjewk nganhbun ngabonjdjekdoweng ngahdeldelme.

                                                                                                  Grandpa let me come in, I'm getting rained on and I'm freezing and shivering.

                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                White ochre or clay, kaolin, huntite.

                                                                                                • Manih delek ngukmak, kakukbarme duninj.

                                                                                                  This white clay is 'good shit' (of the rainbow serpent), it really is very bright.

                                                                                                Kunbalakkabbarrk

                                                                                                1Contents. Nominal suffix which indicates the idea of contents being held within a container of some kind.

                                                                                                • Kadjalbodelengkurrme kabongerdkendi wanjh.

                                                                                                  The water goes in until it is full.

                                                                                                  (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal & Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘A Kundedjnjenghmi Wordlist of Eco-zone Terminology’, Northern Land Council Caring for Country Unit, 2007)

                                                                                                2Only, just, nominal suffix 'exclusive involved participant'. Only me, just each other, all by ourselves etc.

                                                                                                • Dalukdeleng beneburrinj?

                                                                                                  Was it only the two women [and not men] who were fighting?

                                                                                                • Wanjh ngadman deleng bu ngarrinahnarren / Minj nangale ngankongibun bu konda kamre, ahwurd, ahwurd.

                                                                                                  We look after ourselves / No one feels sorry for us, no one is staying here, we are sad, we are sad.

                                                                                                  (Wildflower Band, ’Maburrinj (The lonely place called Maburrinj)’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                                                GrammarFree noun in the form of delengno (with the third person possessor suffix -no only in Kuninjku, Kune and Kundedjnjenghmi dialects) and has the sense of 'contents (of a container)'. In a second sense the word appears as a suffix on core nominals with the sense of 'exclusive involved participant' (see Evans 2003:154). Incorporable in verbs such as delengkan, delengmang, delengkurrme, delengdahkendong

                                                                                                -delengkan

                                                                                                  Take contents in a container, vehicle etc.

                                                                                                -delengmang

                                                                                                  Get or pick up a container/bag etc. with contents in it.

                                                                                                -delengdahkendong

                                                                                                  Put contents in container, put luggage in vehicle etc.

                                                                                                Splash or spill fluid on something.

                                                                                                • Bu kabbal karrire wanjh kunkih karrikihmelme wanjh kandelkke kunkih.

                                                                                                  When we go onto the floodplain and step in the mud, the mud splashes us.

                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                Cause an object to stop or slow down, delay someone, stop someone doing something, hinder someone.

                                                                                                • Kanwohdenghke.

                                                                                                  You're delaying me (i.e. I want to go).

                                                                                                • Bu yiman wurdwurdbubuyika mak kabirridurren, wanjh karrbendenghke o karrbenmarneyime “Yuwn ngurrimarneyidngalkerren”.

                                                                                                  If other kids start arguing with them, we stop them, or we tell them “Don’t go looking for trouble for yourself.”

                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                Stop moving (of large objects), be stalled (also figuratively).

                                                                                                Synonymskukdenghme

                                                                                                • 'Parachute' kabebme wanjh kakukdenghme manekke.

                                                                                                  The parachute appears and it (the aircraft) comes to a stop.

                                                                                                • Karridjalkukdenghme munguyh.

                                                                                                  We're stalled, we're not moving forward (no-one is co-operating or taking decisive action).

                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                Move something away (or if -mderrehke, movement is towards speaker).

                                                                                                • Yiderrehkemen darnki kodbarre.

                                                                                                  Move it away (and put it) close to the house.

                                                                                                1Move (a short distance).

                                                                                                • Yiderrehmen!

                                                                                                  Move away a bit.

                                                                                                • Yimderrehmen!

                                                                                                  Come closer.

                                                                                                2Move forward, make progress (towards a plan or goal etc), move on, move away.

                                                                                                • Karridubberrong yiman bolkkime karridi, karridubbedoy wanjh. Dja bu bewh wurd karribalderrehme.

                                                                                                  We don’t know which way to go at present, as we are now, we're stuck. We need to make progress.

                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                • Yuwn ngurriwernhre kunrayek kore Balanda. Bokenh ngurrirlobmen. Ngad kadberre mak kunwok ngurrikarrmen rerrih, yuwn ngurriwe, la ngurrire kore kunkukbele, burrkyak. Marndi bewh ngurrihderrehme djarreh ngurrikarrebarlanhmang manbu ngad kadberre.

                                                                                                  Don’t dedicate yourself to the Balanda way of doing things. You must run with both. You must also hold on to our own language as well. Don’t discard it and go to the white language, no. If you move too far away (from our traditions), you'll lose the Law, our law.

                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                3Make way, make room, move on.

                                                                                                • Bindimarneyimeng, “Ngurriderrehmen ngudda ngurrikukbele ngurriderrehmen wardi bu ngadman bininjwi.”

                                                                                                  They’ve said to them, “Right, you just move on. You white people move on, its our turn" (to get the jobs, etc).

                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                Kunbalakderrehbonghme

                                                                                                1Stand.

                                                                                                • Med yirrin!

                                                                                                  Stay there, wait. (lit. you sing. stand imper.)

                                                                                                • Dingihdi.

                                                                                                  He stood there for some time.

                                                                                                2Be present (especially temporarily or in a phase).

                                                                                                • Minj diwirrinj.

                                                                                                  She wasn't there.

                                                                                                • Ngudda bale yihrri?

                                                                                                  Where have you been?

                                                                                                • Yekke kabalemdi [kunj], yekke nakka bonj.

                                                                                                  In yekke season [kangaroos] are fat, certainly in yekke season.

                                                                                                3Be in affinal relationship with someone.

                                                                                                • Bale yiyime kela? Ngunehdi?

                                                                                                  What kinship relationship are you to Kela? Do you call him brother-in-law?

                                                                                                Kunbalakdjarrbelme

                                                                                                -dingihdi

                                                                                                  Reduplicated form of 'di' meaning to stand or be somewhere for some time.

                                                                                                A bush potato.

                                                                                                Synonymsmardidjdjad is the duwa name. Didjkala is the yirridjdja name

                                                                                                Scientific nameCartonema spicatum, Cartonema trigonospermum (Altman also records Cartonema parviflorum as didjkala).

                                                                                                  Various kinds of rainbow fish and hardyheads e.g. Banded rainbow fish, Mariana's hardyhead. Some speakers also include the spotted blue-eye or the delicate blue-eye.

                                                                                                  Scientific nameMelanotaenia trifasciata, Craterocephalus marianae

                                                                                                  • Dilebang nakka djenj kilekilelh yiman nadjirrkku dja kukbuyika. Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dilebang.

                                                                                                    Rainbow fish are small, like glassfish but different. In the old days, people used to eat them.

                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                  Urinate, piss.

                                                                                                  Synonymslebun, djorrkoybun

                                                                                                    The action of making a dot.

                                                                                                    • Djal bimwi yuwurrinj yiman delek bolkki ngahbimbom wolewoleh kunekke ngayimeninj kunkudji dilh dilh dilh.

                                                                                                      There was only (solid figure) images in white ochre like I use today and like I painted before with dots, one by one, dot dot dot.

                                                                                                      (Mick Kubarkku, on file “Transcript of cassette RA93-2” by Murray Garde, 1993.)

                                                                                                    Paint or draw dots.

                                                                                                    • Yoh dilhdilhmeninj la ngaleng Mardayin birrirarrkwemeninj mankarre nawu nadjamun 'old fashion one'.

                                                                                                      Yes, he used to paint dots but for Mardayin ceremony they used 'rarrk' (cross hatching) which was the old fashioned way.

                                                                                                    Dive under water, dive down.

                                                                                                    • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh yiman marrngunj burd djakolk nawern nawu djenj kare kore kukku kubowinjku. Karrbennan birriwern kore kukku kabirridjuhmiyindi kabirridimhme kanjdji kore kukku kabirriyawan djenj kabirridanjbun kundang bedberre wanjh kabirringun.

                                                                                                      Cormorants eat small freshwater fish, like baby eel-tailed catfish, spangled grunter and purple spotted gudgeon. We see lots of them in the water, diving down under the water to look for fish and spearing them with their beaks and eating them.

                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                    Stand or be somewhere for some time, a long time (reduplicated form of ‘di’, to stand or be).

                                                                                                    • Wam nang kabenehbokyo, wanjh med dingihdi burrbuhburrbuni.

                                                                                                      He went and saw that their footprints were there, then stood there a while thinking.

                                                                                                      (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nabangardi bidbom kuwardde’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                                                    Common Australian cicada.

                                                                                                    Scientific nameCyclochila australasiae

                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                      1Moon.

                                                                                                      Synonymskarrakbal

                                                                                                      • Ngad karrinjilngmak bu dird kabolkwolkan, wanjh karribolknan bu kukak, nungka kayawoyhmimbimen.

                                                                                                        We are happy when the moon lights up the sky, so we can see at night. The moon comes back to life [every night].

                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                      • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                        Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us that story.

                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                      2Month, the lunar cycle.

                                                                                                      • Ngamadbom nakudji dird.

                                                                                                        I waited one month.

                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                      -dirdko

                                                                                                        Moonlight.

                                                                                                      -dirdbuyika

                                                                                                        Next month.

                                                                                                      Play.

                                                                                                      • Wurdurd beh ngurridirri kandibengbun.

                                                                                                        You kids go and play over there, you're driving me crazy.

                                                                                                      1And. Can link both nouns and clauses.

                                                                                                      • Ngarrbek dja Ngalmangiyi benemdolkkang kakbibeh.

                                                                                                        The Echidna and the Long-necked Turtle came down from the north.

                                                                                                        (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                      • Ngudda yiyawnahna, dja ngaye ngawarlbun ngarrku.

                                                                                                        You look after the kid, and I’ll go hunting for us.

                                                                                                        (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                      2But.

                                                                                                      • Ngalbu ngalkordow ngalka mayh ngadberre bu ngarringun bu korrokoni dja bolkkime larrk.

                                                                                                        The egret is one of the animals we used to eat, but not any more.

                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                      • Ngurrurdu korroko dolkani rey kaddum kaluk bininj benebokenh yimankek beneyameninj dja larrk.

                                                                                                        One day the Emu flew up into the air, two men tried to spear her but without success.

                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                      3Because.

                                                                                                      • Bu Kudjewk wanjh birringimi kuwardderurrk birriyoy dja mandjewk dja birndu.

                                                                                                        In the wet season they moved into caves to stay, because of the rain and mosquitos.

                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                      4So; and so.

                                                                                                        Northern (spotted) quoll.

                                                                                                        Scientific nameDasyurus hallucatus

                                                                                                        • Nanih nawu Djabbo, dja Dird, benedangwerreni, bu dabborrabbolk ngandimarneyolyolmeng.

                                                                                                          Djabbo the Quoll had an argument with Dird the Moon. The old people told us that story.

                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 120)

                                                                                                        LanguageKune,Kuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                        Kunbalakyulukyuluk

                                                                                                        To stick into the ground, to end up standing upright.

                                                                                                        • Wanjh nakudji yimeng njalekenh manbu mankole ngarrburriwe kamdurndeng kadjabdan kore kubodme ngarrku. Wanjh bu benebalwam djarrehwurd benenang ngalbu Ngalyod kahyo wanjh benedurndi kured.

                                                                                                          One of them said “Why does the spear end up landing [sticking into the ground] behind us when we throw it?”. Then when they went a little further they saw that the Rainbow Serpent was there, and they went home.

                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                        1Stand upright, be standing, an elongate object standing on its base.

                                                                                                        • Kadjabdi lorrkkon.

                                                                                                          The bone pole is standing upright.

                                                                                                        2Travel directly to the destination without stopping, "straight up kare".

                                                                                                          Mouth Almighty.

                                                                                                          Scientific nameGlossamia aprion

                                                                                                          • Nahni djenj djabel korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birringuni yiman nadjirrkku dja bolkkime minj ngarringun.

                                                                                                            People used to eat mouth almighty fish, just like they used to eat glassfish, but these days we don't eat them.

                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                          LanguageKuninjku= djenjbarrang

                                                                                                          Place an elongate object on its end, place into the ground (such as a pole or a stick).

                                                                                                          • Yirrulkdjabnamen wanjh yirrukka midjikked.

                                                                                                            Place some sticks in the ground and tie up your mosquito net.

                                                                                                          Generic term for common grasshoppers.

                                                                                                          • Djaddedde kangun kunmalaworr. Kubolkwern ngarrbennan.

                                                                                                            Grasshoppers eat leaves. You can see them anywhere.

                                                                                                          Green Tree Frog, also generic for all frogs.

                                                                                                          Scientific nameLitorea caerulea

                                                                                                          • Burarr nang djaddi nayahwurd. Binjolhmeng.

                                                                                                            A goanna saw the small frog. It swallowed him.

                                                                                                            (‘Djaddi na-yahwurd’, Maningrida Literature Production Centre, Maningrida, 1994)

                                                                                                          • Mandjewk ka-djakdung djaddi 'noise' kamarnbun 'kodwong-kodwong'.

                                                                                                            In the wet season the frogs make noise 'gotwong-gotwong'.

                                                                                                          LanguageKuninjku, Kundjeyhmi, Kune

                                                                                                          Ant.

                                                                                                          Scientific nameIridomyrmex sanguineus

                                                                                                          • Djak nganbayeng.

                                                                                                            An ant bit me.

                                                                                                            (Dakgalawuy, Nancy, ‘Wurdyaw dirrihdirri’ in ‘Kunwinjku Stories’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1982)

                                                                                                          • Bu njale karringun karribawon kore kunrurrk wanjh karrinan nawern djak bu kanome dja kabolkan.

                                                                                                            If we're eating something and we leave it in the house, then ants will smell it and lots of them will come after it.

                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                          Black-necked stork, also known as the jabiru. Associated with the yirridjdja moiety.

                                                                                                          Scientific nameEphippiorhynchus asiaticus

                                                                                                          • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey kore kudjorlok manlabbarl birrinani djakarna kangun djenj wanjh birridanjbuni djalakiradj.

                                                                                                            In the old days, people would go down to the billabongs and see jabirus eating fish, and they would spear them with multi-pronged spears.

                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                          Kunbalakdjanarra

                                                                                                          Fall (rain).

                                                                                                          • Bu kudjewk kayimerran mandjewk nakimuk kadjakdung.

                                                                                                            When the wet season starts, heavy rains fall.

                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                          Younger brother (address and referent), YB.

                                                                                                            1Only, just. Exclusively one thing and not another.

                                                                                                            • Minj ngad karrinan nawu Nakurrurndilhba birridjalkudji kabirrinan nawu marrkidjbu nawu birrikurdang.

                                                                                                              We can’t see Nakurrurndilhba spirits, only clever men with special powers can see them.

                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                            2That's all, exactly, just. Adverb which indicates the extent of something.

                                                                                                            • Bedman mak morlehmorlenj djal kunmekbe rerrih, mankarre bokenh bu kabirrikadjung laik- mahni bu kunkukbelekenh, mahni kunkukburlerrikenh.

                                                                                                              It's just the same for the women - there are two laws they have to follow: one black, one white.

                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                            • Nja, ten dollar djal bonj, wardi kanmarneyakwon.

                                                                                                              Here you are, here's ten dollars and that's it, or you'll clean me out.

                                                                                                              (Evans, Nicholas (ed.), How to write Kundjeyhmi, prepared for the National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Gagudju Association.)

                                                                                                            3Keep on doing something, just keep doing something etc. Adverb of duration which indicates that an action or situation is continuing or repeating for some time.

                                                                                                            • Yidjalbun.

                                                                                                              Keep hitting it.

                                                                                                            • Djal munguyh kabenedjarrkdi.

                                                                                                              They just stay together permanently [as a couple].

                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                            4Just, anyway. Do something for no specific reason, purpose or intent, do something despite reasons not to, do something freely without restrictions or limitations.

                                                                                                            • Ngamdjalbom.

                                                                                                              "Yuwn yikan mankukyahwurd makka" "Bonj warribo ngadjalkan ngakinje ngangun. Bonj bu mankukyahwurd"

                                                                                                            • "Don't take that yam, it's too small". "Whatever, I'll just take it anyway and cook it up and eat it. Doesn't matter if it's small".

                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                            • Wanjh nunganwali wurdyaw kamayhmakmen - kadjalre nawu kambun mayh. Kaluk minj bidlarrk kamdurndeng.

                                                                                                              The child in turn will become a good hunter, he just goes and gets an animal, and he never comes back empty handed.

                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                            GrammarPrefix on verbs, noun-adjective compounds, adjectives, numerals and locations. When it restricts nouns, it is a separate word rather than a prefix. Despite being a complex word, the semantic range of 'djal' is very similar to 'just' in English, so speakers of either language should find the translation fairly intuitive. It can mean 'only' (just the women and not the men), 'exactly' (that's just the thing, just ten and no more). 'keep on doing, continuously' (he just stayed there), 'for no particular reason' (I just decided to come along') or 'despite reasons to the contrary' etc ('I just did it anyway').

                                                                                                            Multi-pronged spear, similar to 'fish wire' spear except the points are made from hardwood.

                                                                                                            • Danjbom djalaban.

                                                                                                              He speared it with a 'djalaban' type spear.

                                                                                                              (The example phrase comes from texts Peter Carroll has deposited with AIATSIS)

                                                                                                            'Fish wire' spear, wire. Spear with three or four sharpened metal prongs at the end, used for fishing or hunting smaller animals such as aquatic birds. A similar spear with barbed wooden prongs is known as mandanj and is considered to be the more traditional prototype for djalakiradj.

                                                                                                            • Bolkkime nawu djalakiradj karrimarnbun nawu balanda marnbom wire. Karridjobke karrimarnbun dad danjbik kunubewu kunkarrngbakmeng nawu wire dad. Karrimang mankole wanjh karridadname nawu dad djalakkiradj.

                                                                                                              These days we make fishing spears out of wire, a non-indigenous material. We cut it and make three or four prongs, then we cut spear shafts and fasten the prongs onto them.

                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                            EtymologyEvans writes that this comes from Malay "tali kəras" meaning "taut line". "This would presumably refer to the way in which the string holding the prongs in place must be pulled taut". Yolngu Matha = djalakaritj 'spear with long thin steel prongs, used for fishing'

                                                                                                            See alsomandanj

                                                                                                            1Tree orchid. The juice from the base of the plant was used as a fixative for ochre pigments on bark, stone or body decoration.

                                                                                                            Scientific nameDendrobium dicuphum

                                                                                                            • Korroko nawu dabborrabbolk birribimbuni kore dolobbo wanjh birrirey birriyawani djalamardi. Wanjh birrimangi birrikani kured, birridongi yika birribayeyi birrikerlkwoni. Wanjh birribarungi nawu dolobbo birribimbuni njale.

                                                                                                              In the old days, when people wanted to paint on bark, they would go looking for tree orchids. They would get them, take them home and pund them up, or chew them to make them soft. Then they would paint something on the bark (using the orchid as fixative).

                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                            2A plant with edible tuber but leaves similar to the orchid.

                                                                                                              Kunbalaknone

                                                                                                              Dragonfly.

                                                                                                              • Nawu djalangkarridj-djalangkarridj bu kabirrinan nawu dabborrabbolk wanjh kabirriyime bonj wanjh djenj kamulewan.

                                                                                                                When people see dragonflies, they say that means there are fish (ready to be caught).

                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                              Centipede.

                                                                                                              • Djalarr djang bedberre birri-Madjba.

                                                                                                                The centipede is a dreaming for Madjba (Jawoyn) clan people.

                                                                                                              LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                              Keep doing action, keep going.

                                                                                                              • Yidjalay.

                                                                                                                Keep going further.

                                                                                                              • Nawu Nawamud bimarneyimeng Nangarridj mah ngudda wanjh yidjalay kurih kakbi.

                                                                                                                Nawamud said to Nangarridj "OK, you just keep on going north then".

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                              • Mah yidjalay munguyh yidjalmarnbu.

                                                                                                                OK just keep on doing it.

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                              Grammarfrom imperative form of djal+re > djal+ray

                                                                                                              Keep going, keep doing something.

                                                                                                              • Yidjalay.

                                                                                                                Keep going further.

                                                                                                              • Bu bininj kabirriwohre kunbarnangarrakuyeng yiman malamalaywi kabirridedjdjingmang kabirridjale kadungborledme bu kabaldungyibme.

                                                                                                                When people walk around all day, for example they might start in the morning and keep on going until the afternoon and the sun starts to go down.

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                              • Nawu bininj kabiwabun nabuyika bininj wanjh kadjalkukyakmen minj nangale kabingalke. Kunekke birrikurduyimi korroko nawu dabborabbolk bu bindiwabuni namarndekah wanjh birridjalkukyakmeni minj mak birridurndeyi kore kured dja wanjh birridjaley kore kuwardderurrk munguyhmunguyh.

                                                                                                                When a man curses another man, the other man just disappears, nobody can find him anymore. That's what people used to do in the old days, they would sing people over to the evil spirits, and they would just disappear and not come back home, they would just go on into a cave and stay there forever.

                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                              GrammarAn abbreviation of 'djal'+'re’. Conjugated like 're', e.g. kadjale (he/she keeps going), yidjalay (keep going!), birridjaley (they would keep going), ngadjalwam (I kept going).

                                                                                                              Cut into pieces, slice in half.

                                                                                                              • Wanjh nawu ngalmangiyi dja kedjebe nakka benewilkdi wanjh benehni benehmadbuni wanjh bu djolengminj wanjh benewayhkeng benedjalkmey benenguneng wanjh beneworrkminj.

                                                                                                                Then they cooked the long-necked turtles and file snakes in the ground oven, sat and waited a while, and when they were done they lifted them out, cut them up, ate them and were full.

                                                                                                                (Garnarradj, Elaine N, ‘Ngalbadjan dja Ngalyaw’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, Oenpelli, 1975)

                                                                                                              1Just do some little thing, just do something temporarily, for the time being, only, nothing more.

                                                                                                              • Ngabendjalwohkan wurdurd.

                                                                                                                I'll take the children for the time being [until you return].

                                                                                                              • Manmekbe ngadjalwohyolyolmeng bonj, la ngaburnbun.

                                                                                                                That's all I had to say, I'll stop now.

                                                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                              2For no purpose, to no result.

                                                                                                              • Karridjalohwamwi karrikowerrinj.

                                                                                                                We just went there for nothing, we were under an incorrect belief (that something could be obtained there).

                                                                                                              Grammardjal+woh

                                                                                                              Trousers.

                                                                                                              • Yidjongburren djalawarra!

                                                                                                                Put on those trousers!

                                                                                                              Etymologyfrom Makassarese saluwara 'trousers’

                                                                                                              Tamarind tree and fruit.

                                                                                                                EtymologyFrom Makassarese camba.

                                                                                                                Hit something against something else, lift and throw OBJ down with force.

                                                                                                                • Ngalbininjkobeng nabininjkobeng benewam kalawan benehyawani wanjh benengalkeng nawu kalawan. Ngalbininjkobeng yimeng "Mah yima yidjambarrhmang".

                                                                                                                  A husband and wife went looking for goannas, and they found one. The wife said "Okay, grab it (by the tail) and smash it against something" [this is the usual way to kill a goanna].

                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                • Ngandjambarrhdjambarrhmang muddikang.

                                                                                                                  The truck is throwing me around.

                                                                                                                Police.

                                                                                                                  Sacred, restricted, secret, set apart.

                                                                                                                  • Nadjamun minj karriyolyolme.

                                                                                                                    That's secret/sacred, we don't talk about that.

                                                                                                                  Kunbalaknjeknjek

                                                                                                                  -bolkdjamun

                                                                                                                    Restricted area, sacred place.

                                                                                                                  -manbodjamun

                                                                                                                    A sacred water body, sacred water hole.

                                                                                                                  Not sweet, bland, flavorless.

                                                                                                                  • Manme manbu mandjan.

                                                                                                                    Bland food, food that's not very sweet.

                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                  • Manbu manbodjan ngarriyime makka minj kakarrme nawu mankung namanjmak. Nawu mankung ngarriyime minj manbomanjmak. Dja manbodjan.

                                                                                                                    We can describe honey that's not very good as 'manbodjan' ('liquid that's not sweet'). It's not good honey, it's a bit flavorless.

                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                  Yellow spotted monitor which is a goanna similar in size (up to 1 metre) to kalawan Varanus gouldii but with different colour and skin patterning.

                                                                                                                  Scientific nameVaranus panoptes

                                                                                                                    Bludge off other people, e.g. hang around waiting for offers of food, asking for money or cigarattes.

                                                                                                                    • Nguddu yidjandi ngadberre!

                                                                                                                      You’re bludging off us!

                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                    1Sunday.

                                                                                                                      2Week.

                                                                                                                        Etymologyfrom English 'Sunday'.

                                                                                                                        1Place of religious significance where the spiritual essence of a totemic being, plant, animal or other emblem resides in a particular location.

                                                                                                                        • Nawu Manimunak wirlarrk djang kahdjangdi kore kaddum kuwarde Arrkuluk.

                                                                                                                          There is a sacred site for Magpie Goose eggs on the top of Arrkuluk rock.

                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                        2Totemic emblem, 'dreaming'.

                                                                                                                        • Djalarr djang bedberre birri-Madjba.

                                                                                                                          The djalarr centipede is a dreaming for Madjba (Jawoyn) clan people.

                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                        -djangdi

                                                                                                                          There is a sacred site, a sacred site exists.

                                                                                                                        -djangkurrmerren

                                                                                                                          Place oneself as djang, said when an ancestor becomes a sacred site.

                                                                                                                        -djangwarrewon

                                                                                                                          Disturb a sacred site.

                                                                                                                        Have a sacred site or totemic emblem.

                                                                                                                        • Durlmangkarr konda kadjangdi Kudjaborrng. Barrk kumekke djang kayo. O njamed nawaran.

                                                                                                                          The Durlmangkarr clan have a dreaming place here at Kudjaborrng. There is a black wallaroo dreaming or whatsit, an Oenpelli python dreaming there.

                                                                                                                        Go hunting.

                                                                                                                        • Nakudji wam djangkang, nang dungyibmeng wanjh keleminj.

                                                                                                                          A man went out hunting, saw that the sun had set and became frightened.

                                                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku

                                                                                                                        Kunbalakdjahdjangmodme

                                                                                                                        Perform increase ritual.

                                                                                                                        • Manmakkawarri djang kahdjangdi kondah kore Kunbarlanja. Korroko dabborrabbolk nawu kondah kunred bedberre birrirey kunworr mandubang birrimangi birriwodbuni birridjangweyi wanjh kolungi kore manlabbarlkimuk nawu nawern djenj manmakkawarri.

                                                                                                                          There is a sacred site for the Catfish here in Gunbalanya (a rock not far from the billabong). In the old days, the people from this area would go and hit the rock with ironwood branches as an increase ritual, and lots of catfish would go down into the billabong.

                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                        Be stuck, locked in a position.

                                                                                                                          Want, desire, love, like.

                                                                                                                          • Ngaye ngawarnyak makka yaldanj, minj ngadjare.

                                                                                                                            I don't want that waterlily root, I don't like it.

                                                                                                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Nakudji Namarladj Ngiwkmihngiwkmirey’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                          Kunbalakdjaloy

                                                                                                                          -marnedjare

                                                                                                                            Love somebody, want to see somebody.

                                                                                                                          -kundjare

                                                                                                                            Desire.

                                                                                                                          -djaredowen

                                                                                                                            Long for something, crave something.

                                                                                                                          Connect two parts together, attach.

                                                                                                                          • Bu korroko nakka mandanj birrimarnbuni kundulk birrimirrhmarnbuni. Wanjh kore mankole birridjarlkkennami wanjh djenj birridanjbuni.

                                                                                                                            In the old days people would make mandanj type spears. They would sharpen small pieces of wood and attach them to a spear shaft and spear fish.

                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                          • Key yidjalkkennamen kure murrika.

                                                                                                                            Put the key in the car [in the ignition].

                                                                                                                          • Kandjalkkenname kuburldjarn.

                                                                                                                            Put me in the middle [of a queue, or a line of dancers].

                                                                                                                          • Konda ngadjalkkennamerren.

                                                                                                                            I'll put myself in the middle [of the queue].

                                                                                                                          Small tick.

                                                                                                                            See alsosee middurru

                                                                                                                            Fork in branch. Larger Y-shaped forked branches are used as a ladder to climb trees. The fork is laid against the tree and you climb up.

                                                                                                                              GrammarOften the locative prefix ku- is attached kudjarnngal ‘in the fork of the branch’.

                                                                                                                              -kudjarnngal

                                                                                                                                In the fork of the branch.

                                                                                                                              Horse.

                                                                                                                              • Nabulanj wam kabbal wanjh nawu djarrang dja nganabbarru mirndeyarlarrkeng.

                                                                                                                                Nabulanj went down to the floodplain, and all the horses and the all buffalo ran off and dispersed (as he walked near them).

                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                              Etymologyfrom Makassarese j·rang 'horse'.

                                                                                                                              Far, distant, a long way away.

                                                                                                                              Synonymsbalay

                                                                                                                              • Wam djarreh wanjh mandjewk kumhwam nayahwurd wanjh yerre kimukminj.

                                                                                                                                He went a long way away and it started to rain a little, then the rain got heavy.

                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                              • Minj kawernhbolknan djarreh.

                                                                                                                                He’s short-sighted, he’s suffering from myopia.

                                                                                                                                (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                              -djarrehwurd

                                                                                                                                A bit further.

                                                                                                                              Further.

                                                                                                                              • Wanjh bu benebalwam djarrehwurd benenang ngalbu Ngalyod kahyo wanjh benedurndi kured.

                                                                                                                                Then when they went a little further they saw that the Rainbow Serpent was there, and they went home.

                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                              Together, all acting together, all.

                                                                                                                              • Karridjarrkre.

                                                                                                                                Lets all go together.

                                                                                                                              Pair, two.

                                                                                                                              Synonymsboken

                                                                                                                              • Yaw djarrkno.

                                                                                                                                Twins.

                                                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                              See alsodjarrkno na-/ ngal- /man-kudji

                                                                                                                              Kunbalakbulalh

                                                                                                                              Ask.

                                                                                                                              Synonymsdjawayhme

                                                                                                                              • Wanjh Nawakadj wam benhyawani, benngalkeng, bendjawam, "Ngudda ngurriyameng djarrang?"

                                                                                                                                Then Nawakadj went looking for them. He found them and asked them "Did you manage to spear a horse?".

                                                                                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                              -djawarren

                                                                                                                                Ask each other, ask oneself, reflect.

                                                                                                                              Ask, request.

                                                                                                                              • Wurdyaw bidjawam kornkumo ngalbadjankah, djawayhmeng, "Karrard baleh wam?”

                                                                                                                                The child asked his father about his mother, he asked “Where’s mum gone?”

                                                                                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                              • Nawu ngundidjawayhme yibenngeykurrme

                                                                                                                                Friend Requests (on Facebook)

                                                                                                                              1Friend.

                                                                                                                                2Disciple (Christianity).

                                                                                                                                  EtymologyProbably from Makassarese toana 'guest'.

                                                                                                                                  Jawoyn, the Jawoyn language and people, whose traditional country is centred on the southern part of the Arnhem Plateau and surrounding areas such as Katherine and Barunga.

                                                                                                                                  • Ngalkudji wurdyaw Ngaldjawonj / bolkbawong kunred ngalengarre / Bolkmaddi kore Manginburru bedberre

                                                                                                                                    There is a little girl from a Jawoyn clan / who left her country / And who has stayed for a long time on Manginburru land

                                                                                                                                    (Wildflower Band, ‘Ngaldjawonj ‘The Jawoyn Girl’’, from the Album ‘Maningburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                                                                                                  • Konhda Nanguluwurr barriyoy Nadjawonj, kabolkbuk.

                                                                                                                                    Jawoyn people slept here at Nanguluwurr, it's a dry place.

                                                                                                                                  1Supposedly, apparently, they say. Introduces falso complements of reportative verb. 'That's what the claim is...'

                                                                                                                                  • Korroko bininj bokenh benedanjbom benekinjeng benenguneng benedoweng djaying bu birrimulewam.

                                                                                                                                    In the past two people speared one, cooked it and ate it and they died. That's what people say.

                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                  2Possibly, might be, whether or not, (introduces predicates whose epistemic status is uncertain).

                                                                                                                                  • Nakka maydbi bedberre, old man nakka kabengkan Wamud. Nakka djaying bedberre Wurrbbarn.

                                                                                                                                    It [a place] might belong to them, old man Wamud will know. It possibly belongs to the Wurrbbarn clan.

                                                                                                                                  3Expresses lack of commitment or uncertainty to the truth value or otherwise of a reported claim. 'Apparently'.

                                                                                                                                    4Expression of misapprehension.

                                                                                                                                    • Djaying ba-rayinj kurih.

                                                                                                                                      I thought he was going to come (but he didn't) (Kundjeyhmi).

                                                                                                                                    Grammarcounterfactual particle

                                                                                                                                    Northern brushtail possum.

                                                                                                                                    Scientific nameTrichosurus arnhemensis

                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                      Address term used by a woman to her children (of both genders) or a man to his sister’s children.

                                                                                                                                        Scrape with a tool; carve or sculpt.

                                                                                                                                        • Namarden bolkdjedmeng kure Kukkurr.

                                                                                                                                          The Lightning Spirit carved out that place at Kukkurr (Kukkurr is a large red cliff on the eastern bank of the Liverpool river).

                                                                                                                                        Laugh, smile.

                                                                                                                                        • Ngarridjekmeng ngarridoweng ngarribodmedadjmeng.

                                                                                                                                          We laughed until it hurt and we doubled over.

                                                                                                                                        • Nakudji nakimukkenh borrkkeng wanjh karridjekmeng.

                                                                                                                                          One fat man danced and we laughed (at him).

                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakyedjekme

                                                                                                                                        1Fish (generic).

                                                                                                                                        • Nakodjok dja Nawamud benewam Kunnanj, djenj benehmangi.

                                                                                                                                          Nakodjok and Nawamud went to Kunnanj, catching fish.

                                                                                                                                          (Galamirnda, Barbara N., ‘Nakodjok Dja Nawamud Benewam Kunnanj Djenj’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, 1975)

                                                                                                                                        2Fishing (when combined with the verb re, 'to go'). (Literally 'go for fish').

                                                                                                                                        • Daluk benebokenh benewam djenj wakkidj.

                                                                                                                                          Two women went fishing with fishing lines.

                                                                                                                                          (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkorrngelk

                                                                                                                                        -djenjmak

                                                                                                                                          Good at fishing.

                                                                                                                                        Mitchell's water monitor.

                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameVaranus mitchelli

                                                                                                                                          String bag (looped or knotted) with string woven from a great variety of plant fibres including Acacia difficilis, Acacia latifolia, Brachychiton diversifolius, Brachychiton megaphyllus, Clerodendrum floribundum, Ficus virens, Hibiscus arnhemensis, Pandanus spiralis, Pandanus aquaticus, Planchonia careya and Sterculia quadrifida.

                                                                                                                                          • Djerrh korroko birrimarnbuni manmekenh bu birriwarlbuni nawu morlehmorlenj.

                                                                                                                                            In the past, women used to make dilly bags for gathering fruits and vegetables.

                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                          Kunbalakkaledjerrk

                                                                                                                                          -kunkorndjerrh

                                                                                                                                            Scrotum.

                                                                                                                                          Tip onto side, capsize, start to sink.

                                                                                                                                          • Doy kunwardde djerrkdanj, barrabarrhmeng.

                                                                                                                                            [The boat] hit the rocks, capsized and broke up.

                                                                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 246)

                                                                                                                                          • Kadungdjerrkdan.

                                                                                                                                            The sun is sinking.

                                                                                                                                          -djerrkname

                                                                                                                                            Tip something over.

                                                                                                                                          -djerrkdi

                                                                                                                                            Be on its side, capsized.

                                                                                                                                          Dwarf spirit being. Some are said to inhabit the honey dreaming country in Mok clan estate.

                                                                                                                                          • Name nungan djenj kangun djidjnguk nakka.

                                                                                                                                            Those djidjnguk spirits eat fish.

                                                                                                                                          • Djidjnguk nakka dedjdjumbung murrngrayek dja nabang warridj.

                                                                                                                                            Djidjnguk spirits are short and strong, and dangerous too.

                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                          Willy wagtail. Possibly also the grey fantail.

                                                                                                                                          Scientific nameRhipidura leucophrys, Rhipidura fuliginosa

                                                                                                                                            Breast-feed, allow to suckle.

                                                                                                                                            • Kabiyawdjikkawon.

                                                                                                                                              She's breast-feeding the baby.

                                                                                                                                            Kind of cane grass sometimes referred to as 'bush sugar cane' because of the sugary juice it contains. Some speakers say that mayadjdja is sweet grass that has ripened and has plenty of juice whilst younger grass without much juice is called djilidjilih.

                                                                                                                                            Synonymsmayadjdja

                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameHeteropogon triticeus

                                                                                                                                            • Birriwern wurdwurd birriwam birrihmangi kundalk birrihbakkeyi njamed mayadjdja dja djilidjilih birribayeyi.

                                                                                                                                              Lots of children went and were breaking themselves pieces of grass to chew on, bush sugarcane.

                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                            • Bu kabirriwohre kore kudahdadalk wanjh wanjh kabirringalke djilihdjili, kukku kabokarrme, wanjh kabirridalkbayehbaye kukku kabirribongun.

                                                                                                                                              When people walk around in grassy areas they find bush sugar cane, which has juice in it, so they bite the grass and drink the juice.

                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                            Wandering whistle duck.

                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameDendrocygna arcuata

                                                                                                                                            • Nganere djilikuybi nganedulubun, dja manimunak.

                                                                                                                                              We're going to shoot Whistle Duck and Magpie Goose.

                                                                                                                                              (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 40-43)

                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku

                                                                                                                                            Itch, fungal rash, ringworm.

                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                              Wind which blows from the east.

                                                                                                                                              • Djimurruko kunkurra kabun koyekbeh.

                                                                                                                                                In the east wind season the wind blows from the east.

                                                                                                                                              Steal.

                                                                                                                                              • Nangale djirdmey kunmadj ngarduk?

                                                                                                                                                Who stole my clothes?

                                                                                                                                              Salt.

                                                                                                                                              • Ngarrihyoy Nimbuwa mankabo ngarridulubuni kinga ngarrikurlahbuni djirla ngarrikurlahkani Kunbarlanja.

                                                                                                                                                We were camping at Nimbuwa creek and hunting crocodiles. We would salt the skins and carry them back to Gunbalanya.

                                                                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, biography section.)

                                                                                                                                              Etymologyfrom Makassarese 'salt(y), brackish'

                                                                                                                                              Most larger quails e.g. stubble quail, brown quail, chestnut-backed button-quail.

                                                                                                                                              SynonymsI= djiribbidj, mehme, E= merhmerh

                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameCoturnix pectoralis, Coturnix ypsilophora, Turnix castanota

                                                                                                                                                LanguageKundjeyhmi,Kundedjnjenghmi,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                A stick or string used to carry fish, being inserted through the gills and out of the mouth.

                                                                                                                                                • Yika kunyarl dja kundulk bu kabirridjirribiwon nawu djenj.

                                                                                                                                                  People carry fish with either a stick or a string through the gills.

                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                Wash, clean something with water.

                                                                                                                                                  Generic term for most kingfishers (sacred kingfisher, red-backed kingfisher, forest kingfisher, mangrove kingfisher and azure kingfisher).

                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameTodiramphus (Halcyon) sancta, Todiramphus (Halcyon) pyrrhopygia, Todiramphus (Halcyon) macleayii, Halcyon senegaloides, Alcedo azurea

                                                                                                                                                  • Djirrihdiddid kakukyime yiman kaldurrk dja ngahli ngalkukyahwurd.

                                                                                                                                                    The kingfisher looks like a blue-winged kookaburra, but it has a smaller body.

                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                  1Cut; cut off, end (a process or activity).

                                                                                                                                                    2Draw a line on something.

                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                      -berddjobke

                                                                                                                                                        Circumcise.

                                                                                                                                                      Finish up, cut off, come to an end.

                                                                                                                                                      • That bolkno, Warlang Karrulkkarrme, Dedjbang kadjobme, beh duwa.

                                                                                                                                                        That place Warlang Karrulkkarrme, and then at Dedjbang, that’s where it finishes, [i.e. the border between two clan estates] and that's duwa moiety country this way.

                                                                                                                                                      Centipede.

                                                                                                                                                      • Kore kunred Djurlka kore kubolkmayirrkulidj kunred ngaye ngayime karrardwarrekenh bukka Djodj kadjangdi.

                                                                                                                                                        At Djurlka in Mayirrkulidj clan country, which is my mother’s country, there is a centipede sacred site.

                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKuninjku

                                                                                                                                                      Cough.

                                                                                                                                                      • Kangurdke kore karridjohme bu karribarurren nawu delek kukodj, kadjale kanjdji kurrenge.

                                                                                                                                                        It stops us from coughing when we rub [a special white ochre] over ourselves from head to foot.

                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 196, additions Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                      Narrow, tight.

                                                                                                                                                      • Kubarrarndjokko.

                                                                                                                                                        A narrow passage.

                                                                                                                                                      1Cooked, ripe, ready.

                                                                                                                                                        2Skilled, experienced, ‘pro’ [colloquial]

                                                                                                                                                        • Djoleng nakka.

                                                                                                                                                          He’s a real pro.

                                                                                                                                                          (Ray Nadjamerrek, referring to ‘Batman’ the helicopter pilot. )

                                                                                                                                                        -djolengmen

                                                                                                                                                          Ripen, get cooked.

                                                                                                                                                        Put on clothes.

                                                                                                                                                        • Yidjongburren djalawarra!

                                                                                                                                                          Put on those trousers.

                                                                                                                                                        Grammarusually only used as reflexive

                                                                                                                                                        Axe head.

                                                                                                                                                        • Wurrakkak benedurrinj Nimbuwa wanjh Wurrakkak mey karramalk bidjuddjobkemeninj dja larrk nawu karramalk djord djorddolkang bolkngadji.

                                                                                                                                                          Wurrakkak and Nimbuwa fought, and Wurrakkak took a stone axe and tried to cut off Nimbuwa's head, but it didn't work and the axe head flew off and buried itself in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                        Grow, grow up.

                                                                                                                                                        • Wurrmarninj kadjordmen kore kabbal.

                                                                                                                                                          Red lilies grow on floodplains.

                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                        • Djordohdjordminj nawu ngarridudji.

                                                                                                                                                          The ones we planted have all grown up.

                                                                                                                                                        -djordmerren

                                                                                                                                                          Grow (in large numbers).

                                                                                                                                                        -djordmiwe

                                                                                                                                                          Bring something or someone up, raise a child, make something grow, cultivate.

                                                                                                                                                        Collective or plural sense of grow; 'they are all growing'.

                                                                                                                                                        • Mandjewk kamankan, nganbowon kukku / Kamarnbun kadjordmerren kundalk kundulk

                                                                                                                                                          The rain falls to give me some water / To make the trees and grass grow.

                                                                                                                                                          (Wildflower Band, 'Maburrinj', from the Album ‘Maningburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009 )

                                                                                                                                                        1Grow something, cultivate.

                                                                                                                                                          2Raise someone from a child, 'grow im up'.

                                                                                                                                                          • Kornkumo doweng wanjh ngadjadj nuye bidjordmiweng.

                                                                                                                                                            His father died and so then his mother's brother raised him.

                                                                                                                                                          • Kunkanj, wirlarrk, kundjikkakurrk, djenj, dja nawern nawu namakmak kabendjordmiwe, yun ngurrbenwon kandidjdjawa dja tea makka manwarre.

                                                                                                                                                            Meat, eggs, breast milk, fish, all those good foods are what grows them [children] up strong. Don’t give them flour and tea, that’s bad.

                                                                                                                                                            (Nawirridj, Grace, untitled book, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                                                                                          Run away, head off somewhere without others’ knowledge, run off and get lost.

                                                                                                                                                          • Kunkare wurdyaw djorlkmeng, dja ngalbadjan kornkumo beneni kured, dja nungan wam. Wam kore kungarrebuldjarn, wanjh dulknang mandulkkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                            One day a long time ago, a child ran away. His mother and father were at home, and he set off alone. He went to the middle of the forest, and saw a big tree.

                                                                                                                                                            (Maralngurra, Dolly W, ‘Kunkare Wurdyaw Djorlkmeng’, C.M.S, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                                                                          • Ngad wanjh silly ngarriyimeng, kunkudjikenh bu ngarridjorlkmeng.

                                                                                                                                                            Well, we had been silly that one time when we ran away.

                                                                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                          Rock ringtail possum.

                                                                                                                                                          Scientific namePetropseudes dahli

                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakdolhwarr

                                                                                                                                                            Straighten.

                                                                                                                                                              -djorrngmerren

                                                                                                                                                                Stretch oneself, stretch out.

                                                                                                                                                              Cross over (a creek, river etc).

                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakdjorrbowke

                                                                                                                                                                1Break neck (of game, after capture).

                                                                                                                                                                • Ngarduk kokok ngayi ngadurndeng ngamang kaluk ba kabun kadjudbakke kure kuronj nungka yimeng djahwodjahwong.

                                                                                                                                                                  I'll go back and get my big brother so he'll go and kill it and break its neck (the crocodile) somewhere there in the water.

                                                                                                                                                                2Be an expert in ceremony or law, lead or control a ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                • Korroko nakka nakka kabidjudbakke ngadberre Ubarr ngayih dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                  Already him, he is leading our Ubarr ceremony, me included.

                                                                                                                                                                3An idiom meaning (wife) deceive (husband), play up behind back of (husband).

                                                                                                                                                                • Albininjkobeng kundjudbakbakke (Kdj).

                                                                                                                                                                  Your wife's playing up on you.

                                                                                                                                                                Prod, jab, poke, spike.

                                                                                                                                                                • Ngandengedjurrudjudmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                  It poked my feet all over [walking on spiky vegetation].

                                                                                                                                                                • Yun yikanemdjudmerren!

                                                                                                                                                                  Don't poke things into your ear!

                                                                                                                                                                Grammarthe noun being spiked is incorporated as a verbal prefix

                                                                                                                                                                Immerse in water, splash.

                                                                                                                                                                • Bimimdjuhkeng.

                                                                                                                                                                  She washed his eyes.

                                                                                                                                                                • Kandimimdjuhkeken.

                                                                                                                                                                  Eye drops.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                                Be in water, get into water, shower, bathe.

                                                                                                                                                                • Dja bolkkime larrk minj nangale kadjuhme kinga nawern kahyo kore manlabbarlkimuk kahboyo wardi kanbaye kanbun.

                                                                                                                                                                  But these days no-one gets into the water at the big billabong, there are lots of crocodiles and they would bite and kill us.

                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                Female black wallaroo.

                                                                                                                                                                Scientific nameMacropus bernadus

                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                  See alsobarrk

                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakngalwarddedjenngorrmo

                                                                                                                                                                  Sugar.

                                                                                                                                                                    Etymologyfrom English

                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakkunkarnalanj

                                                                                                                                                                    Matches.

                                                                                                                                                                      Etymologyfrom either Makassarese colo? 'match' or from Malay or Bajau sulu 'torch'.

                                                                                                                                                                      Short.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Kebkuyeng kumoken, ngahbimbom. Nakang kondanj Kubumi, Kabarrebarre, kebkuyeng kaluk dolobbo djumbung.

                                                                                                                                                                        I've painted the freshwater crocodile with its long snout. It lives here at Kubumi and Kabrrebarre and has a long snout but the bark I've painted it on is too short.

                                                                                                                                                                      -dedjdjumbung

                                                                                                                                                                        Short (of people/animals), opposite of konamkuyeng.

                                                                                                                                                                      Call someone matrilineal grandkin, i.e. the kin term kakkak, ie. mother's mother and mother's mother's siblings and recipricol.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngandidjumdoy.

                                                                                                                                                                        They call me kakkak (mother's mother/mother's mother's siblings or a woman's daughter's children or a man or woman's sister's daughter's children).

                                                                                                                                                                      Ritual manager, person in opposite moiety to moiety affiliation of ceremony and also person whose mother is a traditional owner of an estate of land.

                                                                                                                                                                        Bubble.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Wurlebmeng yiman kumekke djunj bayehbayeng.

                                                                                                                                                                          He swam and acted like he was swallowing the water bubbles.

                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Comrie, Bernard (ed.), ‘Language Contact and Documentation / Contacto lingüístico y documentación’, De Gruyter Mouton, Berlin, 2015, p. 295)

                                                                                                                                                                        Make bubbles, for example an animal underwater making bubbles which rise to the surface.

                                                                                                                                                                          Shortened, chopped off, amputated.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Biddjurdu.

                                                                                                                                                                            Chopped off finger.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Daddjurdu.

                                                                                                                                                                            leg amputated/one legged person.

                                                                                                                                                                          Round in shape.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Badjkid kabirrimarnbun dedjdjurduhdjurduh.

                                                                                                                                                                            They make baskets with round bases.

                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                          • Dedjdjurduhdjurduh.

                                                                                                                                                                            Fat / nice and fat (buffalo, pig, kangaroo etc).

                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                          Paper, book, document etc.

                                                                                                                                                                            Etymologyfrom Macassan, sura? 'letter'.

                                                                                                                                                                            Waterfall. This is expressed as a verb in Bininj Kunwok languages.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Karrire Kunburray bolkbukkan kadjurrhbume kumekke.

                                                                                                                                                                              We'll go to Kunburray and I'll show you the waterfall there.

                                                                                                                                                                            Do an action quickly, with haste, quick 'slap up' e.g. poor quality artwork.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Mahni yidjurrkdjurrkmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                              You've just made this too quickly [without care].

                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure someone, tempt someone.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngaye ngakeleminj, ngaye ngamarneyimeng Yirawala, 'Ngudda kanhdjurrkkani bu ngayameng.' Ngaye ngayidduy.

                                                                                                                                                                              I was scared. I told Yirawala ‘You were pressuring me to spear him’. I was angry.

                                                                                                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 198)

                                                                                                                                                                            Stone hammer or pounder used to grind and pound food, typically on a flat portable stone, bedrock or in grinding hollows.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Bu korroko dabborrabbolk birrikarrmi kunwardde manbu manmeken bu birridongi dja birringirrihngirrihmi. Makka wanjh djurrubuk manyaw birringeybuni dja manbu manbadjan manwarddebalabbala.

                                                                                                                                                                              In the old days, people had rocks for pounding and grinding food. They called the smaller rock [held in the hand] 'djurrubuk', and the for the base they used a large flat rock.

                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                            Take someone and shield them, protect someone.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Nabininjkobeng bidungi ngalbininjkobeng nuye bimarneyimi kunwok kunwarre. Wanjh nawu narangem benedanginj ngaldaluk wanjh yidduy dulkmey bibuyi ngaldaluk. Dja ngalbu ngaldaluk rlobmeng ngalkohbanj bidjurrukang.

                                                                                                                                                                              The husband was swearing at his wife, saying bad words to her. The woman's brother got angry at her as well, and went to hit her with a stick. But the woman ran away, and an old woman shielded her.

                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                            Great Bower Bird.

                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameChlamydera nuchalis

                                                                                                                                                                              1Grind (to produce a flour or pulp).

                                                                                                                                                                                2Press, push, squeeze, massage, grasp, clutch.

                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymsbiddjuyme

                                                                                                                                                                                • Mayhmayh nawu kangeyyo mibbarr kabarndi kore kurrulk kore mankabo wanjh bu djenj kanan wanjh karrolkan kadjuyime namekke djenj.

                                                                                                                                                                                  The bird called mibbarr (white-bellied sea eagle) stays up in trees by the river, then when it sees a fish it flies down and clutches it in its claws.

                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                3Point, stick out one's thumb (when hitchhiking).

                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymsbiddjuyme

                                                                                                                                                                                • Bininj nawu kare manbolh kahdi, bu kadjare kare kore kubolkkimuk wanjh muddika kadjuyme kare.

                                                                                                                                                                                  When a man is on the road and wants to go into town, he sticks out his thumb and hitches.

                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                • Nakka djuymeng muddika wam.

                                                                                                                                                                                  He hitched a lift, he's gone.

                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                Chestnut quilled rock pigeon.

                                                                                                                                                                                Scientific namePetrophassa rufipennis

                                                                                                                                                                                • Doddorok kabenekukrohrok korlobok dja ngahli doddorok ngalengman kuwardde kani.

                                                                                                                                                                                  The rock pigeon, is similar to the diamond dove, but lives in escarpment country.

                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                1Set out, get going, start walking.

                                                                                                                                                                                • A: Bonj ngarrokme. B: Ma yirrokmen!

                                                                                                                                                                                  A: Well I'll go home now. B: Ok you go home.

                                                                                                                                                                                2Go ahead, go first (leaving others behind), overtake.

                                                                                                                                                                                • La ngarridokme ngarriyingkihdi. Nawu dokmeninj wanjh diwirrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                                  So we would go ahead and stand there beforehand [before fires were lit]. Those who would go on ahead would just stay there.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Kanmarnedokmedokmen yimmadjngorrkngorrka, kumekke yirrahkenwe kumekke ngarryo.

                                                                                                                                                                                  [song text] You go on ahead for me and get [my] swag; lay it out on the ground there and we will sleep there.

                                                                                                                                                                                3Get ahead, win.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Bedda kabirridokme nawu balanda, dja ngad bininj larrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                  The Balanda are getting ahead, but we Aboriginal people, no.

                                                                                                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku

                                                                                                                                                                                -dokorrokme

                                                                                                                                                                                  Move ahead quickly, get a move on.

                                                                                                                                                                                1Take someone home.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngalkudji daluk bidjawam nawu muddika kakanemkarrme, bimarneyimeng "Kamak bu yidokmiwe nawu nakohbanj kore kured, kadokme kore kured".

                                                                                                                                                                                  The woman asked the person driving the car "Can you take the old man home? He's heading back home".

                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                2Send someone ahead.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Larvae of various insects which lives in timber including witchetty grubs and various large species of termites.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Korroko dabborrabbolk birringuni nawu dolek.

                                                                                                                                                                                    In the old days, people used to eat wood grubs.

                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                  1Surface from beneath the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Benenang kumdolhmeng kinga.

                                                                                                                                                                                    They saw a crocodile come up from under the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                    (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                                                                                                                  2Born, appear as a new generation.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Larrk, marrek mardayin birribimbuyi, ya nadjamun and ngarrikerrnge and ngarrikernge ngarridolhmeng djang ngarribimbun, ngarribimbom and ngalyod and njalehnjale.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No, they didn't paint Mardayin ceremony designs, they are sacred, but we, the new generation have appeared and we paint sacred dreamings such as rainbow serpents and what have you.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1Jump, jump out, jump up.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kurrkabal dolkang kore Injalak kanjdji djangkurrmerrinj wanjh kadjangdi kurrkabal djang.

                                                                                                                                                                                    The Long Tom fish jumped down to the base of Injalak hill and placed itself there, so now there is a Long Tom sacred site there.

                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                  2Rise up, bubble up.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kaborrolkan.

                                                                                                                                                                                    The water is boiling, the water/fluid is rising up.

                                                                                                                                                                                  3Fly.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunkare Ngalwamud benkang yawkyawk, birriwarlbom kalawan dja mankung. Birriwam, wanjh ngalkudji nang kahboddolkan.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Long ago Ngalwamud took some young women and they went hunting for goanna and bush honey. They went along and one of them saw bees flying around.

                                                                                                                                                                                    (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 28-31)

                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kuninjku

                                                                                                                                                                                  1Get up, arise; from lying down to sitting or sitting to standing, get out of bed.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kareh kanjdji kahdungyo kahkakyo wanjh karridolkkan kunukka six o'clock.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Maybe when the sun is still down, when it’s night, we’ll get up then - six o’clock.

                                                                                                                                                                                    (http://bininjgunwok.org.au/2013/batchelor-course-birriyakwong/)

                                                                                                                                                                                  2Set off, set out on a journey.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Madjinbardi ngarridolkkang ngarriwam, ngarridjalwam Pine Creek - kurrenge.

                                                                                                                                                                                    We set off from Madjibardi and went all the way to Pine Creek - on foot.

                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                  3Come from place of origin.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yingarna kumdolkkang kore kurrulabeh kore kakbi.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yingarna came from the ocean in the north.

                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakrumhme

                                                                                                                                                                                  Bark of Eucalyptus tetrodonta used for hundreds of uses, today one of the most popular being for bark paintings.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dolobbo ngabimbun.

                                                                                                                                                                                    I'll do a bark painting.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bu korroko duninjh nawu dabborrabbolk birrimangi nawu dolobbo kundjurle birrimarnbuni kore birriyoy bu kudjewk.

                                                                                                                                                                                    In the old days people used to get bark and make shelters with it, where they would live in the wet season.

                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkungkuh

                                                                                                                                                                                  1Extinguish a fire, put out flames.

                                                                                                                                                                                    2Turn off something eg. light, radio, engine.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dombom.

                                                                                                                                                                                      He turned it off.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hey nakka nangale wokdombom, hello… wokdombom… hello?

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hey, who disconnected the line, hello… it’s disconnected, hello?

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Garde, Murray, ‘Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language’, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2013, p. 211)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakkamukke

                                                                                                                                                                                    -birlidombun

                                                                                                                                                                                      Put out flames.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1Hit one object against another, crash against something.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Murrikang birridorrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                                      The cars crashed into one another.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Birrikodjdorrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                                      They hit their own heads (in grief).

                                                                                                                                                                                    2Strike.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Namarrkon kamarnbun kangurdulme kamayhke dja kandong bininj.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Namarrkon makes thunder and lightning and strikes people.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Marla nakka nabang bu kanbaye dja kandong kunberd ngalengarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Scorpions are dangerous if they bite you, they strike you with their tail.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                    3Pound.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yo birridoy mandudjmi. Ya birrikang kondanj dabborrabbolk wanjh ngandibukkang ngadberre wanjh ngarrihdoy manih manbu kunwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes, they used to pound the green plums. The old old people used to take them here and they showed us and we pounded up that Buchanania obovata fruit.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalaklorlme

                                                                                                                                                                                    -dongohdong

                                                                                                                                                                                      Knock, tap on something.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Louse, head louse.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dord nakka kahdjangdi kore Malirrku karrkad manberrk kabolkngeyyo Ngilikurrkbung.

                                                                                                                                                                                      There is a head louse sacred site at Malirrku, up in the forest at a place called Ngilikurrkbung.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakbarndidj

                                                                                                                                                                                    -dordnan

                                                                                                                                                                                      Look for lice, check someone for lice.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Curly, twining, coiled.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nahni wurdyaw nakka ngabekdordidordi.

                                                                                                                                                                                      That child has curly hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Manrakeldordidordi kadukkan kore kundulk bu kabidbun kaddum.

                                                                                                                                                                                      The twining vine wraps around the tree and climbs upwards.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Fold up, roll up, coil.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Blengked karridorname.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Let's fold up the blankets.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Birrikurlahdaweyi kurrungbang birrikurlahkurrmi kurlahdayoy kurlahbukmeni. Wanjh birrikurlahdornami.

                                                                                                                                                                                      They would put the hides out in the hot sun, where they would lie until they dried out. Then they would fold them up.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakdonabonghme

                                                                                                                                                                                    -dornamerren

                                                                                                                                                                                      Coil up, lay in coils (e.g. a snake).

                                                                                                                                                                                    1With, accompanied by, together with, including.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Birrikakrey duruk dorrengh birrirey birrikebkani duruk nomi ngalbu ngarrbek wanjh birrinani birrimangi ngalbu ngarrbek birrikani kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                      They would go out at night with a dog, which would smell out an echidna and they would see the echidna it and take it home.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngad dorreng.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Us and everyone else.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Donald dorrengh birrirey school.

                                                                                                                                                                                      They all went to school, Donald too.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                    2Using, with. Indicates the instrument used to carry out an action.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bu kabirridowen daluk bininj wurdwurd wanjh mandubang kunworr kabirrimang kabirrirurrkwolngwon kundolng dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                      If people die, women, men or children, then people get ironwood leaves and use them to ritually cleanse their house with smoke.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                    3With, having, possessing, wearing etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Delek birribarurreni nawu bininj daluk wurdwurd birriborrkkeyi delek dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Men, women and children would smear themselves with white clay and dance covered in white clay.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lobmeng kunnalk dorrengh nalkbuni bu lobmi. Djahdjallobmeng benmarnebebmeng namud ngalengarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                      She was running with tears in her eyes, crying as she ran. She kept running until she came to her family.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                    GrammarThis is used in similar senses to 'with' in English, and can mean together with ('with his dog'), using ('speared the fish with a spear') or having/possessing/wearing etc ('meat with lots of fat').

                                                                                                                                                                                    1Drag.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mongerrk benbenebom daluk bokenh wanjh benbenekukdahkendoy kore baladjdji nawu yibarlirrng wanjh benbenedorrorrkeyi.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Mongerrk hit the two women, put them in his string bag and was pulling them along.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                    2Tow (eg. a truck).

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yidjare marnedorrorrke Bridge Autos?

                                                                                                                                                                                      Do you want me to tow you to Bridge Autos?

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Evans, Nicholas (ed.), How to write Kundjeyhmi, prepared for the National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Gagudju Association.)

                                                                                                                                                                                    3Lead around.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yekke wanjh kayawdorrorrke kawohre.

                                                                                                                                                                                      In the cool dry season the adult (emu) leads the chicks around.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus : Indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 14)

                                                                                                                                                                                    4Tell a long story.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yiman kabirriwoknan kabirridorrorrke Namayhkurdihwarr Kundedjwarre kabirriwokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Just like when they sing out to the ancestors they tell a long story in Kundedjwarre clan lect and use the word Namayhkurdihwarr.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1Be sick, ill.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngaye kebdjined ngadoweni.

                                                                                                                                                                                      I was sick with a head cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                    2Die.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kunubewu benedarrkid. Kunubewu benedoweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Maybe the two of them are alive. Maybe they're dead.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University )

                                                                                                                                                                                    3Diminish, recede. Used in various constructions where something 'shrinks down to nothing', e.g. the moon waning, water receding, a sore healing.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dird karrowen.

                                                                                                                                                                                      The moon is waning.

                                                                                                                                                                                    4Laugh hard, "die laughing".

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Karrowen nakka.

                                                                                                                                                                                      He's really laughing hard.

                                                                                                                                                                                    5Crave something.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bakki ngarridowen.

                                                                                                                                                                                      We're starving for tobacco.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngakombukdowen.

                                                                                                                                                                                      My throat is dry.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakngarirrihme

                                                                                                                                                                                    -dowerren

                                                                                                                                                                                      Die in large numbers.

                                                                                                                                                                                    -mokdowen

                                                                                                                                                                                      Sore heals.

                                                                                                                                                                                    -bodowen

                                                                                                                                                                                      Water recedes.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Die (in large numbers).

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngad wanjh karriyakmerren karridowerren. Bedda kabirribalwohrnan.

                                                                                                                                                                                      We will all be dead and gone, and then they will look after it (the country) in turn.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yolk mak kabebme kore ngad kunburrk kadberre bu karridowen dja kore mayh kadowerren kanudmen.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Maggots come out of our bodies when we die, and also when animals die and rot.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Fire a gun, cause to explode.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nangale dowkkeng?

                                                                                                                                                                                      Who fired that shot?

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nakudji birrikorndowkkeng wanjh mimborledmeng doweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                      They kicked one in the groin [busted his balls], his eyes rolled and he collapsed.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Iyuna, James, 'Birriburrinj', Maningrida, N.T.: Maningrida Community Education Centre, 1990.)

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey kore kudjorlok manlabbarl birrinani djakarna kangun djenj wanjh birridanjbuni djalakkiradj dja bolkkime mako karridulubun karridowkke manbu balanda marnbom.

                                                                                                                                                                                      In the old days, people would go down to the billabongs and see jabirus eating fish, and they would spear them with multi-pronged spears. But these days we shoot them with guns, we fire guns made by non-Indigenous people.

                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Explode, the discharging of a gun, the bursting of a balloon.

                                                                                                                                                                                      -biddowkme

                                                                                                                                                                                        clap hands

                                                                                                                                                                                      -djulngdowkme

                                                                                                                                                                                        Raise dust, cause an 'eruption' of dust.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Father-in-law; especially reciprical referent term for uncle and nephew when they are in an actual or classificatory in-law relationship but also MMM(B) and (Z)DDS; FFM(B) and (Z)SSS. Amongst dialect groups the class of kin designated as doydoy can vary. In Kundjeyhmi it includes FFM, FMF and MFF.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Manu Kudjaborrng wanjh kumekke bibayeng ngalyuhyungki doydoy ngaldurlmangkarr.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Kudjaborrng is the place where the ancestral woman my MMM a Durlmnagkarr clanswoman was bitten by the Oenpelli python.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1Dense, blocked, impeding passage.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngakebdubbe.

                                                                                                                                                                                        My nose is blocked.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Manberrkdubbe.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Dense forest, difficult to walk through.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kawarddedubbe.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Rough dissected sandstone country with many large boulders making travel very difficult or impossible.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngadjarlandubbe.

                                                                                                                                                                                        I am unable to urinate. [djarlan 'bladder’ dubbe 'blocked']

                                                                                                                                                                                      2Dysfunction of physical or sensory faculty.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Yikanemdubbe!

                                                                                                                                                                                        Can't you hear?

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Yiberddubbe!

                                                                                                                                                                                      See alsomirrhdubbe

                                                                                                                                                                                      Grammar'Dubbe' has a similar range of meaning to 'thick' in English, which can mean both dense and impassable (a thick forest), and wide or stubby as opposed to thin and pointy (thick end of the wedge). Both of these senses lead to the idea of something being dysfunctional or lacking acuity (thick-witted, a voice thick with emotion, a thick accent).

                                                                                                                                                                                      -kurrubbe

                                                                                                                                                                                        In a densely forested area, in a dead-end or blocked off space.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1Be unable to pass through a place, e.g. because of impenetrable rock or vegetation.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Karridubbedong minj bale karriyime.

                                                                                                                                                                                        We can’t pass through, it’s impenetrable, what can we do?

                                                                                                                                                                                      2Be blocked or stuck, be unable to progress with a particular issue.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonyms-mikkendong, -ngalkwarredong

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Karridubberrong yiman bolkkime karridi, karridubbedoy wanjh. Dja bu bewh wurd karribalderrehme.

                                                                                                                                                                                        We don’t know which way to go at present, as we are now, we're stuck. We need to make progress.

                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                      Become dense or blocked, become dysfunctional (of physical senses); become blunt (of cutting blades).

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Med, ngabengdubberranj.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hang on, I've forgotten (can't think of it).

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngakebdubberranj.

                                                                                                                                                                                        My nose is blocked.

                                                                                                                                                                                      -bengdubberran

                                                                                                                                                                                        Forget.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Land snail, the shell of which was traditionally used to make necklaces or dog collars.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameFamily Camaenidae

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Duberrk nawu doweni wanjh ngalng birrimarnbuni kunkomkenh nawu morlehmorlenj bu Wubarr yoy wanjh birrikomdukkarreni kore kukom bedberre wanjh birriyiborrkkeyi namekke duberrk ngalng dorrengh. Dja bu karrire manberrk karrirednan nawu djuwe karrinan nawern duberrk ngalng.

                                                                                                                                                                                        When snails die and leave their shell behind, women used to make necklaces from the shells and dance with them in the Wubarr Ceremony. If we're walking around the forest, we sometimes see lots of snail shells in the bower of djuwe, the Great Bowerbird

                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                      1Bury in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nawu bininj daluk wurdyaw ngad karrikukburlerri bu bolkkime karridowen wanjh kandidudjeng kore kurorre.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Nowadays when Bininj people die, men, women or children, we're buried in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                      2Plant something in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngarridudjengi manme.

                                                                                                                                                                                        We used to plant vegetables.

                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkamukke

                                                                                                                                                                                      Buried, lying under the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Manme birringeybuni ngadberre, manu, bu kundulk kore barnemdi, dja manu kanjdji dudjendi yiman kayime karrbarda, mankinjdjek, mankongkong kandirakelbukkani.

                                                                                                                                                                                        They would tell us the names of foods, the kinds that grow on trees, and the sorts that are under the ground, like long yams, round yams and Ipomea tubers. They would teach us about the plants.

                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                      Get a lot of something, pick up a lot of people etc. Get a big mob of something valuable e.g. game, fish, fruit.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Aa nakka wam dudmey manimunak!

                                                                                                                                                                                        He went and got a big mob of geese!

                                                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nawu bininj yimeng "Ngaye dudmang rowk ngudberre".

                                                                                                                                                                                        The man said "I'll come and pick you all up" [to take you to the ceremony, etc.]

                                                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Djenj barrirdurdmey kalerrh, bikku, kanbaldjdja.

                                                                                                                                                                                        They got a big mob of fish, long-toms, catfish and eel-tailed catfish.

                                                                                                                                                                                        ((Kundedjnjenghmi))

                                                                                                                                                                                      Puncture, make a hole in something, penetrate.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kukmey kunj mudkinjeng. Wanjh njamduhkeng mey kundurddu kundiw kundayken dja mannjam.

                                                                                                                                                                                        He took the kangaroo and singed its fur off. Then he opened up its belly, taking out its heart, liver, kidneys and stomach.

                                                                                                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly, 'Bininj Yameng Kunj', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                                                                                                                      Punctured (eg. a tyre), have a hole, container with leakage.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1Tie up, wrap with string/rope or cloth, tie a knot.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Karrimang nawu kunj karribardngorrowke karribiddukkan.

                                                                                                                                                                                          We get a kangaroo and break its leg joints, then tie its limbs together (to facilitate cooking).

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                        2Grab with arms and hold tightly, coil around (e.g. python).

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wanjh yimankek birrikuyinkelelobmerrinj Ngalyod bennanganang kunberd bendukkang rowk.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Then they tried to run away in fear but the Rainbow Serpent was watching them and she wrapped her tail around them.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Carroll, Peter, 'The old people told us : verbal art in Western Arnhem Land' (Thesis), University of Queensland, 1996)

                                                                                                                                                                                        3Put in handcuffs.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Balanda yimarnekarrewarrewon wanjh ngundukkan djamun.

                                                                                                                                                                                          If you break the Balanda law, the police will put you in handcuffs.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakdurrbidme

                                                                                                                                                                                        -dukkarren

                                                                                                                                                                                          Tie something onto oneself, put something on (cloth etc), coil oneself up (snake etc).

                                                                                                                                                                                        1Tie clothes onto the body.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Manburrba yidedjdukkarrimen!

                                                                                                                                                                                          Tie up your naga!

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Duberrk nawu doweni wanjh ngalng birrimarnbuni kunkomkenh nawu morlehmorlenj bu Wubarr yoy wanjh birrikomdukkarreni kore kukom bedberre wanjh birriyiborrkkeyi namekke duberrk ngalng dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                          When snails die and leave their shell behind, women used to make necklaces from the shells, tie them around their necks and dance with them in the Wubarr Ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                        2Tie self into a coil (snakes), entwine, writhe.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Benebokenh Ngalyod benemhwam kore wadjbudbeh benewam Katherine Gorge Nitmiluk. Bu benehrey benehdjarrkrey darnkih wernkih wanjh benedukkarrinj kunbardmo berrewoneng benebardmodukkarrinj kore kanjdji manbu kukku kahbodjurrhbume kore kunred kabolkngeyyo Marlkawo.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Two Rainbow Serpents came from the sea to Katherine Gorge, Nitmiluk. They travelled together very close to each other, then they entwined their bodies under the waterfall at the place called Marlkawo.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Birribuyika minj balemane birribebmeninj, bonj birriruy birridoweng

                                                                                                                                                                                          Some of the others had no where to get away and so in the end were burned, writhing to death.

                                                                                                                                                                                        See alsodjendukkarrinj

                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakdulbidmerren

                                                                                                                                                                                        Bound up, tied up with string/rope.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Benewam dja benengalkeng namekbe donkey yaw dukkayindi kuberrk kore manbolh.

                                                                                                                                                                                           They went and found the young donkey tied up outside in the street.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Etherington, Steve, ‘Jesus doweng dja yawoyhdolkkang’, Bible Society Australia, 2011, p. 1 [From Mark 11:4])

                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku (syn.)= bongdi

                                                                                                                                                                                        Sick. A verb prefix appended to words such as 'dulkkingalme' (start to get sick).

                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymsdowi-

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nabulanj wam kore kured bidulkkimey Nawakadj nawu dulkkiyoy wanjh bikang kore clinic.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Nabulanj went home, picked up Nawakadj who was lying there ill and took him to the clinic.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                        Get sick.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Minj nangale kawarddeburriwe, karrulkbakke, manme kangun dja kabongun kukku kumekke kunred. Marndi bedmanwali kabirridulkkimankan.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Nobody throws rocks, breaks the trees, eats the fruit or drinks the water in that place. Otherwise they would get sick themselves [like the Ancestors who got sick there].

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 156)

                                                                                                                                                                                        1Heavy.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wernhdulmukminj nawu mandjewk.

                                                                                                                                                                                          The rain got very heavy.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                        2A complex or serious matter.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kohbahkohbanj birriyolyolmi ngadberre, ngandimarneyimi, “Mahni mankarre mandulmuk.”

                                                                                                                                                                                          The old people used to tell us, and they would say, "This is the really important Law".

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                        3Bad, serious (illness, pain).

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngardduk kundjak kahdulmukmen.

                                                                                                                                                                                          My sickness is getting worse.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                        -kukdulmuk

                                                                                                                                                                                          Pregnant, heavy with child.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1Shoot, spear, penetrate, pierce.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Birrihdulubuni nawu nganabbarru djarrang dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                          They would shoot the buffalo from horseback.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dengedulubom.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Punctured tyre/foot.

                                                                                                                                                                                        2Flow into, intersect (of watercourses).

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Madjanngalkkubeh Yidakdakbeh kawanjdjadduluburren kure Djabulu.

                                                                                                                                                                                          [Heading upstream] from Madjanngalkku and Yidakdak there is a confluence of small tributaries at Djabulu.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Beetle, various kinds of scarab beetles and darkling beetles.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Birndu kangun dumdum dja yehyeng nawu kayo kare kore kukku kukadjid dja kore kubuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                          The glossy ibis eats beetles and all kinds of things that live in the water, the sand and the shallows.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKune= manwurrkeng

                                                                                                                                                                                        1Sooty grunter, also known as black bream.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameHephaestus fuliginosus

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dunbuhmanj nakka kanjkimuk kanjmak bu ngarringun.

                                                                                                                                                                                          The black bream has a lot of meat on it, it's good eating.

                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                        2Jenkins' grunter.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameHephaestus jenkinsi

                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKundedjnjenghmi syn.= nakerdmi, Kundjeyhmi= nakerdmi, kalarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                          Speak roughly, swear, get angry with someone, scold.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kunwarre benhmarneyimi bedberre, benhdungi bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                            He used to talk hard to them, go crook at them.

                                                                                                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                          See alsoyiddung.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalak-ngangarrbun

                                                                                                                                                                                          -durren

                                                                                                                                                                                            Argue with each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Become very hot and sunny (of weather), get towards the middle of the day when the sun is hottest.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Minj karrire kurrenge dja dungbangminj. Dja bonj karribawon kaluk malaywi karrire bu karrungnelk.

                                                                                                                                                                                            We can't go on foot now, it's too hot. Let's leave it until tomorrow, in the early part of the day.

                                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                          Sun rising up (over the course of the morning).

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dungbidbom.

                                                                                                                                                                                            It’s morning.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1Movement of the sun across the sky.

                                                                                                                                                                                            2Passing of time.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Werrk dungwam.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hurry up, time is gone.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yika mak kabindimunkewe bu kundung kamhdungre kabindimunkewe kabirrihdirri kabirridjalre yika munguyhmunguyh minj kabirrimdurndeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                              When the time comes (for recess at school) and the teachers send them out to play, some of them just run off, they don't come back.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Get too late (usually used in the past tense, as in “it’s too late now”).

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Larrk, dungwarreminj. Kaluk malaywi kanere.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No. It's too late today. Tomorrow we will go, the three of us.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 60-63)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Setting of the sun.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nakudji wam djangkang, nang dungyibmeng wanjh keleminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                              A man went out hunting, saw that the sun had set and became frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngadedjmang ngayolyolme Yingarna daluk ngalu kure kumdanginj kadungyibme, benkang wurdyaw nawern, beyken ngorrkang wurdyaw.

                                                                                                                                                                                              I'll tell you a story about Yingarna, a woman who come here from the west (where the sun sets). She carried many children, in a large number of string bags.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Thompson Yulidjirri, quoted in Hamby, Louise (ed.), Twined Together: Kunmadj Njalehnjaleken, Injalak Arts and Crafts, Gunbalanya, 2005, p. 26)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Really, actual, 'really one', proper.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wurdurd ngurrina ngaleng kabengkan kaborrkke duninj.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Look you kids she knows how to dance the proper way.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Woybukki duninj

                                                                                                                                                                                              Really true.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko duninjh.

                                                                                                                                                                                              In the distant past, in the old days, in the Ancestral past

                                                                                                                                                                                            Go back, return.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yimdurnde!

                                                                                                                                                                                              Come back here!

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko birridurndi.

                                                                                                                                                                                              They've already gone back.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Minj karridurndeng wanjh.

                                                                                                                                                                                              There's no turning back [we need to go forward, make these ideas happen].

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalak-warnduyhme

                                                                                                                                                                                            GrammarIn Kune dialect, there is no use of the directional'-m-' marker as in Kunwinjku and Kuninjku. Thus, in Kune, yidurnde! may mean either 'come back' or 'go back'. The meaning is made clear by the context.

                                                                                                                                                                                            -yirrurndeng

                                                                                                                                                                                              Take or bring someone back, take or bring something back for someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1Return, take back, throw back.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngarrbenbenedurndiweng kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                              We took the two of them back home.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                                                                                                                            2Give back, return ownership to someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Manbu Adjumarllarl nawu bininj kabirriwohrnan, wanjh birridurndiweng bu mandjewk 2012 ni, ba bu bedman bininj kabirrikarrme, dja kabirrinahnan, minj mak kabirriyawoyhnahnan nawu Shire.

                                                                                                                                                                                              The Adjumarllarl store is managed by Aboriginal people, it was retured to them in 2012 so that they could run it themselves. The Shire won't be running it any more.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            3Rewind (cassette player).

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yidurndiwemen kunkudji karribekkan.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Rewind it and let's listen to it one more time.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Argue, shout at each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Njalekenh birridurrinj?

                                                                                                                                                                                              What were they fighting about?

                                                                                                                                                                                            See alsodung

                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakngarnarrbonghmerren

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pull out, pull off, pluck.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bu korroko ni bininj ngad karrikukburlerri birridjareni mankung wanjh birrirey birridjuhmi kore mankabo birridalkdurrkmangi kore mankod kore Wakkewakken wanahwam.

                                                                                                                                                                                              In the old days when Aboriginal people like us wanted bush honey, they would go into the river and pull out water weeds near the base of paperbark trees where the Wakkewakken spirits resided [an increase ritual].

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                            1Tug, short pull.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kundulk ngadedjmaddurrkme.

                                                                                                                                                                                              I'll pull out the trees by the roots.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Carroll, Peter, 'The old people told us : verbal art in Western Arnhem Land' (Thesis), University of Queensland, 1996)

                                                                                                                                                                                            2Attempt to obtain someone as a companion.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wardi yirrurrkmen Kamarrang.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Try and get Kamarrang to go with you.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Work.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngaye ngahdurrkmirri Katherine ngahdjirridjbuni mako ngabenhmarnedurrkmirri army.

                                                                                                                                                                                              I was working in Katherine cleaning guns, working for the army.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Dog, camp dog, wild dog (as opposed to dingo).

                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameCanis familiaris

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Waw, nganbayeng duruk!

                                                                                                                                                                                              Ah, the dog bit me!

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kabirrire kabirribekkan kangokme duruk bu kangalke, ngalekke ngarrbek.

                                                                                                                                                                                              They walk along and hear the dog bark when it finds an echidna.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Manakgu, Andrew, 'Nakudji wurdyaw bibayeng duruk', in 'Kunwinjku Stories', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre 1982)

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko duruk birrikebkani, nomi nawu kalawan, birribuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                              In the old days they used to take a dog when they went hunting, it would sniff out a goanna and they would kill it.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakdjungdjungh

                                                                                                                                                                                            One of the two patrilineal moiety names, the other being yirridjdja.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kubolkduwa bukka.

                                                                                                                                                                                              That place is associated with the Duwa moiety.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (John Mawurndul in ''I am the old and the new': the stories behind the masterworks of John Mawurndjul', www.theguardian.com, 10/07/2018.)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Powdered form of a substance.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Delek nakka kukbele ngarrimang duyh yika nguk ngarrimang.

                                                                                                                                                                                              We can collect white clay when it’s dried out and powdery, and also when it’s wet.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                            Let’s, how about it.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kab ngarre ngarrnan

                                                                                                                                                                                              Let’s go and have a look

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 148)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Plain country, open area, floodplain.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngad kabbal konda warddeyak.

                                                                                                                                                                                              We are plains people, there is no stone country here.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wanjh daluhdaluk kabirrimang kubba bedberre wanjh kabbal kabirrire kabirriyawan ngalmangiyi kabirrimang.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Then women take their turtling sticks and go out onto the floodplain to find turtles [by poking the mud with the sticks].

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Boat, generic for all kinds.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kuhni bu kunkare korroko duninjh manbu kabbala Mangkadjarra birrimwam nawu Malayu birribidbom wadjbud kore Nalaberrberr dja mak kore kubolkbubuyika wadjbud.

                                                                                                                                                                                              A long time ago people came here by boat from Macassar, those Malay people arrived on the beach at Nalaberrberr and other beaches too.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Etymologyfrom Macassarese k·ppala? 'boat'

                                                                                                                                                                                            See alsowubbunj

                                                                                                                                                                                            This is the name of an estate (the kunngeybadjan or ‘big name’) which comprises a complex of sites including many djang where the Goomadeer River flows out of the Arnhem Land plateau south of Mamardawerre and Mandilbareng outstations. Associated site names include Namarnde Kalurlkan, Nadjardenj, Nanjiwk, Kalerrh Kumanem, Kunngulukki, Meleyengkobarnrungi, Wurrbbarn, Kunyikuymi, Yimalannga, Kanjarladjkendi, Kabuludjidjmini, Bomarranj, Yiwoban, Yenemarrbara and Nakorrmohkorrmo. Kabbari is best known for the story which concerns Ngalyod’s displeasure with a crying child.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko bininj birrini kunred Kabbari / Nawu kunborrk birrikarmi birriborrkkeyi (Wildflower Band, Kabbari (A Place Called Kabbari) 2009) \xe A long time ago people lived on this land Kabbari / They used to have special ceremonies, singing and dancing in that place (Wildflower Band, Kabbari / A Place Called Kabbari, 2009)

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dabborrabbolk nawu birriyuhyungkih birriyolyolmi “Ngalih Ngalyod benbom bininj nawu kumekbe kunred birrihni Kabbari, bu birriborrkkeyi, dja birrihwayini”.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Our ancestors used to say “Ngalyod (the Rainbow Serpent) killed all those people at Kabbari, as they danced and sang”.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Resin from ironwood tree roots used to haft axeheads to handles and spear points to their shafts (as well as other uses). The roots of the ironwood tree Erythrphloeum chlorostachys are dug up and broken off. They are then heated over a fire and the resin or gum will exude. The exudate is collected on a stick or rock until it has been exhausted. The resin is highly toxic and the extraction is conducted away from domestic areas.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nahni kabbay, kabirrimang kore kundulkbarndad beh, mandubang kundulk. Wanjh kabirriwirrkme, yerreh wanjh kabirrikinje kore kunak bu kabelebelbme kabirrimarnbun yiman kayime borndok, karramalk, dja wirlam.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Ironwood resin is extracted from the roots of the ironwood tree. People scrape the bark off, then heat the wood over a fire [until the resin comes out]. They use it to stick things together, for example in making spearthrowers, stone axes, and bark rafts.

                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                            1Sleepy cod.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymskodjkewarre

                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameOxyeleotris lineolata

                                                                                                                                                                                              2Flathead goby.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymsmilhbalabala

                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameGlossogobius giuris

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Manih bus kamrlobme manu mankebkabbungurr.

                                                                                                                                                                                                The bus is coming, the vehicle with the flat front (literally "with a nose like a goby").

                                                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku,Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakngandjakberberh

                                                                                                                                                                                              Green ant. Symbol or totem of the matry (kunkoymud) yarriwurrkarr.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kunkare bu bininj ngad daluk dja wurdwurd bu kundjak benmangi yiman kebdjirned, wanjh birrirey birrinani kabo wanjh birrimangi birrikani kukku birridjuhkeyi birribonguni wanjh birrimakmeni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                In the old days, when any Bininj man, woman or child was sick with something like a cold, then they would go looking for green ants, put them in water and drink the mixture and then they’d get better.

                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ngarradj nawu kabo nakka, Yarriwurrkkarr, yiman kayime ngad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                The white corella is from the Green Ant matry, Yarriwurrkkarr, just like us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku= bodbang

                                                                                                                                                                                              See alsoyarriwurrkarr

                                                                                                                                                                                              Us (you 3+ and me), ours (3+).

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not talking very much, quiet, taciturn.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskukmodmiken

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kaddakaddambu nakka.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  He’s a man of few words.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Yika bininj nawu wokkaddumbu minj kawokdi kunwern. Kundjalkudji bu kadjalwokdi wanjh kakudjihme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Some people are very quiet, they don't talk a lot. They'll just say one thing and stop.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                1Up high, at the top, up, above, in the sky.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Loudly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kaddum yiwokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Talk loudly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkadwohka

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Chase.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kambirlikadjung birndu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    The mosquitoes are attracted to the light.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Karribolhkadjung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Let's follow this track.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Follow in fashion or custom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngarrbenyikadjung marradjirikenh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    We follow their custom of the Marradjiri ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3Used idiomatically in constructions referring to labour and labour pain during childbirth. The person is the object of the verb.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kabikadjung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    She is in labour.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kadjurren

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Follow one another, be of the same tribe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ackowledgement of receipt, said on being given something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In, to, at. Locative suffix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kondakah.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      On this side.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKune, Kuninjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                    -bokenhkah

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Two times, twice.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    -danjbikkah

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Three times.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    North.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mother's mother and reciprocal MM,MMB,ZDD,ZDS,FF and also possibly MMBSD, MMBSS. In some dialects of Bininj Kunwok, this term can also refer to one’s FF(Z) and reciprocal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Term of reference or address for someone in a cross-cousin spouse or spouse's sibling class who is an actual or intended in-law. Kinship classes include certain cross-cousins (FZC, MBC) or second cross cousin (e.g. MMBDD/MFZDS, FFZSD/FMBSS, also a FZDDD/MMMBS).

                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kakkalihme

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Call someone 'kakkali'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Walk around at night, travel at night.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Birrikakrey duruk dorrengh birrirey birrikebkani duruk nomi ngalbu ngarrbek wanjh birrinani birrimangi ngalbu ngarrbek birrikani kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            They would go out hunting at night with a dog, which would smell out an echidna and they would see the echidna it and take it home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Colour, or colour producing substances such as natural dye plants used for weaving.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kala makka kabirrimang kundulkbarndad manbu mandjurndum, dja mandjum wirdilwirdil, dja mak wirndilk, mandjum dja manmim. Wanjh kabirrikinje kunngobarn dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            People get dye colour from the roots of the Pogonolobus reticulatus bush, from the bulb of Haemadorum brevicauli grasses and also Haemodorum coccineum, bulb and seeds. Then they cook these things up with pandanus [to dye it].

                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • "Line" kakarrme kure kunngarlabak. Kangarlabakyirriyo kala kala.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            [The short-eared rock wallaby] has a line running along its cheeks. The [fur] colour alternates along the cheeks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Etymologyfrom English ‘colour’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Oxeye herring, tarpon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scientific nameMegalops cyprinoides

                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKuninjku= warlkkarrah

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Eastern curlew (may also include grey plover and oriental plover).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameNumenius madagascariensis

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Gould's Sand Monitor.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameVeranus gouldii

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Generic term for all goannas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakmayawurlhwurl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Female subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Konda dalukwern, daluk boken, bininj nakka, nuye nabininjkobeng berrewoneng. Kareh kalidjan belinj kareh, ngalbininjkobeng bokenh, nabininjkobeng nakudji.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Here is group of women (in a painting), they are his wives, he is the husband of the two women. Maybe they are of kalidjan and belinj subsection, two wives and one husband.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Male wallaroo or euro.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameMacropus robustus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See alsosee wolerrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalaknjamlurruk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1After, later, afterwards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kaluk yerre (Kunwinjku) / kaluk rerre (Kuninjku).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Later, after.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kaluk nan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See you later.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bu korroko duninjh nawu karrkkanj nakka bininjni kaluk yerre mayhmayh yimerranj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A long time ago the Brown Falcon used to be a man, he only became a bird afterwards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Then, and then.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Morlehmorlenj bindikani nawu nanikud kore kabbal birriwohrey birridalknguni. Kaluk bu wolewoleh bindikani bindingimowoni kore yard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Women used to take the goats onto the floodplain to eat grass. Then in the afternoon they would herd them back into the yards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3And, but. Used in senses where one piece of information is added to another, or follows from another. 'And furthermore'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nahni kunj kangeyyo ngorlomorroh, kaluk kadi yiman kayime kore kubolkdarleh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      That kangaroo is called "ngorlomorroh" (Northern nail-tail wallaby), and it lives in dry areas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kaluk bu dungyibmeng, wanjh benekaymi beneyimi 'Nakomdudj, Nakomdudj' kaluk minj benkaymimayi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Then when the sun was setting, they started calling out 'Nakomdudj, Nakomdudj' but he didn't call back to them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Karrkanj Yimerranj’ in ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T, 2005, p. 88)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kalukburrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      After that.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coconut.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Etymologyfrom Makassarese kal˙ku 'coconut'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Female subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and mardku matri-moiety.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Male subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and mardku matri-moiety.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kamudjkenhyo kumekke, marrek ngarray ba.... helicopter kanire maitbi Kamarrang ngudda banbanibukkan. Ngalyangdoh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They are rainbow serpents, dreaming beings in the landscape, we can't go there... but perhaps by helicopter I could show you and Kamarrang, that woman there, Ngalyangdoh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Djnj)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Place and outstation community in Kodwalewale estate on the Mann River.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Termite mound. Sections broken off can be used as cooking stones in ground ovens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yimray ngangalkeng mankung, nanih mankung kahdi kure mikambe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Come, I've found this honey hive here in this termite mound.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKuninjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          See alsokonjdja, kurlbbinj, djibdjib

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Small crab species.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kabarlekidyo kambuk djang kayo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            At Kabarlekidyo there is a kambuk crab sacred site.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Pregnant.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Synonymskarrulmuk, kayawkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kamerlem yaw dorreng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            She's pregnant (with a child).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Ready to open, about to open (of buds, seed pods etc).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kamerlem wanjh kadangmarrhmire.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [The bud] grows large and then opens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          See alsokunmerlem

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Take or carry. When used with -m, i.e. ngamkan, yimkan etc. it means 'bring' towards the speaker.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A: Yidjare marnekan? B: Bonj, kamak, ngakan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A: Do you want me to take it for you? B: No, it's OK, I'll take it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dolobbo kabirridadjke kabirrimkan kore Injalak Arts Centre kumekke kabirribimbun kabirriweykan kabenwon kunwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They cut bark and bring it to Injalak Arts Centre, where they paint it and get money for it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalak-yirrolkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Grammarpast perf.=kang, past imperf.= kayi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          --mkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            bring

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Flour, damper.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mandirnku makka manme ngarringun. Bu korroko dabborrabbolk birrimangi mandirnku, wanjh birridjuhkeyi kore kukku bu yoy kunkodjke dja kunbarnangarra. Wanjh birriwayhkeyi kore kukkubeh, wanjh yerre birridongi bu birrimarnbuni yiman kandidjdjawa manlod, wanjh birringuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cycad [seeds] are a food that we eat. In the old days people used to gather them, then soak them in water for a night and a day. Then they would get them out of the water, pound them and make a kind of flour loaf to eat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Etymologyfrom Makassarese kanre jawa 'cake'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalakkabbarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          From a place.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bininj nawu nakang kondah kunred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A local Indigenous person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kebkuyeng kumoken, ngahbimbom. Nakang kondanj Kubumi, Kabarrebarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            I’ve painted the freshwater crocodile, the one with the long snout. It is from a site here at Kubumi and Kabarrebarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Mick Kubarkku, interview with Margie West and Murray Garde, Yikarrakkal Outstation, 1994)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Nawu wayarra nakka namarnde mam ngarringeybun. Wayarra kabirriyime kabirringeybun nawu bininj birrikang koyek nawu nahni ngad Kunwinjku karriwokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            'Wayarra' is a bad spirit. Our word for it is 'mam', but 'wayarra' is what other Kunwinjku speaking people from the east call it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Pregnant.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Synonymskayawkan, kamerlem

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Full.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kadjalbodelengkurrme kabongerdkendi wanjh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The water goes in until it is full.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3Carry in belly, said when the Rainbow Serpent or other mythological beings swallow people and carry them inside themselves. When people participate in a ceremony they are also seen as being carried in the belly of the Rainbow Serpent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngarduk mawa bu ngarriwam yibengkan bu Kunabibi ngerdkenyoy ngarriwam Namimkabo mani kunrurrk ngarriyoy, kunrurrk. Ngarriyoy kunkare ngarriwam Kunabibi ngerdkenyoy ngarriyikani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My father’s father came with us here when we slept in this cave here at Namimkabo when we were travelling as part of the Kunabibi, taking the ceremony a long time ago. [literally: the Kunabibi was pregnant with us, i.e. the Rainbow Serpent holds the ceremony participants in her belly when they participate in the ceremony]

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jimmy Kalarriya)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -ngerdkendadjme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Become full, fill up entirely.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Nephew or niece, a man's ZS, ZD.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku, Kune

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Down, below, lower down.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wurdurd kanjdji, ngurrikengemen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                You boys look down (at the ground) and be fearful.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Inside.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dulklorrkkelorrkken daluk, ngalkanemkuyeng, kururrk kayo. Kurrulk, kadjalyo bu kurrulk kawodjbakme yibengkan kayo kanjdjikanjdjibeh nomo kurrulk, kanjdjikanjdji kurrulk bu kayo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The dulklorrkkelorrkken female spirit being has long ears and she lives inside. She lives in the tree, such as a tree which has a broken trunk, you know, she sleeps inside the tree, not up in it, but inside the hollow log.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3Downstream, lowlands, area towards the coast or lower down in a drainage basin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymskilhken

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkilhken

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lowlands, down near a water course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Yimankek bu wolewoleh yimerrangeni ngarrirey wanjh kanjdjikanjdji kunukka kore njamed manlabbarl kunekke djenj ngarrirey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sometimes in the afternoons we would go down to the billabong, we would go fishing there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Brother-in-law, wife, husband, sister-in-law, MBD, MBS, MMBDS, MMBDD.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Generic term for spiders.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nawu wurdyaw bolknang kahwake kardab kore kakkak keyohkeyoy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The child looked around and saw a spider crawling around where his grandmother was sleeping.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Mangiru, Faith, ‘Kakkak dja Wurdyaw Benewam Mankinjdjek’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, 1976)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Spider's web.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Snare or catch up OBJ.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kunyarl ngandengekardmey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The fishing line caught up my foot.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wakkidj dulkkardmey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The fishing line caught up/entangled the tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Maybe, perhaps, 'I don't know' (said in a high falling tone).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bolkki nganmarneyimeng, "Ngamre kure ngudda." Kare kurrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Today he said,"I'll come over to your place." Maybe he was lying.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Old (of objects or things).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Marla kayo kore kunmarlaworr manwern kayo dja kore mandulkkare karridulkwayhke karrinan marla kahyo dja kore kunkod mankare kabirribawon wanjh marla kare kangimen kanjdji kayo nawu marla yika djodj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scorpions live where there are lots of leaves, and when we lift up old logs we see scorpions there. If we leave old paperbark around, then scorpions go under there and live there, scorpions or centipedes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Same one, same as just mentioned.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mani mankare rerre manu ngadjalngeybom bolkkime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This (tree) is the same one as that which I just named just now.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See alsokohbanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grammartakes a pronominal prefix but in third person singular will take a noun class prefix

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kukare

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Same place as before or as previously mentioned.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Become old.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bonj, nawarre, kareminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Leave it, it's no good, it's too old.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yellow or mustard-coloured ochre; also may be used to describe things similarly coloured (tan, orangey yellow, mustard colours).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Blue-winged kookaburra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Djirrihdiddid kakukyime yiman kaldurrk dja ngahli ngalkukyahwurd.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The kingfisher looks like a blue-winged kookaburra, but has a smaller body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKuninjku, Kundjeyhmi, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Freshwater long-tom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameStrongylura kreffti

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKuninjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tadpole.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Red-tailed Black Cockatoo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scientific nameCalyptorhynchus banksii

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKuninjku= ngarnarrh, Kune= ngarnarrngh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Common tree snake.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameDendrelaphis punctulata

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Female antilopine wallaroo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameMacropus antilopinus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakngalmarndamarndayi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mud crab of salt water habitat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scientific nameScylla serrata

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngalbu karndjawarra ngalkka ngalengman kore kurrula kadjalyo. Bu kurrula kabobidbun wanjh minj karrinan ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mud crabs just stay near the sea. At high tide, we don't see them though.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Freshwater mussel.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskurruk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKundjeyhmi, Kunwinjku, M.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stone axe with hafted wooden handle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Synonymsdadken

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngaleng kanbukkang yehyeng rowk kahbimdi karramalk kunbarlkbu kundjakkorl ngalmangiyi dja kalawan nawu karrihngun namak mayh nadjalwern.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    She [Yingarna] established and taught Aboriginal people about all aspects of our culture such as the use of axes, fire drills and edible animals such as long-necked turtles, goannas and all kinds of good edible foods.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mother, mum. This is the vocative term, used when talking to one's mother.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mother, the mother, M.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      One’s mother’s country (or mother’s brother’s country).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kore kunred Djurlka kore kubolkmayirrkulidj kunred ngaye ngayime karrardwarrekenh bukka Djodj kadjangdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        At Djurlka in Mayirrkulidj clan country, which is my mother’s country, there is a centipede sacred site.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kind of jungle vine, used for making fish traps or armbands and in recent times for the frames of pandanus sculptures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scientific nameFlagellaria indica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Long yam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymskayawal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameDioscorea transversa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Karrbarda ngarriwilkdeng wanjh ngarringun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We cook the long yam in the ashes and then eaten.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Name of a kunborrk song series sung by Bruce and Barndanj Nabegeyo from Kunbarlanja.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bolkki kabirriborrkke karrbarda.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They'll dance 'yam style' dances today.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakmankarremudyi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Comb crested jacana (also called lily-trotter or Jesus bird); walks on floating plants. Associated with yirridjdja moiety and the Yabburdurrwa ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymskarrekuyengkuyeng

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameIrediparra gallinacea

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Us (you 2 and me), ours (we three).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            West.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nawu benuk kadjangdi kore karrikad kore duruk bokenh benemdolkkang benemwam kunred kabolkngeyyo Benukkadjang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The bush turkey has a sacred site to the west, where the two ancestral dogs came from, a place called Benukkadjang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yidjalay karrihkarri yibebme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Keep going west and you'll get there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku, Kuninjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kune

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Paddle a boat with an oar or paddle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nawakadj dja Nabulanj benewam djenj benehdanjbuni kubbunj benehkani. Nawakadj danjbuni, dja Nabulanj nawu bimarnekarrikmi kubbunj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Nawakadj and Nabulanj went spearing fish with a canoe. Nawakadj did the spearing, and Nabulanj paddled the canoe for him.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj Dja Nabulanj Benewam Djenj’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre [no date recorded]. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Swim by means of fins or a fish tail.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              'I'm just joking', used as a kind of marker for humour or 'I don't really mean it I'm just joking'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nakudji bininj kabimarneyime nabuyika bininj "Ngudda wanjh ngalih daluk yimang". Dja nawu nabuyika bininj kayime "Larrk, minj ngamang". Wanjh nungka kayime "Karriyimen malehmalel ngayimeng".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                One man said to another "You're going to get that girl". But the first man said "No, I'm not". Then the other man said "Just joking, I'm kidding around."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Higher ground, at the top, above the escarpment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Birriyibidbuni karrkad birrirerrngmangi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                They would go up to higher ground (away from the floodplain) to gather firewood.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Ceremony ground. Participants in a ceremony are said to 'go up' (bidbun) to a ceremony, and the ceremony ground is said to be karrkad, a 'high place'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bu kunwok Kunwinjku ngarriyime mayh ngarriwarlbun. Dja bu ngarriyime mayh ngarrire ngarribidbun karrkad wanjh nakka kore ceremony yiman Kunabibi mandjamun manbu bininj ngadberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the Kunwinjku language, we say that we hunt mayh (animals). But when we say we’re going up to a mayh, in that case it means we’re going to a ceremony, like Kunabibi or another sacred event of ours.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Brown falcon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameFalco berigora

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kakukbame kanmilanmila kodjok, ngudda kurduk bulanj wunwunbu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The light morph of the brown falcon is called kanmilanmila but you Bulanj are the dark morph wunwunbu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Have, own, possess.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bulanj dilib yikarrme?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bulanj do you have any tea leaves?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ngandimarneyimeng kunred manih nguddangke bu yiman baleh ngarridowen wanjh nguddangke kunred yiworhnan. Ya yikarrme. Ya ngurrikarrme kunekke yerre birrimarneyimeng Wamud nungka ngakerrngedi wanjh young yimeyimeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                They said to me that this place belongs to me and that "when we should die, then you have to look after this place. You will own it. You all hold onto it after," they said to Wamud and I was one of the new generation and Wamud was young.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Keep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Birringeybom wanjh ngarringeybekkang. Wanjh ngarringeykarrme kunngey nuye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                They said the names and we heard them and so now we keep the names for it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3Hold on to.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • "Kokok, Kokok yikarrme?" "Woh, ngakarrme, ngakarrme, la yiray."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Brother, brother Are you holding on to it? Yes I've got it, I've got it, you go then.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4(man) have a child.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yibengkan Kodjok? Bale nakka kahngeyyo? Bulanj bikarrmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                You know that Kodjok? What's his name now? He has a son— Bulanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5 Win (a fight etc.).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymswinhme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bolkkime karrbennan kalawan dja dadbe kabeneburren wanjh kalawan kakarrme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Now when we see a goanna and a brown snake fighting, the goanna will (always) win.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakmonhme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Dig, dig up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wanjh birribalwam mankuladj birrihkarungi, birrikaruy rowk, wanjh birridurndi kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Then they went further and started digging up some spike rushes. They dug them all up, then they went back home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalaklurribme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rufous Night Heron and also the sound made by this bird.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameNycticorax caledonicus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Awurd, mayh namekke ngankodjborledke Kawk Kabim Djang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                So dear to me is that bird, its call reminds me of the rufous night heron dreaming at Kawk Kabim (a place).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silver-crowned friar bird. Also the sound made by the Friar Bird.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific namePhilemon argenticeps

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cause an animal to run away in fright, startle an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nawu wirlihwirlih nakka manberrk kabirrire kabirrini karrbennan birriwern kabirridolkarren kaddum kabirrire kabirriwokkire kabirriyime wirlih wirlih wirlih bu karrbenkawon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Galahs live in open forest areas, we see them flying in big flocks up in the sky. When we startle them they fly off calling out “wirlih wirlih wirlih”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nothing, none, no.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku= burrkyak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkayakora

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Withhold from, refuse to give something to someone, deny someone something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • "Aa ngalkkan ngurribawo, ngalkkan ngurribawo. Minj ngalkka ngurriwon kunj, karrikaybun ngalengmanwali wardi kankaybun manme mandjay". "Yoh yoh bonj bonj karrikaybun, karrikaybun baw."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    "Ah, leave her, leave her. Don't give her any kangaroo. Now it's our turn not to give her because she won't give us any of the hypoxis grass". "Yeah, yeah, OK right, let's not give her any, let's not give her, quiet!"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  See alsodahme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Call out to someone, yell. This word is also used when someone 'calls out to the Ancestors' when entering a country, for example when bringing a new person who has never been there before.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kakkak bikayhmi wurdyaw yimeng, "Yimray marndi namarnde ngunmang".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grandma was calling out to the child, saying "You'd better come back here, or a Namarnde spirit will get you".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 34’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GrammarThe direct object of the verb is the person or thing being called out to.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yours.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunmadj ke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Your swag/clothes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Annoyingly persistent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngakohbanjminj bolkkime. Darnki ngarrowen bad Balanda nungan kebbabi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I've got old today and I could die soon but those white people are still being persistent (and coming to see me, making requests).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Spoonbill.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific namePlatalea flavipes, Platalea regia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kebbaldjurri kayawan nuye djenj kore kubuk nawu djenj kilekilelh kangun barnangarra dja kukak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The spoonbill looks for his fish in the shallow water, those small fish which he eats day and night.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nasal mucus. Also used to refer to a cold or flu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngangadjihbun munguyh, kunubewu kebdjirned nganhmang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I keep sneezing, maybe I'm getting a cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Take dogs hunting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngakebkan mayh kure Barlbbanarra wanjh Barlbbanarra kang duruk, duruk kang djalbom mayh...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    'I'm taking the dogs hunting to Barlbbanarra', and so he took the dogs to Barlbbanarra and killed lots of game...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Birrikakrey duruk dorrengh birrirey birrikebkani duruk nomi ngalbu ngarrbek wanjh birrinani birrimangi ngalbu ngarrbek birrikani kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They would go out hunting at night with a dog, which would smell out an echidna and they would see the echidna it and take it home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Good-looking, attractive, handsome, pretty, beautiful.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngalkebmak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An attractive woman.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  File snake (Arafura file snake, Acrochordus arafurae).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scientific nameAcrochordus arafurae

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalak1. ngaldjangarabunebune 2. ngaldjangarakerlkkerlk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cool, cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nahni Wakkewakken kabirriyo kore kundulk mankod kore kukabo kore manbokedjelk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Wakkewakken spirits live among the paperbark trees in the river, in the cold water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kedjelkmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Cool down, become cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kedjelkwon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Cool something down, make something cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    "Oh dear", "oh no", "Is that so?" (Said with falling tone).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngalkohbanj bidjawam, "Njalekah wanjh yihnalkbun?" Wanjh yimeng nawu namarladj, "Aba manburrangkali ngandikaybom." "Kek”, yimeng ngalbu ngalkohbanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The old woman asked him “Why are you crying?”, and the orphan boy said “Oh, they refused to give me any lily corms”. “Is that so?”, said the old lady.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Nakudji Namarladj Ngiwkmihngiwkmirey’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kek, baleh kore birrimankang?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oh no, where did they crash?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • "Wam kuhri dja njilngwarrreminj.". "Kek, dja njalekenh njilngwarreminj?"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      "He went over that way, he's in a bad mood". "Oh no, why is he in a bad mood?"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Male subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kela nuye Nabima, kunred ngamed kaboyo anbu Wurrumulah that Nabima nuye kunred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      It belongs to him, Kela Nabima, that place where there is water, Wurrumulah, that's Nabima's country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crocodile's lair or tunnel near the water's edge (of both freshwater and estuarine crocodiles).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Afraid, scared, frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mimih minj kadi kore kuberrk bu mandjewk nakimuk kamre kakele wardi kunmayorrk kabiburriwe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A Mimih spirit doesn’t stay outside when there’s a storm, they’re afraid, the wind might blow them away.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kelemen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Become frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kelehme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scare, frighten.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Tame, domestic (of animals).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nawu bininj dja balanda kabirrimang nawu mayh wanjh kabirrikelebukwon kakelebukmen kabirrimarnbun kelebuk mayh bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people get animals and tame them, the animals become tame and people turn them into their pets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nakidjkidj kakarrme barrk kelebuk nuye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Nakidjkidj spirits keep black wallaroos as pets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Not easily frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kelebukmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Become tame.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kelebukwon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Tame an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scare, frighten, scare off.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngarriburrinj ngabenkelekelehmeng, wanjh djamun birrikayhmeng ngandukkang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We were fighting and I made those two scared, so they called the policeman and he came and handcuffed me.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Be afraid, become frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Birrikeleminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They were frightened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ‘Oops’. Often also said when correcting something you have said, ‘I mean’, ‘Whoops I meant to say’ etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kenh ngawarrewong, ngabirliwarrewong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Oops, I didn't light the fire properly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Djalbangurrk. Nabang banireyi, Wurrngiyele banireyi, ken Wurrlele.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Djalbangurrk, Nabang in Wurrngiyele I mean Wurrlele estate.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Suffix that indicates association or possession. ‘About’, ‘of’, ‘concerning’ etc. In English many of these concepts are covered by different words but in Kunwinjku the senses of ‘kenh’ are hard to seperate. It could be compared to the genitive case.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Moneykenh kabirriyidurren.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They argue about money.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mawah ngayekenh birridoweng birriyakminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My own father’s fathers [‘grandfathers of mine’] have died and gone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kabirriwernhbolbme kore kunkukbelekenh dja kunu kunkukburlerrikenh, kabindibukkan rowk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          [Kids] should learn both Balanda things and Aboriginal things properly, so they [teachers] should teach it all.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2In order to, for, for the purpose of (suffix that indicates the purpose of an action).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Benedanginj beneyerrkang benebolkkaruy kukkukenh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They stopped, sat down and started digging for water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3Suffix that can be added to adjectives, possibly as a focal marker.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • “Mamam, Djakku nawu nang nakuyengken nayin kore Wuk."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          “Grandpa, Lefty [nickname] saw a really long snake at Wuk”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (‘Lesson 15: Djurra ‘-ng’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bu kumdungbebmi ngalbadjan dja kornkumo benewam kore mankabo, kumekbe djenj nawernken rey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          When the sun was going down, the mother and father went down to the river. There were lots of fish swimming around down there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Be afraid of, fearful of.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kulawuddul ngurrikengemen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          You initiates be fearful!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Soft, easy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kerlkmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Become soft.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kerlkdan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Become soft, go flat (of tyres).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Become soft.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Karrikinje kakerlkdan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If we cook it, it'll become soft.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Become sore or weak. This often refers to something which prevents someone from walking or getting up, a foot or leg injury or a whole body condition.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • "Ah ah, ngakerlkdanj manih ngarrengekerlkdanj minj bale kayime ngare. Ngakarrerlurlmeng rowk, ngarlurlmeng rowk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            "Ah ah, I'm sore, here, my lower leg's sore, what can I do? My leg's swollen, it's all swollen."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          See alsoka-kerlkdanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Become soft.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kukku kumborrolkang bolkkerlkminj, beneyibmeng kanjdji, wanjh kumekke kabenehni Yawkyawk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Water came up and the ground became soft, they sunk down and remain there today as Yawkyawk spirits.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, 'yawk yawk' sotory.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kakukkerlkkerlkmen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            His body becomes soft.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Hale, K. 1959. Magical way of killing)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Straw-necked ibis and also white ibis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scientific nameThreskiornis spinicollis, Threskiornis molucca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Cook food in a ground oven using antbed kunkerri.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kumuken namak mayh bu ngarringun. Korroko dabborrabbolk birribuni birrikerribuni wanjh birringuni wirlarrk warridj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Freshwater crocodiles are good to eat. In the old days, people would kill them, cook them in ground ovens and eat them. The eggs too.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Give someone a traditional steam bath for ritual cleansing, using wet foliage like water weeds placed over hot pieces of antbed. Logs are placed over the antbed and hot coals for the person to lie on and they are covered in paperbark. In this case there is no need to dig a pit and the fire is made on the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bu kabenmarneyawdowen wanjh ngalbadjan ngarrikerribun ba kangun nawu mayh dja djenj. Wardi kakanjwarremen bu minj ngarrikerribun ngalbu ngalbadjan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              If women have miscarriages, we have to give the mother a traditional steam bath (to cleanse her) so she can eat meat and fish again. If we don't do this, it would cause all the meat (of the animals in the area) to go bad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See alsokunkerri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            New.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mankerrnge muddikang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              New truck.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nakerrnge karrukmirri.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A new man is working.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Birrikerrhkerrnge kabirridjare konda kabirringimen kamak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              These new people, they want to come here, it's OK for them to enter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kerrngehme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Renew.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Previously, before, in recent times.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bu kerrngekenhni, nawu Shire birrinahnani store

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Previously the Shire was running the store

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Adjumarllarl Aboriginal Corporation community newsletter, 2015)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sleep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymskodjkeyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bonj wanjh, ngurriburnbu wurdwurd. Ngurrikeyo, karrikeyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OK that's it, cut it out kids. Go to sleep, let's all go to sleep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Keyohkeyoy kore kudjorlok nawu nganabbarru.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The buffalo was sleeping in a hollow in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Garlngarr, Victor, ‘Mamik dja Nakodjok benekang’, in “Kunwinjku Stories”, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKuninjku=kodjdjeyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Under sorcery, spiritually dead though appearing still alive, doomed to die.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kunkare kondanjkunu kunred ngalkudji daluk bibayeng nabang nayin yirrbardbard wanjh doweng. Minj burudjang bibayemeninj dowimeninj dja korroko kidni birridanjbom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A long time ago here at this place, a woman was bitten by a venomous snake, a taipan, and she died. It wasn’t just an accidental incident which killed her because some people had already killed her through sorcery.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wet, moist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Benekaruy benenang kakih wanjh benekarungi djarre, benekaruy benekaruy benenang kunyawurd kambobebme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They dug and saw that the earth was moist, so they kept digging further, they dug and dug and saw some water coming out of the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Peter Carroll AIATSIS collection)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku, Kundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Touch, take hold of something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wurdurd, yuwn ngurrikilekme mako mani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Children, don't touch this shotgun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Small, small amount, 'little bit'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bonbon kabirringun djenj nawu kilekilelh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cormorants eat small fish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wanjh bu ngayolyolmi munguyh birridjaldjekmi and birriwakwani med. Med nakka wurdwurd

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              As I was telling them the story they kept laughing all the time, because they didn’t know it. Now, these were very young kids.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Send word for someone to come, call someone or something to you, get someone to follow you.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngakimang Nawakadj kamhre konhda karriwokdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I’m sending a message for Nawakadj come here so we can all have a discussion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bukbuk wirlarrk ngalengarre minj karrimang karriwirlarrkdjirdmang bu karrimang ngalengarre wirlarrk wanjh kahdjalwokdi munguyh wanjh mandjewk kakimang djaying bu dabborrabbolk birriyimeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We don’t steal the Pheasant Coucal’s eggs. If we take her eggs she will call out incessantly and might call up the rains, the old people told us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Big, large.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kabbala mankimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A big boat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ngurrikihkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              All you big people...

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Serious, significant, a lot, 'in a big way'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nawu Mamik djamun bibuni kunkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The police were really beating Mamik up badly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (‘Lesson 11: Djurra ‘i’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bolkkime kunkukbele ngimeng kunkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Now the white man’s world has arrived in a big way.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalak-korrongko

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kimukmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Become large.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kimukwon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Enlarge, make bigger.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -njamkimuk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fat (lit. big intestines)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Salt-water crocodile.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Synonymsnamanjwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameCrocodylus porosus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakngandjakdjalarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Stars.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bu kukak dird dja kinhkinh kabenedjarrkbolkwolkan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                At night, the moon and stars bring light.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cook, burn, light up a cigarette.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kakanjkinje.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                She is cooking meat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakbobekke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -bokinje

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Boil water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pair of individuals who stand in a particular relationship of commonality with each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dabborrabbolkko

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Those two old men.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beneyidko (W), (I= Beneridko).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Those two who are always arguing with each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ngeyko.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Namesake (term of address to someone with the same name).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yun kandung, nganebeyko.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Don't swear at me, we are a father-son pair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Birriyawkohyawko.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Numerous mother and child pairs (or technically, numerous adjacent generation matrilineal pairs).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Plural form of ngalkohbanj and nakohbanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymskobahkobanj, kobokohbanj, kobohkobanj, kohbahkohbanj, kobohbanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                GrammarThere is great variation in the plural forms of this noun which dispenses with the noun class prefix. This means the plural form no longer explicitly marks gender (i.e. a group of elderly males, females or mixed gender group).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bald.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Shake one's head.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wurdyaw bengmayahmeng wanjh bimarnebebmeng nakohbanj, bidjawam nangale ngunemwam, yiddok kornkumo dja ngalbadjan ngurrimwam. Nungka kodjbordehmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A little boy got lost, and an old man appeared and asked him who he had come with, if he had come with his mother and father. But the little boy just shook his head.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Namekke marrkidjbu Ngalyod bedda birridjawam baleh ngalengarre kunred. Djalkodjbordebordehmi. Kaluk birriyimeng Wayirra birribolkngeybom, wanjh kodjdukmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They kept asking that magic man (who was really the Rainbow Serpent) where his country was. But he kept shaking his head. Then eventually when they mentioned the place name 'Wayirra', he nodded.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grey hair, old person, mature adult.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kakodjbulu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    She has grey hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Larrk, minj ngadjare nganeyo. Kodjbulu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No, I don't want to sleep with him. He's an old man (he has grey hair).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, Yirrbardbard story.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kodjbulumen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Get grey hair, go grey, enter middle age.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Female subsection or 'skin' name of duwa patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • That babolknahnani konda banibolknahnani mamamh ngayeken nadjah-.... nangamed Nadjunjdjunj, bad bikani ngalkodjok, kodjdjan karrimen wamuddjan barlmaded.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Those two used to look after this country, my grandfather (mother's father) Nadjunjdjunj and his wife was ngal-kodjok, kodjdjan, I mean wamuddjan, excuse me for referring to my (classificatory) sister.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  To become sullen, dejected, sulky, offended and uncommunicative.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wanjh benedurreni. Wanjh nawu Djakku kodjdjobmeng, bimarneyimeng, "Minj kankimang yerreyerreh…”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    So they argued. Then Lefty got offended and told him "You're not taking me any further…”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 24-27)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nod the head.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Namekke marrkidjbu Ngalyod bedda birridjawam baleh ngalengarre kunred. Djalkodjbordebordehmi. Kaluk birriyimeng Wayirra birribolkngeybom, wanjh kodjdukmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They kept asking that magic man (who was really the Rainbow Serpent) where his country was. But he kept shaking his head. Then eventually when they mentioned the place name 'Wayirra', he nodded.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  'Sleepy', a way to refer to someone who sleeps late. Literally means 'sleeping-bad', so it can also mean 'unable to sleep'. Also a way of referring to animals which are inactive or 'sleepy' for long periods, such as the sleepy cod (Oxyeleotris lineolata) or the death adder (Acanthiphis praelongus).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngoyongoyo kakodjkeyo djaddi. Kakodjkewarre, kabirrimerlemyembun (Kuninjku).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The ngoyongoyo frog is a sleeping frog. It is a sleepyhead (ie. it hibernates), they rub their bellies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kodjkewarreni

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sleep in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kodjkewarremen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sleep in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1An upright and good person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2A religious follower, member of the clergy, a pious person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Be born (baby).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonyms-rrolkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngudda bale yikodjngalmeng?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ngaye karrkad ngakodjngalmeng kore Dalabon.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • I was born up in the escarpment country, on Dalabon land.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Male subsection or 'skin' name of yirridjdja patri-moiety and ngarradjku matri-moiety.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kodjok! Kodjok. Oh for goodness sake, that dear man, it’s Kodjok! Kodjok of the Darnkolo clan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Bardayal Nadjamerrek [while looking at old Wubarr ceremony film footage], quoted in Neale, Margo & Thomas, Martin (eds), ‘Exploring the Legacy of the 1948 Arnhem Land Expedition’, ANU Press, Canberra, 2011)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKuninjku, Kune, Kundedjnjenghmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Older brother (address and referent), EB.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Go down, descend.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Yikolu warde yimankan!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Get down from there or you'll fall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Return to camp after leaving a place of ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lift or carry something down, take down, throw down.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rapunzel yimmudkoluyhwerrimen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rapunzel, throw down your hair!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Have dry throat, be thirsty.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An initiate or person newly introduced to ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cattle egret. This name refers to all of the white egrets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameArdea alba, Ardea ibis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kunngey kakarrme danjbik bu ngarringeybun. Komorlo kabakaba dja dabberkk dja ngaldjalkudji ngalbu mayhmayh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                It has three names that we call it by. Komorlo, kabakaba and dabberrk, but they all refer to the same bird.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku= kabakaba

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Northern snake-necked turtle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameChelodina rugosa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yoh kalawan la borlokko birringuyi kalawan nungan karrangbulurlhme, komrdawh, Bulkay.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes, they ate goanna and water pythons, and goannas, the mangrove monitor and northern snake-necked turtles there at Bulkay.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKuninjku, Kune

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Here.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Konda yimray kornbayeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Come here my friend.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Feel compassion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ngayi kongibun ngudda.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                I feel sorry for you.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Young catfish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wurdyaw wam kukabo kamang konjkonj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The child has gone to the river and is catching little catfish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Konjkonj kadjordmen kayimerran manmakkawarri.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Konjkonj [baby catfish] grow up into big catfish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Green tree frog, also generic for all frogs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific nameLitorea caerulea

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                On, at, in, to, where.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wurrmarninj kadjordmen kore kabbal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The red lily grows on floodplains.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Dolobbo kabirridadjke kabirrimkan kore Injalak Arts Centre kumekke kabirribimbun kabirriweykan kabenwon kunwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  They cut bark and take it to Injalak Arts Centre, where they paint it and get money for it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngahli mayh kangeyyo kulabakku kunmud ngalengarre ngalmudburlerri dja kukom kore kakombele.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The bird which we call kulabakku (the Pied Heron, Egretta picata) has black feathers, but white on its neck.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Manbu kunmuluru ngarriyime makka ngarringeybun kundulk kore kunbalak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ‘Kunmuluru’ is what we call grass in mother-in-law language.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mandjimdjim kadjordmen kore kukku kaboyo kore mankabo manwanjdjad manlabbarl.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mandjimdjim (water pandanus) grows where there is water, by rivers, creeks and billabongs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Male antilopine kangaroo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scientific nameMacropus antilopinus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  daughter, son (address term used by F)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -korlonjhme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Call someone 'korlonj'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nakonamkuyeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      He is tall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nungka nawu Wurrakkak nakka nakuyengni kornnamkuyengni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      That man Wurrakkak was big and tall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An expression of affection used after someone is impressed with a particular action or as a term of endearment. It has no rude or vulgar connotation as the literal meaning may suggest. One informant gave the gloss 'friend'. It can also be used as an expression of happiness (eg. excitement after a successful hunt)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A:Ngayi ngare djarre, kaluk ngamdurndeng. B:Ya, yimdurnde, yikornbayeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I'm going a long way away, but after I'll come back. Yes, my friend, you come back.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wabwabmeng, konda, konda, konda kundjangmelmeng drrr murrngbakkeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      He snuck up further, further, further, poised to spear and drrr he broke its bone (kangaroo). Yipee, yipee, yipee (I've speared it).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Referent term for someone else's father.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nakkan kornkumo nuye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      That is his father.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Agile wallaby.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scientific nameMacropus agilis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See alsosee warradjangkal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalaknjamdjorrhdjorrh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Previously, in the past, a long time ago.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dja korroko dabborrabbolk birrimarnbuni mandjabu wanjh birridjuhkeyi kore kukku manlabbarl yika kore mankabo wanjh djenj ngimi birrimangi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        And in the past, the old people would make fish traps, put them in the water in a billabong or river, the fish would go in and them they would get them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Korroko duninjh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the distant past, in the old days, in the Ancestral past

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bu korroko duninjh nawu karrkkanj nakka bininjni kaluk yerre mayhmayh yimerranj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A long time ago the Brown falcon used to be a man, he only became a bird afterwards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Already, before

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Burrkyak, minj korroko ngunnayi, djalbolkkime bu kerrngekkenh duninj ngunkuknan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No, she hasn’t seen you before, she’s going to see you in person for the first time now.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj dja Nakodjok Benewam Djenj’, in Manakgu, Andrew et. al. ‘Kabirrihwarlbun’, Oenpelli Literary Project, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3For a while, for a long time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wanjh benebidbom kured kumekbe benekinjeng rowk, benemadbom korroko, wanjh benewayhkeng benenguneng dja yikahwi bindiwonowong kohbakohbanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Then the two of them went back up home and put all of them [the fish] on the fire, waited for a while, pulled them out and ate them, and also gave some to the old people.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kumekbe benehburrinj benedjalkudji. Beneburrinj korroko. Kaluk ngalkudji djakbekkang, wanjh rlobmeng kore kured, bimarneyimeng ngalbadjan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        They fought there, just the two of them. They were fighting for a while. Then one of them got hurt, and ran home and told her mother.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      To deceive, trick, lie to someone, play a joke on someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Woybukkih yimarneyolyolme, yuwn mak yikowe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Be honest with him, don’t mislead him.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kayakki, djalohkoweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        It's nothing, I was only having you on.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      East.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Koyekbeh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        From the east, easterners.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In, on, to, at. Ku- is prefixed to nouns to indicate locations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kururrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Inside (literally, in the enclosed space).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kukun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On the right hand side.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kuwardde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Escarpment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kudjarnngal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Place near Manmoyi outstation, site of white clay delek in the bank of a creek. The placename literally means 'in the fork of the branch'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      'Bite the line!'; said after throwing in a fishing line to anticipate a fish taking the bait.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crowbar, metal digging stick, metal turtling stick. This could literally be a crowbar, or a digging stick fashioned from metal such as concrete reinforcing wire.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Korroko birrikarungi kunbalkbu dja bolkkime kubba wirlmurrng nawu balanda marnbom kabirrikarung karrbarda nawu daluk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In the old days women used to dig with wooden digging sticks, but now they dig for long yams with metal digging sticks made from non-Indigenous materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wanjh daluhdaluk kabirrimang kubba bedberre wanjh kabbal kabirrire kabirriyawan ngalmangiyi kabirrimang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Then women take their turtling sticks and go out onto the floodplain to find turtles [by poking the mud with the sticks].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Etymologyfrom English ‘crowbar’

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakwalamurru

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Bee species and related honey. The honey is found high up in trees, and has an orange or light brown colour. The hive has a long entrance tube (kebkuyeng).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bu mankung ngarriyime ngarringeybun nawern dja kangeyyo kunngeywern. Nabiwo kardderre kubbulak ngarringun yiwk dja mandabu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We have lots of different names for different types of honey. There's nabiwo, kardderre and kubbulak, and we eat the honey and pollen sacs from all of them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Daluk bokenh benewam beneyawani mankung, wanjh benengalkeng kubbulak kore kundulk. Benedulkngadji, wanjh benemonbuhmeng beneyiwkmey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Two women went looking for honey, and found some kubbulak honey in a tree. They cut open the tree and got the honey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dugout canoe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nawakadj dja Nabulanj benewam djenj benehdanjbuni kubbunj benehkani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Nawakadj and Nabulanj went spearing fish with a canoe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj Dja Nabulanj Benewam Djenj’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Outside.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kabirrikaberrkdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They are all outside

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Behind, on the back of, on the reverse side of.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wanjh nakudji yimeng njalekenh manbu mankole ngarrburriwe kamdurndeng kadjabdan kore kubodme ngarrku. Wanjh bu benebalwam djarrehwurd benenang ngalbu Ngalyod kahyo wanjh benedurndi kured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          One of them said “Why does the spear end up landing behind us when we throw it?”. Then when they went a little further they saw that the Rainbow Serpent was there, and they went home.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Yika karrinan kabenkadjung mayh bulikki nganabbarru dja djarrang karrinan kabarndi kore kubodme bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sometimes we see them [egrets] following animals like bulls, buffalo or horses, or sitting on their backs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On the left hand side, to the left.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kumekke kunred manbelk karri kore kukun, dja kore kudjakku karri marrunj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In that place there is pandanus on the right, and on the left there are palm trees (Hydriastele ramsayi).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Estate name and name of an outstation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nakudji nakohbanj ni Kudjekbinj / nawu kumekke kunred nuye ni / wanjh bolkkongibom / nungka nalkbom bu nang dungyibmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An old man was staying at Kudjekbinj / because that was his country / He was feeling sorry for his land (white man has come and put an airstrip, powerhouse etc) / He was crying as he was watching the sun go down.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Wildflower Band, ‘Burlanjni’, from the Album ‘Manginburru Bininj’, Skinnyfish Music, 2009)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Wet season.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Self, by oneself, alone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngudda yikudji yimwam?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Did you come by yourself?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2A few, not many.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngarrikudji ngarriwam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Only a few of us went.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3One, a.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kuni kunkare nakudji bininj wam kabbal, kani bokenh mankole dja borndok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            One day a long time ago a man went to the floodplain, he was carrying two spears and a spearthrower.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4Again, one more time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kunkudji ngurriborrkkemen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dance one more time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5Only, just.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mandjimdjim minj karri kore manberrk, mankudji karrinan karri manbelk manwern kore manberrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Water pandanus doesn’t grow in open forest areas, we just see lots of ordinary pandanus (Pandanus spiralis) in the open forest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GrammarKudji is always prefixed with the appropriate prefix (man-, na-, yi- etc) for the noun being described.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Place and leave forever, be done with something (e.g. a painting), place forever as a 'Dreaming' as in creation times.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bonj wanjh benbom bonj benkudjihmeng, bonj, kamak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Then he killed them and left them there forever, the end.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Raw.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Birringuni dolek kuk yika birriwilkdengi kore kuwilk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            People would eat wood grubs raw, or cook them in the hot coals under ashes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Incorporated noun meaning ‘money, funding, cash’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kan-kukwo!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Give me some money!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Body, shape, human form (as incorporated noun).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3Fruit, tuber (as incorporated noun).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukmarnbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Make a profit, make money.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukbidbuyhwe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Raise the price of something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukkoluyhwe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lower the price of something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukwarrawarrhke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Knock down fruit from a tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukdangen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Grow fruit, fruiting of a tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Morning.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kabeldong

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Get up early.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the sand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (At) night, night time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    White person, or any white-bodied thing, e.g. animal with a white body, white substance etc. Literally ‘body-white’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngahli mayhmayh kangeyyo djuwe birrikukbele kabirringeybun ‘bowerbird’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This bird is called djuwe, white people call it a ‘bowerbird’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngalbu komorlo ngalkukbele mayhmayh kani kore kabbal manlabbarl mankabo manwanjdjad dja manberrk kore kubolkwern kunred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The egret is a white bird which lives on floodplains, billabongs, rivers, creeks and in open forest areas in many different clan countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Delek nakka kukbele nawu nguk yika duyh kabirrimang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Delek (white clay) is a white substance which we collect either wet or dry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Turn around, turn one’s body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Warrak kakukborledme kakukmardukme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Leichhardtian Bony Bream (Fluvialosa erebi) turns its body sideways and reflects a flash of light.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Change form by sorcery, be transfigured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wanjh yimankek bu benedjobkemeninj manbu mankoleh dja wanjh benekukborledmeng beneyimerranj mayhmayh bu benemuddanginj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They tried to chop down the bamboo but instead they grew feathers and turned into birds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, pp. 64-65)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Black skinned person, Aboriginal person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Recognise someone or something, know about something’s physical characteristics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonymskukbengkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Manmakkawarri nakudji kukburrknang, nawu wanjh ngabukkabukkang, ngaye ngabukkabukkang, kukburrbuni manmakkawarri, kakukburrbun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        One [of the kids] knows what a catfish looks like, because I taught him. I taught him myself. So he got to know what a catfish looks like, he recognises them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Throw to the ground, cause to fall to the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bikukburriweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        She pushed him down.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 Hit an animal successfully while hunting, causing it to fall down.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bu yameng kukburriweng ballobmeng djudbakkeng kuyinnang yaw karrmi yahwurd.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        When he scored a hit [on the kangaroo] and it fell to the ground, he ran up, broke its neck and spied a joey [in its pouch].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Nawakadj Djangkang Kunj’, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3Construct with skill, used as a compliment to praise the skill usually of a craftsperson or artist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Yikukburriweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        You've really made it well.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nakka yibimbom kukmak, o darrkid yibimbom kunj… Yikukburriweng, darrkid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        [When praising a picture we can say] “You’ve painted that figure really well” or “That kangaroo is really lifelike”. “You’ve really nailed it, it looks really lifelike”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Joey Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ahead, in front.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wanjh nungka ngokko dokmeng kukebrok dingihdi kumhkunidi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        And he had already gone ahead, and was waiting there to kill them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 36-39)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A: Ngurrikebroknang? B: Larrk, minj ngarrinayi, kebrokyak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A: Did you see him walk past before we got here? (Literally 'did you see him walking ahead'?) B: No we didn't see him, he wasn't ahead of you.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Carry an animal that has been hunted, carry a dead body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dja nawu bininj kukkang djenj, biwong Nabulanj, kinjeng benenguneng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        And the man took the fish, gave it to Nabulanj, cooked it and they ate it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Maralngurra, Dolly, ‘Reader 19’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1981.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dja bikukkang bikukkurrmeng kore kuwardderurrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        And he took his body and placed it in the tomb which he had hewn out of rock. [Matthew 27:60]

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Etherington, Steve, ‘Jesus doweng dja yawoyhdolkkang’, Bible Society Australia, 2011, p.28, from Matthew 27:60.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mandjimdjim kadjordmen kore kukku kaboyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Water pandanus [Pandanus aquaticus] grows where there is water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bu korroko duruk bokenh Adjumarlarl dja Omwarl benemwam karrikadbeh kukku benehboyawani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the Dreamtime the two Ancestral Dogs Adjumarlarl and Omwarl came [to Gunbalanya] from the west, looking for water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation, Adjumarlarl and Omwarl Story)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kukku wurdyawken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Amniotic fluid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      On the right hand side, to the right.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kumekke kunred manbelk karri kore kukun, dja kore kudjakku karri marrunj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In that place there is pandanus on the right, and on the left there are palm trees (Hydriastele ramsayi).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ruin or destroy something, do something badly, make something ugly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bolkkime bu wanjh, nakka wurdwurd kabirridjalbimbun manu story… yiburrbun kahkukwarrewon, kahyurrkkuhme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Now though, children will write a story… And you know, this child will muck it up, it will be all mixed up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Small (of body or form).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngalbu kambuk ngalkka ngalkukyahwurd minj ngalbu karndjawarra ngalkka ngalkimuk dja ngalmak bu ngarringun ngalbu karndjawarra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kambuk (a crab species) are small, not like mud crabs which are big and good to eat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Small amount of money.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kerrngekenh balanda birrikarrmi birrinani kunwardde, kukyahwurd bindiwoni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Previously, non-Aboriginal people had all the money and looked after it all, and only gave a little bit (to the Aboriginal people).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Look like something, have a similar form to something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Barlarrk, yiman marrngunj kakukyime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A spotted eel-tailed catfish is similar to the ordinary Neosilurus spp. [except it has spots]

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngarringeybun ken njamed bakarlbakarl, yoh nani nawu kakukyime [draws in the sand]... nungan nadjinem nuye namekke kakarung kare yinan bu Dukaladjarranj kuwarddewardde kakarung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        We call this plant bakarlbakarl, yes, and it looks like this [draws in sand]... it is food for the black wallaroo, it digs it up and you can see it growing in the rock country there at Dukaladjarranj where the wallaroos in the rock country dig it up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Slippery-bodied, slimy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        See alsoyirrek

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Billabong, swamp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Benewam kore kulabbarl. Wanjh benemadjkurrmeng, wanjh benewurlebmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They went to the billabong. Then they put their things down and went into the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 68-71)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        See also-labbarl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Generic for all flying foxes but also specifically the black flying fox.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific namePteropus alecto

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kuluban kure njilhmi kayo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Flying foxes live near freshwater springs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakdjingkorrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Kind of large paperbark tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymsbirriyalang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scientific nameMelaleuca leucadendra

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Paperbark raft made from Melaleuca leucadendra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dja birribuyika binihbininj mak birrihdjowkeyi birrimarnbom kuluyambi, wanjh nawu nawalawalak yimeng “Ngarrngamka ngarrkukbuyikahmerrimen kinga dja durrbu ngarrbenkadjung.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The other people were crossing, they had made a paperbark raft, and the younger brother said “Let’s swim and turn ourselves into a crocodile and a water goanna and follow them”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Saratoga, Northern Spotted Barramundi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scientific nameScleropages jardinii

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngalbu kuluybirr ngalka kadi kare kore kukku manbowinjku kore mandem karri kunbak dja mandjimdjim kadulkdjuhmiyindi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The saratoga lives in fresh water, where there are water lilies and water weeds and where the water pandanus stands in the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalakngalkalngunkabarn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Placename, former outstation and corrupted in English to give 'Goomadeer River'. Literally 'at the silver-leaved paperbark'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Outstation community about twelve kilometres south-west of Marrkolidjban. Also an estate name or kunngeykimuk for the surrounding country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Anbodjub kuwarddebuldjdjarn karri darnki njilhmi yiman kayime Kumarrirnbang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Anbodjub spinifex is found in the middle of the rock country close to springs, such as at Kumarrirnbang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There, at that place previously referred to or jointly known.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Naddab ngarri. Kumekke ngarridjangkani ngaye nganedangerrinj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I was at Naddab. We used to go hunting there, me and my brothers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fresh Water Crocodile.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific nameCrocodylus johnstoni

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKune synonym (Cadell River dialect) = nawulhmu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakngaldjakdjalarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Fire, firewood, fire at hearth. Symbol or totem of the matry (kunkoymud) yarriburrik.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kabenekurrme kore kunak kabenemudkinje ba kakurlahrayekmen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The two of them singe the feathers [of the emu] in the fire so that the skin becomes hard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Cigarette lighter, matches etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dja bolkkime kunak manbu Balanda marnbom bu karriwurlhke karrikinje mayh dja manme. Dja korroko kundjakkorl birriburdebmi birrinami wurlhmi manbu kunak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                These days people use lighters made by non-Indigenous people to light fires and cook meat and other food. But in the old days people used to rub fire sticks to start fires.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kunakkenh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lighter holder (literally ‘for a cigarette lighter’. Sometimes these are woven from pandanus for sale).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              See alsoyarriburrik

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Water weed. Generic name for many kinds of submerged aquatic herbs and algae.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scientific namee.g. Eriocaulon setaceum

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Manbakwern.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lots of water weeds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Warradjan kangun kunbak dja mandjimdjim mandedjmad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The pig-nosed turtle eats water weeds and the roots of water pandanus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              'Mother-in-law language'. Lexical replacement affinal kin respect register which is used with one's actual ngalkurrng (spouse's mother and her sisters) and nakurrng (spouse's mother's brothers)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymskunbinjbalak, kunmikme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Makka kundulk ngarringeybun kore kunbalak bu ngarriyime kunmuluru.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                If we want to say 'wood', in mother-in-law language we have to say 'kunmuluru'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              English language, non-Indigenous lifestyle or way of doing things.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kunbalanda birriwokdi ngandibukkani.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                They spoke English when they were teaching us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Etymologyfrom Macassarese, Hollander

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              GrammarThe prefix kun- is optional.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fat, oil, butter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Burarr namak mayh bu ngarringun yiman kalawan karohrok. Kunkanj dja kunbalem bu ngarringun ngadberre mayh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Water goannas are good to eat, just like other goannas. We eat both the meat and the fat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -balemkimuk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fat and good to eat (of animals).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Alcohol, grog.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nganedirri burldebol jukebox nganebekkang nganewam nganebayahmeng kunbang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                We played pool and we both listened to the jukebox and then we went and bought some beer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Knee.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nadjurrk nakka bininjni rengehrey kore borledmikenh Demed mandulum bu korroko. Nungka yerrkang ngunjngehmeng wanjh yimerranj kunwardde. Bolkkime nungka karrinan djudkulmeng dja kunney nuye kore kunbard karrmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nadjurrk was once a man who would walk around on the other side of Demed hill, a long time ago. He sat down to rest and turned into a rock. We can still see him there, head down and elbows on knees.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Node (of grass).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkunkuyuk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -bardngorrowke

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Break the legs of a kangaroo in order to tie them up for cooking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kneecap.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grammarincorporable noun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Slide track of crawling animals, mostly reptiles, especially crocodiles and goannas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nahni kunbarlah nuye kumuken. Kanmadbu dja ngadjuhme nganan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    These are the tracks of a freshwater crocodile. Wait for me while I swim out and have a look for it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, Biyuk biyuk story)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GrammarThe nominal barlah is incorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -barlahnan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See slide tracks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -barlahyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There are reptilian slide tracks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunwinjku name for Gunbalanya, formerly known as Oenpelli.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mengerrdji birrihni kunred Kunbarlanja.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mengerrdji people used to be at Oenpelli.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GrammarOenpelli itself is a corruption of the original Erre name for the area, ‘Uwunbarlany’, which the Kunwinjku word derives from. It has often been spelled 'Kunbarllanjnja' based on a different orthography, however there is no need for these extra continuant consonants as the single consonant has scope over both syllables.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Digging stick, an implement associated with women.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bu benewam benekang kundjabarrk dja kunbarlkbu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The two of them took string bags and digging sticks along.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Mangiru, Faith, ‘Kakkak dja Wurdyaw Benewam Mankinjdjek’, Oenpelli Literacy Centre, 1976)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GrammarKunbarlkbu is more of a low country word (birriwinjku), while kunkaninj is more associated with escarpment country dialects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Day time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Thigh, femur, upper leg.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kabirribarndaddukkan ba kukalkid kadjalboyo kore kunjam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The emu legs are trussed up before roasting to ensure juices are retained within the stomach cavity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus : Indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 138)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lymph nodes, glands in groin and under arms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yiddok yibarndorrkbabang?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Are your glands tender?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ngabarndorrklurlme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My lymph nodes are swollen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wrist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dja bu bolkkime bininj nawu karrowen wanjh karlba kabirrimang kabirribiddadjkerren karlba kore kunbende kare kore kunbid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Nowadays when someone dies, people take yellow (or red) ochre and paint from their wrists down to their hands with it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Faculty of understanding, cognition and sensibility; mind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Minj ngarrbenngeybun yabok wardi kunbeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      We don't say the names of our sisters as we find it offensive.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Tail

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Marla nakka nabang bu kanbaye dja kandong kunberd ngalengarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Scorpions are dangerous if they bite us, they strike us with their tail.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Valve on a tyre tube.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Arm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kunberl nganmarnebom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He broke my arm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Branch

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -berlmang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lead someone by the arm, arrest someone

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dew.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Malamalaywi ngarridolkkan ngarrinan kunberle kayo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We get up in the morning and see that there is dew.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Konhda karriyonginj kunberle kankarrmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We slept here and got covered with dew.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -berlemankan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Dew forms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymskunberre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngalbu bonbon ngarringeybun boken mayhmayh ngalkudji ngalmudburlerri dja ngalberrekalkbele ngalbuyika ngaldjalmudbulerri.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are two birds we call “bonbon” (cormorant), one has black feathers and a white chest, and the other is all black.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Hand, with one's hands, by hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kabirrimarnbun nawu marebu kunbid bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They make pandanus mats by hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Birribidkurrmerreni kore kunwardde wanjh birrikuykmi kunbid bedberre delek dorrengh wanjh birribidbokyoy kunbidbok bedberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They placed their hands on the rock, then sprayed white ochre from their mouths over their hands, so there was a print of their hands left behind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Finger.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3Paw, claw, etc. The 'hand' of any animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngalbu karndjawarra ngalkka ngalengman kore kurrula kadjalyo. Karringun ngalkanjmak karringun kunberl dja kunbid ngalengarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mud crabs live by the ocean. They're good eating, we eat their claws and legs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4Trigger of a gun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4Button, any button-like object, especially on electronic appliances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakkunkundam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -bidmak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skilled, dexterous.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -bidlarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Empty-handed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Hand stencil.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bu karrire kore kuwarde karribidbun karringimen kore kuwarderurrk karrinan kunbidbok bedberre dabborrabbolk nawu birridowerrinj birribidbokkurrmerrinj bu korroko.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                When we go up into the escarpment and go into caves, we see the hand stencils of the old people who have passed away, and placed their hand prints there a long time ago.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2A distinctive mark left by the hand of a person or animal such as claw marks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey birridulknani birrinani kunbidbok kore dulklirrhmi nuye kunbidngalanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the old days people would go and look at the trees and see the claw marks where his [the possum’s] claws had scratched the tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Two hands, with both hands.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Ten (literally 'two hands').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1One hand, with one hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Five (literally ‘one hand’).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kunkarrngbakmeng or kunbidkukudji mandjewk wanjh, ngarrimdurndi ngorengngalmeng, doweni wanjh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      So after four or five years we came back, and he got sick. In fact he was dying.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Palm of hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Synonymskunbidmerlem

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Manbu kunbidmanem makka bu ngarrihwarlbun ngarrikombukdowen kukku wanjh bu ngarribongalke kukku wanjh ngarribodudmang kunbid ngadberre bu ngarribodangkenworren kore kunbidmanembeh ngadberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      When we're out hunting and we're thirsty, when we find some water we scoop it up in the palms of our hands and pour it into our mouths.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fingernail, claw.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Korroko dabborrabbolk birrirey birridulknani birrinani kunbidbok kore dulklirrhmi djebuyh nuye kunbidngalanj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In the old days people would go and look at the trees and see the claw marks where the possum’s claws had scratched the tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Fingers other than thumb.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Little finger, pinky finger.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ribs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngardukki kunbirrkbirrk, minj nangale kadjirdmang!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Leave the ribs for me (to eat), hands off!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ('The Greedy Emu', Skinnyfish TV, 2018)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Back.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wanjh ngalbu Ngarrbek njilngwarreminj dja yidduy duninjh bu beneburrinj kaluk lobmeng mey kunwardde dja bibodmengerrehmeng kore kubodme ngarre wanjh kunmekbe kunu Ngalmangeyi kakarrme kunbodmengalng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Echidna was very upset and threw a big rock at Long-necked Turtle and it hit her in the back. That's why the Long-necked Turtle has a shell now.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Jill, 'Ngalmangeyi dja Ngarrbek' in Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, pp. 32-33)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Roof of a car etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nakudji bininj mey mandengeyi wanjh kunmadj barnhbarnameng kore mandengeyi kubodme wanjh kunyarl mey dukkang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A man got a car and put his swag up on the roof, then took some string and tied it on.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkundolke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Footprints, tracks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nakudji balwam biboknang kahbokyo kore kunkih.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          One of them went a bit further and saw his footprints in the mud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Garnarradj, Elaine, ‘Nakudji Wurdyaw Bengwabom’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre [no date recorded])

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kundengebok

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Footprint.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kunbidbok

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hand print, hand stencil.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cicatrice, often cause by intentional scarification to leave a design or series of cuts on various parts of the body (upper arms, chest, breasts, buttocks).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bu kunbolidj birridjareni nawu bininj dja daluk wanjh lawk bindiyilkbuni bindibolidjmarnbuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          If men or women wanted scarification, they would cut each other with stone knives and make raised scars.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kunbidbolidj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lines on palm of hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Place, country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kunbolkkurulk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Place belonging to the Kurulk clan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkunmelworn.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -bolkbawon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Abandon a place, leave a place for a long time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -bolkdowen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Be boring (of a place), be destroyed (of a place).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -bolkngeyyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Be called (of a place).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Regional place name, estate name.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Placename that designates a small locality as opposed to kun-bolkngeykimuk 'large named region'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cold, cold weather.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kunbonjdjek ngarrowen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I'm feeling the cold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See alsoKarrikukbonjdjekbidbidbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kunbalakkunkurrbele

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dance, dance style.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Korroko bininj birrini kunred Kabbari / Nawu kunborrk birrikarmi birriborrkkeyi (Wildflower Band, Kabbari, 2009)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A long time ago people lived on this land Kabbari / They used to have special ceremonies, singing and dancing in that place (Wildflower Band, Kabbari, 2009)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Termite mound. Sections broken off can be used as cooking stones in ground ovens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dja nawu nabiwo nakka birrinani kore kunboy birriboybakkeyi birrimangi nawu mankung yika kuwardedume birrinani birrikarungi birrimangi nawu nabiwo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They would see the ‘nabiwo’ native bee variety on a termite mound, then break the mound and get the honey out. Or sometimes they would see them in a mound of earth and dig up the honey there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See alsokonjdja, kurlbbinj, djibdjib

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Navel, umbilical cord.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Two dots at end of the caudal area of catfish such as kurrkurrbi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ashes of a fire.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Karriwilkdeng kunbule karribarrhbun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (When) we cook something under the ground we cover it over with ashes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ngalmangiyi kunbodmengalng ngalengarre kabirrikinje kore kunak bu kabirringun kunkanj kabirriyakwon wanjh kabirrikinje kore kunak kunbule kayimerran.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  People cook long-necked turtles in their shells, and when they've finished the flesh, the shell goes back on the fire and becomes ash.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Smell, scent, smell of people which can be ritually rubbed on other people and objects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Burddjimey mayh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  It picked up the scent of an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Shape or form.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Body

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Naburrkkimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Big bodied person.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkunwalnga, kundarrkid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leg.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kandadju kundad dja ngamarrwedoweng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Give me a (turtle) leg, I'm starving.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Bu Ngurriborlhme Kunwinjku: Learning Kunwinjku’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1994)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkunkarnkelh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kundadmurrng

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leg bone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Grass. A general term which can refer to different types of grass, rushes, sedge etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Korlobbarr kani kore mandalkwern kundalk dja kore kukku manbowern kaboyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Antilopine kangaroos live where there is lots of grass and plenty of water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bolkkime manbu kundalk manyilk kabirribimbun dja kabirrirarrkwe kore dolobbo dja kore djurra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nowadays people use sedge grass for painting and crosshatching on bark and paper.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 Marijuana, cannabis, ‘grass’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nakka nawu kundalk kawunghme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    That guy smokes grass.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkundjanud

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kurralk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the grass.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Mouth (human or animal), beak of bird.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Delek kurrmeng kore kundang nuye wanjh bidkuykmerrinj kore djurra wanjh kunbid nuye kahbimdi kore djurra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    He put white ochre in his mouth, then sprayed it out over his hand so he made a hand stencil on the paper.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Opening, door.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yirrangbalhmen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Close the door!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkundjangara

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lips.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dangwelburlurlhmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    His lip has swollen up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  System of interjections and terms which are associated with an individual clan and indicate membership in a particular clan or acknowledge that the speaker is on a site belonging to the clan with which the special clan interjection is associated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Duh karriraray.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Duh let's go [duh= Balngarra clan kundangwok].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yinjarrakinjemen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cook it "njarra"! [njarra= Djordi clan kundangwok]

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kidneys.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Synonymskundebad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wanjh njamduhkeng mey kundurddu kundiw kundayken dja mannjam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Then he pulled out its innards, taking its heart, its liver, its kidneys and its stomach.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Maralngurra, Dolly, 'Bininj Yameng Kunj', Oenpelli Literature Production Centre)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kare odjbel kundayken nuye kabirrinan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    He is going to the hospital and they will look at his kidneys.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Special set of extensive tri-relational kinship terms. E.g. if person A is speaking to person B about person C, then A will use a term for C which also encodes B's kinship relationship to A. In turn B will likewise use a reciprocal referent in reference to C that also encodes the three way relationship.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kundebi ngabenbukkabukkang kabirriburrbun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I’ve been teaching them Kundebi, they know it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ngabenbekken nahni wurdwurd nawu kabirrihre minj Kundebi kabirrikarrme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I hear these children going about – they don’t have Kundebi. No. They just use people's names. They don’t use Kundebi with each other, no.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -debikan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Use triangular or third person kinship references.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -debikarren

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Use triangular or third person kinship references with each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Bum, buttocks, bottom.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Base of an object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Badjkid kabirrimarnbun dedjdjurduhdjurduh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They make baskets with round bases.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -mandedj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Base of a tree or plant.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Anus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Merridjdjin kurredjmimken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Suppository.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bininj Kunwok dialect associated with na-djordi, na-djorrolam, na-madjdjalum, na-mok and na-wurrbbarn clans (and numerous others as well). Spoken today at Marlkawo, Manmoyi, Kabulwarnamyo and Kamarrkawan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Foot, feet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Birrinahnani Wirrihwirrihyak nawu dengelurlmeng manbik bimarneni kore kurrenge nuye.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        They looked after Wirrihwirrihyak, whose foot was swollen because he had a splinter in his foot.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 6)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Tyre (of vehicle).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dengekerlkdanj ngadberre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Our tyre is flat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See alsomandengeyi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkunbadjorr

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kurrenge

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On foot, walking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Toes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Liver.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mudkinjeng wanjh njamduhkeng kunnjam, kundurddu, kundiw dja kunbalem.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          He singed its [the kangaroo’s] fur, then took out the guts, heart, liver and fat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 44-47)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        String bag. In Kundedjwarre clan lect however kundjabarrk is a synonym for kunmadj 'basket, swag, clothes etc'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wurdwurd benekilekilelh benebokenh benewam benehkarungi mankuladj. Benehkarungi mankihkimuk, benedahkendoy kore kundjabarrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Two little children went digging up spike rush corms. They dug up some big ones and put them in a string bag.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Mangiru, Hannah, ‘Kuhni Kayolyolme Bu Kabirriwarlbunkenh’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya, 1974 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Shoulder blade, scapula.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kundjaberle kunj birrimangi wanjh birrimilungi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They would take a kangaroo’s shoulder blade and use that to cut vegetables into thin pieces.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sickness, disease.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lanka kure bolk-Kalarrdju kundjak djang kahyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          At the place Lanka in Kalarrdju clan estate there is a sickness dreaming site.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nahni manimunak kahdowen, kundjak kakarrme lead-beh, manmim shotgun nguneng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This magpie goose is sick, it has disease from consuming shotgun lead [pellets].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -djakbekkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Feel pain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -djakdowen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Stop hurting, ease (of pain).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Firesticks, made from the wood of Premna acuminata.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bu korroko nawu birriyungki dabborrabbolk bu manbu kunak birriworrhmi wanjh kundulk bokenh birribakkeyi birrimarnbuni kundjakkorl kunbid bedberre birriburdebmi birriwurlhkeyi manbu kunak rungi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In the old days when our ancestors made fires, they would break off two sticks and make firesticks out of them. They would put one between their hands and rub and a fire would start (because of the friction against the other stick).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkunbembem

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Left hand side.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Left hand (of body).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -djakku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ‘Leftie’, a way of referring to a left-handed person without saying their name.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -kudjakku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              On the left hand side.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1Whiskers, facial hair.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nanih bininj djawurrkwernminj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              That man has grown a beard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Facial tentacles on catfish.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kunbalakkundjakudjkudj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Steam, fumes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bu karrikinje wanjh kadjawuywayhme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                When we cook them, steam comes out.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, ‘Yawk yawk’ story.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              GrammarIncorporable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -djawuywayhme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Steam rises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Tongue.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bininj yameng nganabbarru wanjh mey mandjawak kukyilkbom mey kundjen dja kunbirrkbirrkbokenh wanjh babburlibom kore kukarlang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A man shot a buffalo, then got a knife and cut off some meat, took the tongue and two ribs and carried it all off over his shoulder.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Nabobbob, Rose, ‘Kunbidkudji Kunwok’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Language

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yiman kayime “base”, manbu kabirriyime Balanda bu kundjen kunwok Balanda bedberre, kabirriyime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Like a “base” as Balanda say, speaking in their Balanda tongue, their language.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3The flesh of freshwater mussels.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See alsodjendjad / djenwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Kundjeyhmi language, spoken in present-day Kakaku National Park.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Alwanjdjuk nakka bedman Kundjeyhmi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Alwanjdjuk is the Kundjeyhmi name (for emu).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (George Djandjomer, quoted in Murray Garde (ed.), Something about emus : indigenous knowledge of emus from western Arnhem Land, Canberra, A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2017, p. 73)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                GrammarKundjeyhmi was previously written ‘Gundjeihmi’ in that language, but now follows Kunwinjku spelling conventions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Breasts, nipple, teats.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -djikkadjuyme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Milk an animal, express milk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kundjikkakurrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Breast milk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -djikkawon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    breastfeed, suckle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Breast milk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Synonymskundjikkakodjkurrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunkanj, wirlarrk, kundjikkakurrk, djenj, dja nawern nawu namakmak kabendjordmiwe, yun ngurrbenwon kandidjdjawa dja tea makka manwarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Meat, eggs, breast milk, fish, all those good foods are what grows them [children] up strong. Don’t give them flour and tea, that’s bad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Nawirridj, Grace, untitled book, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, Gunbalanya)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nawu wurdyaw barrken duninjh wanjh nungka kundjikkakurrk kabongun bu ngalbadjan kabidjikkawon kadjikkangun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Very young children drink breast milk, when their mothers breastfeed them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  See alsokundjikka

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nipple.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Paperbark dish, the ends of which are tied up with string. Used to hold liquids, ochre, or slices of yam soaking in water in order to detoxify them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hole.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngamokdjorlok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I've got an ulcer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Trunk, waist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonymskunngorrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bikarrmeng bidjorrhdukkang kondah.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He grabbed him and held him around the trunk, here.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Grammarincorporable as -djorrh-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Nape (back of neck).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Dust.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ngarrbendjulngmang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We're getting their dust (travelling behind them on a dirt road).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kadjulngdjabdi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The dust is rising up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Mud at the bottom of water, which can rise up into the water when disturbed in a similar way to dust rising into the air.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Shade, or any large tree or structure that produces shade, also tall dense forest which provides shade.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wanjh benebidbom benewam benenang mandjurlemak. Ngalkudji yimeng, "Kondah yimray ngarrni ngarrngun kore mandjurlemak."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Then the two of them walked up and saw a nice bit of shade. One of them said “Come here, let’s sit here and eat in this good shade”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kuhni bu Kunkare Birrihwarlbuni’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1974)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Birridjaldjurlebom kundjurle kondah…

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They just put up a shelter here…

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalakkunkurnu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -djurlebun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Make a shade shelter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -djurleni

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sit or be in the shade.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Smoke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bu kabirridowen daluk bininj wurdwurd wanjh mandubang kunworr kabirrimang kabirrirurrkwolngwon kundolng dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If people die, women, men or children, then people get ironwood leaves and use them to ritually cleanse their house with smoke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Death.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kundowiken minj kankelehme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Death does not scare me.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Nawirridj, Grace & Rowe, Meryl (eds), ’Karriburlume God: Kunwinjku Song Book’, Gunbalanya, 1985, p. 13.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1A man's father-in-law, a man's son-in-law.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Promised or arranged marriage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Tree (generic), stick, log, wood.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Djebuyh ngarrinan kore kundulk kabarndi dja karedmarnbun kaddum kurrulk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                We see possums sitting up in trees, and making their nests high up in trees.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Any non-traditional wooden object, eg. coffin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See alsokurrulkwern

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kunbalakkunmuluru

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kundulkdad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Root.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Power.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Namarrkon dulkarrekimuk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The lightning spirit is powerful.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dulkarreyakmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lose one's strength.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -dulkarreyakwon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Defeat, overcome.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Root (of trees).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskundedjmad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lower back. In the case of kangaroos, this merges with the upper part of the tail and is often included with the tail in a cut of meat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Karridjobdjobke ngalengman kundad bokenh dja ngalengman kundume kunberd dorrengh dja ngalengman kundjorrh kunkodj dorrengh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    We cut it up [the kangaroo] with the two legs being one cut, the lower back with the tail another cut, and the torso with the head another.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1.Sun. Symbol or totem of the matry yarriyarninj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bu barnnangarra wanjh kundung kanwolkan kabolkwolkan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    During the daytime the sun gives us light, it lights up the earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nahni nawu kabenehbimdi mayh bokenh, korroko benebininjni, kaluk bedda benedanginj naburlaburlanjni, kundung benedi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The two animals in this painting were originally human beings, two Nabulanj skin brothers of the Kundung matry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 Time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Werrk dungwam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hurry up, time is gone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3Clock/watch.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakngaldjarala

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    GrammarBelongs to the 'ngal-' noun class.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -dungre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sun is moving, time is passing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -dungbidbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sun rises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -dungbebme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sun appears (above the horizon etc).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -dungborledme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Afternoon (sun has started sinking).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -dungdi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Be a certain time, o'clock.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -dungnelk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Early part of the day.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -dungwakwan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sleep in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -dungyibme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Setting of the sun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -dungwarremen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Get too late, become too late.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Heart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Synonymskunngurl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of the easternmost variety of Bininj Kunwok spoken south and south-east of Maningrida at the communities of Buluhkaduru, Bolkdjam, Ankabadbirri and Korlobidahdah.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        That one, in that manner, at that time, for that reason.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Synonymskunuka

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wularla kakayhmire kayime kaaaay, kunekke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Spectacled hare wallaby goes along calling out, it says, 'kaaaay' like that.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kunmekbe ngamulewan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          That’s what I’m going to talk about.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wanjh kunmekbeh ngalbu kurdukadji minj kadolkan dja ngalweldjumbung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          So that is why the emu has short wings and cannot fly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Nganjmirra, Jill & Tildemann, Sonia, ‘Old Woman Emu and other Kunwinjku stories’, Batchelor Press, Batchelor, N.T., 2005, p. 24)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kunekkekenh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For that reason.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Waist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kungorrk ngandadjkeng kunronj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The water came up to my waist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Middle, half way.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Yiborrahkendo kungorrk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fill the container up half way.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        That one, (middle distance).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          With violent intent, e.g. with intention to hunt something or kill someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wanjh nungka ngokko dokmeng kukebrok dingihdi kumhkunidi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            And so he had gone ahead in that direction, and was waiting there to kill them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 36-39)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Djalakkiradj dorrengh birrikunibarndi kore kurrulk birrimadbuni karlerrh kumrey.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They would stand on a log over the river, waiting for the Long Tom fish to come past to spear them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kuniwabme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stalk an animal when hunting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kunidi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lie in wait to hunt something, ambush.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ambush, wait somewhere with the intention of killing someone or hunting something.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See alsokuni-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            One of the language variety names of Bininj Kunwok, spoken by people in the lower Mann and Liverpool Rivers districts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SynonymsKunrayek

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Generic term for all macropods/kangaroos.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Spines. Spikes or spines on the bodies of fish such as the three spikes on catfish and the spines of echidnas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskunkon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wanjh kabirrikakinje bu kunka ngalengarre wanjh kabirrimang manu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Then they burn the spines [of the echidna], then they get a piece of flat wood and scrape the spines off.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Narndal, Julie et. al. ‘Manme: Stories about food - Kunwinjku’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre, 1982)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Dja nahni kakarrme danjbik kunka yiman namardaka, dja nakanjmak bu karringun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  And it [the salmon catfish] has three spines like an eel-tailed catfish, and its flesh is good eating.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Forbes, Brenda & Brennan, Queenie, ‘Nahni Djenj: Karribolkburrbun kore karrihmanamang’, Bamyili Press, Barunga, 1981)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Yikadadjkemen, warde kabendengedjudme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cut off the spikes, otherwise they’ll poke someone in the foot.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Night (the period of darkness between sunset and sunrise).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nganekakbirlikan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We're going (hunting) at night with torches.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2One 24-hour period, a day.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymskundungkudji

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -kakre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Go by night.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Marrow.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Korroko dabborrabbolk ngarrbennani nawu mayh kunkal birrikalbakkeyi wanjh birrikaldjorrhmi dja birrikalnurrngmi birrirawoni kunkal dja kunkanj dorrengh. Nawu yiman kayime kunkal kunj nganabbarru, bulikki dja mayhmayh nawu manimunak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the old days we would see people breaking open bones to get the marrow, banging the bones [on rocks, wood etc] to get the marrow out, sucking the marrow from the bones, or mixing the marrow with meat - for instance the marrow from kangaroo, buffalo, cow or magpie goose bones.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ears.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yikanem!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hey, you got ears? (listen to me!)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkun-mardorrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Horn.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dja yika mayh nawu nabang yiman nayin kinga nawu kanbaye karridowen, dja nganabbarru nawu kanbun kunkanemdulk nuye karridowen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    But some animals are dangerous, like snakes or crocodiles which bite us or buffalo which hit us with their horns and we die.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ear canal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nawu kandikanemrurrkwolkankenh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Auroscope (device for seeing inside the ear with a small light).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010, p. 55)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kandikanemrurrknanken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Auroscope (literally: ‘that which they use to see our ear canal’)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010, p. 35)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku, Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Eardrum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kabirrikanemrurrkkurlahbalhme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    They will perform tympanoplasty.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Garde, Murray (ed.), ‘Bininj Gunwok talk about health : medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals’, Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, Jabiru, 2010, p. 34)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1Psychological seat of emotions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Heart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Meat, flesh, muscle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Yiman bu nayahwurd, yika mobik, minj kawernhkanjdi nungka kadjalwohdjobke mandjawak kunwardde kunyahwurd kunkanj dja kamunkewe ba kare kakimukmen kabalemdangen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        If the [kangaroos] are young or skinny, without much flesh on them, he [Nakidjkidj] will just cut a little bit of meat off them with his stone knife and let them go again, so they can get big and fat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 208)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In the distant past. In the past, a long time ago, in the old days.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bu kunkare daborrabbolk birrirey manberrk birriwarlbuni wanjh birrinani budjiked nawu kurralkwaken birribuni birringuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the old days, when people used to go into forest hunting, they would see wild cats and kill them and eat them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1Shoulder.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Forked branch of a tree.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Korrokko dabborrabbolk bu birriyoy kore manberrk wanjh kundulk birridulkdadjkeyi birridulkdjabnami manbu karlang wanjh borlorl birriwarnamkurrmi yerre wanjh kunkod yika dolobbo birribarrkbuni bu birrimarnbuni kunkodbarre kore birriyoykenh.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In old days, when people camped out in the bush, they would cut forked branches and erect them in the ground, then put cross beams between them and cover the structure with paperbark or eucalyptus bark to make a shelter for sleeping.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkunmundjum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Nectar from flowers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mankung ngarrikarlkidbongun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We drink the nectar from the honey (of flowers).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2Fluid from plants such as sap or the resin in orchids.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3Also used by some older people to refer to diesel or petrol.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yiman kabirriyime nawu kabirrire kabirribomang, mannekke manu kabirrihbonome manihmanu kunkalkkid, petrol manbu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            It’s like the ones who go and steal petrol, that stuff they sniff, that juice, petrol, that stuff.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4Juices from cooking meat

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Birrikani kured birrikinjeyi mannjam dja ngalbu burrk. Wanjh bindiwoni nawu kured birrihni. Manbu kunkalkkid makka kabirringeybun wulud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They would take it [the sea turtle] home and cook it, the guts and the whole body, and share it with family in the camp. We call the juices from cooking the sea turtle “wulud”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5Can refer to various bodily fluids such as amniotic fluid, synovial fluid or serous fluid.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Synonymskukku wurdyawken

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leg below knee.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Membrane, such as the membrane in bat wings and lambalk glider possums.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ngalyod kawehme kuluban. Bu karrinan nawern karridulubun, karringun kunkarrk. Bu karridjalburriwe, kunukka kunwarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ngalyod the Rainbow Snake vomits up flying foxes. When we see a lot of them and shoot them, we have to cook and eat the lot, including the wing membranes. If we just chuck the membranes away, that is very bad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Nganjmirra, Nawakadj, ‘Kunwinjku Spirit’, Melbourne University Press, 1997, p. 46)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Four.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kunkarrngbakmeng o kunbidkukudji mandjewk wanjh, ngarrimdurndi ngorengngalmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                So after four or five years we came back, and he started to get sick.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kunkarrngbakmeng kebbalhdjurri kabirrihni kore kabbal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Four spoonbills standing on the floodplain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Maralngurra, Gabriel, 'The Kunwinjki Counting Book', Injalak Arts, Gunbalanya, 2016)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymskunkarnalanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kaddumbeh kumboyakarrburreni dja bu kanjdji kururrk kunkayalanj yoy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There was water flowing down from above, and the cave floor was sandy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Maralngurra, Dolly W, ‘Kunkare Wurdyaw Djorlkmeng’, C.M.S, Gunbalanya, 1975)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kumekke karrikukyibme kore kukayalanj. Djanay djang kahyo kanjdji kukurlk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                We sink down into the sand in that place. There is a yellow-spotted monitor Dreaming there under the earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukayalanj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the sand.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Nose.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kebbinjbinj nungkah.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                He has a long/narrow nose.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2Face.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kabenekebrohrok.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Those two have the same face, those two look similar.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3Beak (of a bird).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kawk karrinan kani kore kukadjid kore kukku kaboyo kamodme djenj kamadbun kanan djenj kamre darnkih wanjh karranjbun kundang kunkeb nuye wanjh kawukme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                We see the Rufous Night Heron on the banks of the water, waiting quietly for fish. When a fish comes near, it spears it with its beak and swallows it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4Bow of boat or front grill of a car.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Maneh muddika yibimbu! 'Side way' yikukbimbu! … yikebkuyengka!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Draw a picture of that car! Draw it side on ... make the front of it longer!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5Fishing hook.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymsnginjno

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yikebkarrme?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Have you got a hook?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6Peg on the distal end of a spearthrower which is inserted into the end of a spear.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7External entrance tunnel or tube to a native bee hive.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Synonymsbadjno, ngalkno

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8End of a burning log, stick or other fuel.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yikebmarnbu ngarduk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fix up the fire for me (i.e. rearrange the logs to stoke it).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9Valve.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kebwarre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This tyre valve is no good.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kunbalakkunngandjak, kunmodjarrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Antbed, ground oven.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kerringun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Eat antbed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kerribun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Cook in a ground oven using pieces of antbed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mud or mud-like viscous substances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Manbu kunkih karrinan kubolkwern kore kabbal kayo. Bu kudjewk mandjewk kangurdme kaburnbun kunkihwi kayo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      We see mud in lots of areas where there are floodplains. When the rainy season stops, there is nothing but mud [in those areas].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wanjh nakudji balwam biboknang kahbokyo kore kunkih.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Then one of them went a bit further and saw his footprints in the mud.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Garnarradj, Elaine, ‘Nakudji Wurdyaw Bengwabom’, Oenpelli Literature Production Centre [no date recorded])

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Paperbark.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kunkod birrikodmangi bu kunbodbarre birrimarnbuni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They would collect paperbark and make bark shelters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Jill Nganjmirra. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2Playing cards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yika nawu, wurdwurd nawu kabindikan kore kunkod kabirridirri ngalbabadjan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Some of them, some of those kids, they [the parents] take them to card games where the mothers play.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakkunburlburl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kodbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      peel off tea-tree bark

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bark shelter, literally ‘paperbark shelter’ but also used to refer to shelters made from other types of bark.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kunkodbarre kunrurrk birrikodbarrebuni birrimarnbuni kore birriyoy bu Kudjewk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They would make bark shelters to sleep in during the Wet Season.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dja bolkkime minj karrinan manbu kunkodbarre dolobbo kunrurrk larrk dja kurrambalk manwern birrimarnbom nawu birrikukbele kore ngarriyo bu bolkkime yika kore tents kabirriyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      But these days we don’t see shelters made from bark, there’s just lots of houses made by non-Indigenous people, or some people sleep in tents.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation. )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kodbarrebun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Make a shelter, make a bark shelter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Head.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Top of an elongate object.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkunbambara

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kodjbabang

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Headache.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kukodj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Overhead, on one's head.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kodjkeyo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sleep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Days (lit: sleeps), effectively this word means a 24 hour period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kunkodjke bokenh ngarriyoy kumekke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We stayed/slept there for three days.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GrammarUnderlyingly -kodjke which through assimilation becomes -kodjdje and then deletion sometimes to -kodje

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -kodjkekurrme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lay flat, put to sleep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1Brain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Mind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kabirrikodjkuluborledke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They are changing their minds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku,Kundjeyhmi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kodjkuludjad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Smart, intelligent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kodjkuluwarre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stupid, not intelligent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -kodjkuluwern

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Full of ideas, capricious ('too many ideas').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Storm cloud (cumulonimbus). These clouds are usually referred to by a verbal expression ka-kodjngolkan, literally ‘it-storm.cloud.takes’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kakodjngolbalabalahmen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cumulonimbus incas clouds are forming

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Neck.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngalmangiyi ngalka ngalkomkuyeng dja ngarderrhwo ngalkomdjumbung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The long-necked turtle [Chelodina rugosa] has a long neck, while the northern snapping turtle [Elseya dentata] has a short neck.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Throat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ngakombabang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            I have a sore throat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kunbalakkunkumadj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Phlegm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bedda benedjangwarrewong namekke komnud djang wanjh warlahminj balwam kore Mangarrangki bininj nawu kumekke birrihyoy birridowerrinj rowk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The two men had desecrated the Phlegm Dreaming site [by cutting the trees there to get wild honey], and so the Dreaming spread to Mangarrangki and the people living there all died.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Bark of Eucalyptus tetrodonta.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Anburluddak kabun kongno kunkong kabun wanjh kakurrmehkrrme kawelengwirlarrkkabun.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            She [the emu] hits the stringbark tree to knock off the bark which she places to make a nest so the eggs can be incubated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1Testicles.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2Groin (of male or female).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              System of matrilineal social categories or ‘matries’ consisting of yarriburrik (fire totem), yarriyarninj (sun totem), yarriwurrkkarr (green ant totem) and yarrikarnkurrk (rock totem). Other categories are sometimes also used which differ amongst the various dialects e.g. mandjarrakbuma (water totem, Kunwinjku dialect).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Synonymskundjungunj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dja wanjh birribuni mayh birriyimi, “Oh, nanih kakoymud Yarriburrik.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                As they hunted animals, they would say (for example) "Oh, this one belongs to the Yarriburrik matry”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Quoted in Etherington, Steve, ‘Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku people discuss their pedagogy’, PhD Thesis, Charles Darwin University, 2006 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Body, shape, form. Most frequently used as an incorporated noun as part of other words.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bu mak manbuyika manu mak, nawu wurdyaw bininj kadjordmen kamyawurrinjmen, yikahyika kabirrire kure fs:doctor yikahyikah mak kabirrire kure kunkuk bininj.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Another thing is, when a young boy grows up and becomes a teenager sometimes they are circumcised by a doctor but sometimes they are circumcised in the traditional way by an Aboriginal man.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yidjare bun kukkurrme.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Did you want me to hit you and knock you down to the ground?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nganabbarru ngarridulubom kakukyo kumekke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                We shot a buffalo and its body is lying there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Grammarmost frequently attested as an incorporated noun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukbele

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                White-skinned person

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukkan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Carry a body (e.g. of an animal after hunting it)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukkurrme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Place a body, kill or knock to the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukmak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Attractive, having a good form.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kuknan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stare at someone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukyahwurd

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Small, having a small body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -kukyime

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Look like, resemble (in body or shape).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1Right hand side.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2Right hand (of body).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunkun yibidwayhmen!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lift up your right hand!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kukun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  On the right hand side, to the right.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Public ceremonial dancing of a large group.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bininj nawern kabirriborrkke kunkurdu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lots of people dance for public ceremony.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kurdumak bu kahborrkke.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  She dances really well.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Jill Nganjmirra )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mahni mandule karrbarda minj mandjamun yiman kayime ceremony duninjh bininj kabirriwayini dja daluk larrk kabirridjalborrkke kunkurdu. Kore yiman mulil dja wurdwurd kabindibukkan kore school.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Karrbarda [Long Yam] song is not sacred like a real ceremony, men sing and women just do the dances. Like in public ceremonies, or they show it to the children at school.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kurdumak

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Good at dancing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Skin, outer layer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kurlahno karriwe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We throw the skin away.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kunkurlah nganabbarru birridurrkmirri morlehmorlenj dja binihbininj kunkurlah nganabbarru djirla birrikurlahbuni wanjh birrikurlahdaweyi kurrungbang birrikurlahkurrmi kurlahdayoy kurlahbukmeni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Men and women used to work with buffalo hides, they would salt them and put them out in the hot sun. The hides would lie there in the sun until they dried.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2kinship subsection

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Njale yikarrme kunkurlah?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  What is your kinship subsection (skin)?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LanguageKunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Grammarincorporable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -kurlahbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skin an animal, salt the hide of an animal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1Blood.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2Red. There is no abstract term for ‘red’, so terms which mean red are based on concrete things.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kunbalakkunkurradj

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -kurlbare

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Bleed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1Dirt, soil, earth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2Ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ngayi Mehme kondanj, konda ngahni kukurlk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I am the stubble quail, and I live on the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LanguageKundedjnjenghmi, Kundjeyhmi, Kuninjku, Kune, Kunwinjku

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kunbalakkunkabuy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -kukurlk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On the ground, in the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wind (generic).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Synonymskunmayorrk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kunbalakkunmawul

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Speech style used with those called nakurrng or ngalkurrng which includes both a special register of language used in avoidance relationships (also sometimes referred to as 'mother-in-law'language) and the style of speech used by those in joking relationships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sweat, perspiration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Injury, wound.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Birriburreni manbu kunyid mankimuk birrikurlbarey bu kunlon kore kunkodj yika kundad bindiyami birringorengrey yika djal bulkkidj birridoweni.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They fought each other in a big feud, they bled from wounds to the head and speared each other in the legs and went around injured, or even actually died.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Andrew Manakgu, Injalak Arts painting documentation)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nahni bininj mankang mandengeyi wanjh kunlon bibom bu kahngorengyo.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              That man was involved in a car crash and now he's lying there injured.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -lonbun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Injure, wound.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ankle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Generic term for bags and containers of all kinds, also bedding and other personal possessions. Often used also to refer to large pandanus fibre baskets.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kunmadj kadjongburren.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                He's putting on clothes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Jill Nganjmirra)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Benewam kore kulabbarl. Wanjh benemadjkurrmeng, wanjh benewurlebmeng.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                They went to the billabong. Then they put their things down and went into the water.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Manakgu, Andrew, ‘Kunbalak : stories for Kunwinjku young people in Mother-in-law language, ordinary Kunwinjku and English’, Kunwinjku Language Centre, Gunbalanya, 1996, pp. 68-71)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Leafy branch.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ankurndilinj kunkurra kabun kaworlhme kunmalaworr. (Djnj)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Leptospermum tree branches sway in the breeze.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Nadjamerrek, Lofty Bardayal, Russel, Jeremy & Garde, Murray, ‘A Preliminary List of Kundedjnjenghmi Plant Names’, NLC, Kabulwarnamyo, 2003 )